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Multidrug resistant organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684931/-multiresistant-bacteria-antibiotic-prescription-and-antibiotics-of-last-resort
#1
Winfried V Kern
Ascertaining critical indications for antibiotics and rational prescribing can delay and minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance. Room for improvement lies in particular in a stricter indication, in shortening antibiotic treatment and in initiating more targeted therapies with narrow-spectrum drugs. Not all infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms require treatment with reserve drugs. Detailed susceptibility testing together with enhanced knowledge of pharmacokinetics and -dynamics are needed for adequate treatment decisions...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684929/-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#2
Axel G Hamprecht, Stephan Göttig
The increase of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MRGN) is a great threat for both the health system and patients. Challenges of MRGN for physicians are limited therapeutic options, the need of infection control measures and the danger of outbreaks. In this article, the prevalence of MRGN, risk factors, the background and definitions of multidrug-resistant organisms are presented.
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684387/duodenoscope-reprocessing-practice-patterns-in-u-s-endoscopy-centers-a-survey-study
#3
Adarsh M Thaker, V Raman Muthusamy, Alireza Sedarat, Rabindra R Watson, Michael L Kochman, Andrew S Ross, Stephen Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: After recent outbreaks of duodenoscope-related infections from multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended implementing one or more of four enhanced reprocessing measures in addition to updated manual cleaning methods and high-level disinfection (HLD). The implementation of these techniques in endoscopy facilities and provider opinions regarding reprocessing priorities remain unknown. METHODS: Physicians, nurse managers, nurses, and infection control staff at endoscopy units performing ERCP in the United States were surveyed to assess current institutional practices and individual opinions regarding future reprocessing solutions...
April 20, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681513/antimicrobial-consumption-and-resistance-in-adult-hospital-inpatients-in-53-countries-results-of-an-internet-based-global-point-prevalence-survey
#4
Ann Versporten, Peter Zarb, Isabelle Caniaux, Marie-Françoise Gros, Nico Drapier, Mark Miller, Vincent Jarlier, Dilip Nathwani, Herman Goossens
BACKGROUND: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS) established an international network of hospitals to measure antimicrobial prescribing and resistance worldwide. We aimed to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in hospital inpatients. METHODS: We used a standardised surveillance method to collect detailed data about antimicrobial prescribing and resistance from hospitals worldwide, which were grouped by UN region. The internet-based survey included all inpatients (adults, children, and neonates) receiving an antimicrobial who were on the ward at 0800 h on one specific day between January and September, 2015...
April 19, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678910/serotype-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-patients-at-an-equine-referral-hospital
#5
I M Leon, S D Lawhon, K N Norman, D S Threadgill, N Ohta, J Vinasco, H M Scott
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United States. Two-hundred-fifty-five Salmonella isolates were obtained from clinical samples of patients admitted to the hospital between 2007 and 2015...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675786/the-microbiology-of-infected-pancreatic-necrosis-in-the-era-of-minimally-invasive-therapy
#6
Nadav Sahar, Richard A Kozarek, Zaheer S Kanji, Shingo Chihara, S Ian Gan, Shayan Irani, Michael Larsen, Andrew S Ross, Michael Gluck
We aimed to determine the microbiology of infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON) in an era of minimally invasive treatment, since current knowledge is based on surgical specimens performed over two decades ago. We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively maintained database of patients who were treated for symptomatic WON using combined endoscopic and percutaneous drainage between 2008 and 2017. Aspirates from WON at initial treatment were evaluated. One hundred eighty-two patients were included with a mean age of 56 of whom 67% were male...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668941/robust-pleiotropic-drug-resistance-5-pdr5-mediated-multidrug-resistance-is-vigorously-maintained-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-cells-during-glucose-and-nitrogen-limitation
#7
Hadiar Rahman, Joshua Carneglia, Molly Lausten, Michael Robertello, John Choy, John Golin
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has sophisticated nutrient-sensing programs for responding to harsh environments containing limited nutrients. As a result, yeast cells can live in diverse environments, including animals, as a commensal or a pathogen. Because they live in mixed populations with other organisms that excrete toxic chemicals, it is of interest to know whether yeast cells maintain functional multidrug resistance mechanisms during nutrient stress. We measured the activity of Pdr5, the major Saccharomyces drug efflux pump under conditions of limiting nutrients...
April 16, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666726/-nocardia-spp-pneumonia-in-a-solid-organ-recipient-role-of-linezolid
#8
George Mwandia, Hari Polenakovik
We describe a rare infection with Nocardia spp. ( N. pseudobrasiliensis species identification based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis) in a 68-year-old renal transplant recipient. He presented with pneumonia complicated by hypoxic respiratory failure. He was allergic to sulphonamides. He was initially successfully treated with linezolid. However, he suffered severe sensory neuropathy after 4 months of therapy, necessitating linezolid cessation and completion of treatment with azithromycin...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665947/the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#9
H E Jenkins, C M Yuen
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has historically been neglected, although in recent years there has been increased focus on this problem. In particular, there have been two efforts to estimate the burden of pediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). METHODS: We review current estimates of the global incidence of pediatric MDR-TB disease. We then combine pediatric MDR-TB treatment data from the World Health Organization and recently published case fatality ratio estimates for children with TB to produce mortality estimates for children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663960/impact-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-on-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-karakalpakstan-uzbekistan
#10
J Kuhlin, C Smith, A Khaemraev, Z Tigay, N Parpieva, M Tillyashaykhov, J Achar, J Hajek, J Greig, P du Cros, D Moore
SETTING: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of pyrazinamide (PZA) in treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) unless resistance has been confirmed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between PZA susceptibility and MDR-TB treatment outcome among patients treated with a PZA-containing regimen and whether the duration of the intensive phase of the PZA-containing regimen affected treatment outcome. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all eligible MDR-TB patients starting treatment in 2003-2013 in the TB programme in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663259/clinical-investigation-of-coproporphyrins-as-sensitive-biomarkers-to-predict-mild-to-strong-oatp1b-mediated-drug-drug-interactions
#11
Annett Kunze, Emmanuel Njumbe Ediage, Lieve Dillen, Mario Monshouwer, Jan Snoeys
INTRODUCTION: Coproporphyrin (CP) I and III have recently been proposed as endogenous clinical biomarkers to predict organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B (OATP1B)-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In the present study, we first investigated the in vitro selectivity of CPI and CPIII towards drug uptake and efflux transporters. We then assessed the in vivo biomarker sensitivity towards OATP1B inhibition. METHODS: To assess transporter selectivity, incubations with CPI and CPIII were performed in vitro, using single transporter-expressing and control systems...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660471/efficient-production-of-human-goose-type-lysozyme-2-in-the-methylotrophic-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#12
Peng Huang, Qingwen Sun, Weijun Shi, Wangchun Du, Xue Li, Ning Zhang
Infectious diseases caused by antibiotic multidrug-resistant microorganisms are major causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Hence, there is an urgent need to search for new antimicrobial agents. Initially known as a defensive effector in the innate immunity of certain organs of the human body, human goose-type lysozyme 2 (hLysG2) has been shown to possess therapeutically useful potential against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Developing a novel strategy for large-scale production that provides high yields of this protein with high purity, quality, and potency is critical for pharmaceutical applications...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658220/-multiresistant-bacteria-practical-aspects-for-doctors-working-in-ambulatory-practice
#13
Sarah Masson-Roy, Stephan Harbarth
Although preventive measures against the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are well established and protocolized in hospital settings, their implementation in private ambulatory practice are rarely addressed. Despite what is sometimes communicated, the risk of transmission of this type of bacteria outside of a hospital environment is real. Standard precautions are the key to minimizing this risk. In a number of situations in the ambulatory setting, MDRO screening (nasal or rectal) is needed and recommended...
April 11, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648442/nir-to-red-upconversion-nanoparticles-with-minimized-heating-effect-for-synchronous-multidrug-resistance-tumor-imaging-and-therapy
#14
Xiaoqin Chen, Yajun Tang, Amin Liu, Yuda Zhu, Dong Gao, You Yang, Jing Sun, Hongsong Fan, Xingdong Zhang
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), especially the 808 nm activated UCNPs, are promising imaging agents for biological applications due to their minimal tissue overheating effects and low autofluorescence background. Optimizing the emission peaks located in the "biological window (600 nm-1100 nm)" is of vital importance to obtain maximum penetration depth and intense deep tissue imaging. On the other hand, because of the widely existed multi-drug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells, traditional tumor chemotherapy is often unable to reach the desired effect...
April 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642834/-risk-of-travel-associated-tuberculosis
#15
Süheyla Sürücüoğlu
Tuberculosis has spread by human movements throughout history. There have been reports indicating tuberculosis transmission on all travel vehicles, including aircrafts, ground vehicles and vessels until today. However, due to the ever increasing of air transportation and air travelling among countries with low and high tuberculosis incidence, transmission risk especially in aircrafts has become an important issue worldwide. But in many of the studies conducted in this regard, transmission of tuberculosis in aircrafts was found very low...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623836/microbial-biofilm-and-quorum-sensing-inhibition-endowment-of-medicinal-plants-to-combat-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#16
Dinesh Kumar Mehta, Rina Das
Continued emergence and spread of multidrug- resistant bacteria behooved the development of alternative treatment strategies, including antimicrobial drugs. A hopeful approach is to target cell-to-cell communications, commonly known as quorum-sensing (QS) and microbial biofilm formation. Quorum Sensing is machinery used by bacteria to determine their physiological behavior and coordinate gene expression based on the cell to cell signaling. Many physiological functions of bacteria are controlled by quorum sensings such as virulence, motility, sporulation, luminescence, and biofilm formation...
April 5, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621209/vital-signs-containment-of-novel-multidrug-resistant-organisms-and-resistance-mechanisms-united-states-2006-2017
#17
Kate Russell Woodworth, Maroya Spalding Walters, Lindsey M Weiner, Jonathan Edwards, Allison C Brown, Jennifer Y Huang, Sarah Malik, Rachel B Slayton, Prabasaj Paul, Catherine Capers, Marion A Kainer, Nancy Wilde, Alicia Shugart, Garrett Mahon, Alexander J Kallen, Jean Patel, L Clifford McDonald, Arjun Srinivasan, Michael Craig, Denise M Cardo
BACKGROUND: Approaches to controlling emerging antibiotic resistance in health care settings have evolved over time. When resistance to broad-spectrum antimicrobials mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) arose in the 1980s, targeted interventions to slow spread were not widely promoted. However, when Enterobacteriaceae with carbapenemases that confer resistance to carbapenem antibiotics emerged, directed control efforts were recommended. These distinct approaches could have resulted in differences in spread of these two pathogens...
April 6, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619291/mrsa-prevalence-among-patient-transport-staff-in-hamburg
#18
Anja Schablon, Olaf Kleinmüller, Albert Nienhaus, Claudia Peters
Introduction: Patient transport employees frequently come into contact with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and therefore are at a greater risk of infection than the general population. These pathogens pose a significant challenge for employees of patient transport services since they can spread over long distances through patient transfers. To date, little is known about the occupational risk of MRSA infection in patient transport settings. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in patient transport personnel, including taxi drivers, as well as the potential risk factors for MRSA colonization...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617188/mechanisms-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-hospital-associated-pathogens
#19
Ayesha Khan, William R Miller, Cesar A Arias
The introduction of antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th -century permitting the treatment of once incurable infections. Widespread use of antibiotics, however, has led to the development of resistant organisms, particularly in the healthcare setting. Today, the clinician is often faced with pathogens carrying a cadre of resistance determinants that severely limit therapeutic options. The genetic plasticity of microbes allows them to adapt to stressors via genetic mutations, acquisition or sharing of genetic material and modulation of genetic expression leading to resistance to virtually any antimicrobial used in clinical practice...
April 4, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616363/a-comparative-in-vivo-scrutiny-of-biosynthesized-copper-and-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-by-intraperitoneal-and-intravenous-administration-routes-in-rats
#20
Ashajyothi C, Harish K Handral, Chandrakanth Kelmani R
During the present time, anti-microbial features of copper (Cu) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively used to combat the growth of pathogenic microbes. CuNPs and ZnONPs are recurrently used in cosmetics, medicine and food additives, and their potential for toxic impacts on human and ecosystem is of high concern. In this study, the fate and toxicity of 16- to 96-nm-ranged biosynthesized copper (Bio-CuNPs) and zinc oxide (Bio-ZnONPs) was assessed in male Wistar rats. In vivo exposures of the two nanoparticles are achieved through two different administration routes namely, intraperitoneal (i/p) and intravenous (i/v) injections...
April 3, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
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