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Multidrug resistant organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051620/antimicrobial-peptide-loaded-gold-nanoparticle-dna-aptamer-conjugates-as-highly-effective-antibacterial-therapeutics-against-vibrio-vulnificus
#1
Boeun Lee, Jonggwan Park, Minkyung Ryu, Soochan Kim, Minju Joo, Ji-Hyun Yeom, Suk Kim, Yoonkyung Park, Kangseok Lee, Jeehyeon Bae
Vibrio vulnificus causes fatal infections in humans, and antibiotics are commonly used in treatment regimens against V. vulnificus infection. However, the therapeutic effects of antibiotics are limited by multidrug resistance. In this study, we demonstrated that an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), HPA3P(His), loaded onto a gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer (AuNP-Apt) conjugate (AuNP-Apt-HPA3P(His)) is an effective therapeutic tool against V. vulnificus infection in vivo in mice. HPA3P(His) induced bacterial cell death through the disruption of membrane integrity of V...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050887/antibiotic-stewardship-in-the-newborn-surgical-patient-a%C3%A2-quality-improvement-project-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#2
Sarah Walker, Ankur Datta, Roxanne L Massoumi, Erica R Gross, Michael Uhing, Marjorie J Arca
BACKGROUND: There is significant diversity in the utilization of antibiotics for neonates undergoing surgical procedures. Our institution standardized antibiotic administration for surgical neonates, in which no empiric antibiotics were given to infants with surgical conditions postnatally, and antibiotics are given no more than 72 hours perioperatively. METHODS: We compared the time periods before and after implementation of antibiotic protocol in an institution review board-approved, retrospective review of neonates with congenital surgical conditions who underwent surgical correction within 30 days after birth...
October 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046668/characterization-of-anti-bacterial-compounds-from-the-seed-coat-of-chinese-windmill-palm-tree-trachycarpus-fortunei
#3
Shakeel Ahmed, Huimin Liu, Aqeel Ahmad, Waheed Akram, Eman K N Abdelrahman, Fengming Ran, Wuling Ou, Shuang Dong, Qian Cai, Qiyun Zhang, Xiaohua Li, Sheng Hu, Xuebo Hu
The increasing of multidrug resistance in bacterial associated infections has impaired the current antimicrobial therapy and it forces the search for other alternatives. In this study, we aimed to find the in vitro antibacterial activity of seed coat of Trachycarpus fortunei against a panel of clinically important bacterial species. Ethanolic extracts of target tissues were fractionated through macro porous resin by column chromatography, using ethanol as an organic solvent with a concentration gradient of 0-100%, each along with 20% concentration increment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043069/recent-advances-in-the-understanding-and-management-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#4
REVIEW
David P Calfee
Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative bacillus of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a component of the normal human microbiota and a common cause of community- and healthcare-associated infections. The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among K. pneumoniae isolates, particularly among those causing healthcare-associated infections, is an important public health concern. Infections caused by these multidrug-resistant organisms, for which safe and effective antimicrobial therapy options are extremely limited, are associated with poor outcomes for patients...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042761/understanding-institutional-stakeholders-perspectives-on-multidrug-resistant-bacterial-organism-at-the-end-of-life-a-qualitative-study
#5
Maria Heckel, Franziska A Herbst, Thomas Adelhardt, Johanna M Tiedtke, Alexander Sturm, Stephanie Stiel, Christoph Ostgathe
BACKGROUND: Information lacks about institutional stakeholders' perspectives on management approaches of multidrug-resistant bacterial organism in end-of-life situations. The term "institutional stakeholder" includes persons in leading positions with responsibility in hospitals' multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management. They have great influence on how strategies on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management approaches in institutions of the public health system are designed...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039729/antimicrobial-activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-tested-against-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-with-various-resistance-patterns-isolated-in-u-s-hospitals-2013-2016-as-part-of-the-surveillance-program-program-to-assess-ceftolozane-tazobactam-susceptibility
#6
Dee Shortridge, Michael A Pfaller, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitalized patients in the United States. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. A total of 18,960 organisms (15,223 Enterobacteriaceae and 3,737 P. aeruginosa) were consecutively collected from 32 medical centers located in all nine U.S. census divisions from 2013 to 2016...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039717/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-libyan-war-casualties-admitted-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-germany
#7
Benedikt Lohr, Yvonne Pfeifer, Ursel Heudorf, Christoph Rangger, Douglas E Norris, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld
The ongoing Libyan conflict constantly causes victims among the military and civilian population. Cross-border transfer of patients represents a high risk of introducing multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), for example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms (CROs), into the country of destination. This study assessed the MDRO status in Libyan war casualties (n = 67) admitted to Northwest Medical Centre in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, from August 2016 till January 2017...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037802/the-impact-of-inoculum-size-on-the-activity-of-cefoperazone-sulbactam-against-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#8
Ping-Chin Chang, Chi-Chung Chen, Ying Chen Lu, Chih-Cheng Lai, Hui-Ling Huang, Yin-Ching Chuang, Hung-Jen Tang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the in vitro activity of cefoperazone alone and different cefoperazone-sulbactam ratios against different inoculum sizes of multidrug resistant organisms. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam at fixed ratio of 1:1 and 2:1 against a normal inoculum size of 5 × 10(5) CFU/ml and a high inoculum size of 5 × 10(7) CFU/ml were measured. RESULTS: Each 33 isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichiacoli, ESBL-producing Klebsiellapneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant E...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037289/conducting-high-quality-tuberculosis-clinical-trials-in-china-opportunities-and-challenges
#9
J Bao, R Hafner
Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease that is a devastating threat to public health. As the country with the second highest number of TB cases and the highest number of multidrug-resistant TB cases in the world, China is now striving to be at the forefront of TB research and drug development. This article is based on the observations made by the authors during the recent partnership initiative between the National Institutes of Health and the Chinese TB community, as well as an extensive literature review...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036747/prevention-of-multidrug-resistant-infections-from-contaminated-duodenoscopes-position-statement-of-the-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-and-european-society-of-gastroenterology-nurses-and-associates-esgena
#10
Ulrike Beilenhoff, Holger Biering, Reinhard Blum, Jadranka Brljak, Monica Cimbro, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Cesare Hassan, Michael Jung, Christiane Neumann, Michael Pietsch, Lionel Pineau, Thierry Ponchon, Stanislav Rejchrt, Jean-François Rey, Verona Schmidt, Jayne Tillett, Jeanin van Hooft
Patients should be informed about the benefits and risks of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)Only specially trained and competent personnel should carry out endoscope reprocessing.Manufacturers of duodenoscopes should provide detailed instructions on how to use and reprocess their equipment.In the case of modifications to their equipment, manufacturers should provide updated instructions for use.Detailed reprocessing protocols based on the manufacturer's instructions for use should clearly lay out the different reprocessing steps necessary for each endoscope model...
October 16, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034109/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induce-systemic-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-in-colonized-mice
#11
Eliane von Klitzing, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
The World Health Organization has rated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a critical threat to human health. In the present study, we performed a survey of intestinal colonization, and local and systemic immune responses following peroral association of secondary abiotic mice with either a clinical MDR P. aeruginosa or a commensal murine Escherichia coli isolate. Depletion of the intestinal microbiota following antibiotic treatment facilitated stable intestinal colonization of both P. aeruginosa and E...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031432/discontinuing-contact-precautions-for-multidrug-resistant-organisms-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond, Marin L Schweizer, Grace W Ryan, Daniel J Diekema
BACKGROUND: Several single-center studies have suggested that eliminating contact precautions (CPs) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) control in nonoutbreak settings has no impact on infection rates. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of discontinuing contact precautions in the acute care setting. METHODS: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Embase through December 2016 for studies evaluating discontinuation of contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031106/new-insights-into-resistance-to-colistin-and-third-generation-cephalosporins-of-escherichia-coli-in-poultry-portugal-novel-blactx-m-166-and-blaesac-genes
#13
Vera Manageiro, Lurdes Clemente, Rafael Graça, Ivone Correia, Teresa Albuquerque, Eugénia Ferreira, Manuela Caniça
The increasing incidence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram negative organisms that has been observed in food animals such as poultry, cattle and pigs, are suggestive that animals, food and environment are potential sources of ESBL-producing bacteria. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterized commensal E. coli obtained from healthy broiler and turkey flocks at slaughter for the presence of penicillinases-, ESBL-, extended-spectrum AmpC (ESAC)-, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance- and MCR-encoding genes...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029188/an-analysis-of-the-epidemic-of-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-convergence-of-two-evolutionary-mechanisms-creates-the-perfect-storm
#14
Laura J Rojas, George M Weinstock, Elsa De La Cadena, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Blake M Hanson, Joseph S Brown, Purva Vats, Daniel S Phillips, Hoan Nguyen, Kristine M Hujer, Adriana Correa, Mark D Adams, Federico Perez, Erica Sodergren, Apurva Narechania, Paul J Planet, Maria V Villegas, Robert A Bonomo, Cesar A Arias
Background: Carbapenem resistance is a critical health care challenge worldwide. Particularly concerning is the widespread dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). K. pneumoniae harboring blaKPC (KPC-Kpn) is endemic in many areas including United States, where the epidemic was primarily mediated by the clonal dissemination of Kpn ST258. We postulated that the spread of blaKPC in other regions occurs by different and more complex mechanisms. To test this, we investigated the evolution and dynamics of spread of KPC-Kpn in Colombia, where KPC became rapidly endemic after emerging in 2005...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028228/preventing-emergence-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-myanmar-s-transitioning-health-system
#15
Mishal S Khan, Coll Hutchison, Richard J Coker, Joanne Yoong, Khaung M Hane, Anh L Innes, Tin M Khaing, Sithu Aung
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a particular threat to the populations of resource-limited countries. Although inadequate treatment of TB has been identified as a major underlying cause of drug resistance, essential information to inform changes in health service delivery and policy is missing. We investigate factors that may be driving the emergence of MDR-TB in Myanmar, a country where investment and health system reforms are ongoing to address the unexplained, high occurrence of MDR-TB. We conducted a multi-centre, retrospective case-control study in 10 townships across Yangon...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027384/survey-for-correlation-between-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-determinants-in-a-collection-of-pathogenic-and-fecal-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates
#16
Fereshteh Saffari, Mohammad Sadegh Dalfardi, Shahla Mansouri, Roya Ahmadrajabi
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that causes most of the enterococcal infections. Among the different factors implicated in the pathogenesis of these organisms, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance are the most important. The ability for biofilm formation has been attributed to the presence of some virulence genes. However, no definite correlation has been found. This study aimed to detect biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance patterns in E. faecalis isolates collected from clinical and fecal samples, and to investigate possible correlation between some virulence genes (esp, cyl, gelE) and biofilm formation...
September 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026662/intrathecal-and-intraventricular-antibiotics-for-postoperative-gram-negative-meningitis-and-ventriculitis
#17
Saad Akhtar Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Usman T Siddiqui, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Karim Rizwan Nathani, Rashid Jooma, Faisal Mehmood
BACKGROUND: Postoperative meningitis is a growing cause of concern, especially with the evolution of multidrug-resistant organism. The authors evaluate the use of intraventricular/intrathecal (IVT/IT) antibiotics for postoperative gram-negative meningitis in patients whom intravenous antibiotics were ineffective. METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and neurosurgery patients with gram-negative postoperative infection meningitis/ventriculitis were enrolled in the study...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025487/incorporating-social-justice-and-stigma-in-cost-effectiveness-analysis-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment
#18
A Zwerling, D Dowdy, A von Delft, H Taylor, M W Merritt
Novel therapies for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are likely to be expensive. The cost of novel drugs (e.g., bedaquiline, delamanid) may be so prohibitively high that a traditional cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) would rate regimens containing these drugs as not cost-effective. Traditional CEA may not appropriately account for considerations of social justice, and may put the most disadvantaged populations at greater risk. Using the example of novel drug regimens for MDR-TB, we propose a novel methodology, 'justice-enhanced CEA', and demonstrate how such an approach can simultaneously assess social justice impacts alongside traditional cost-effectiveness ratios...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020940/the-epidemiology-and-transmission-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-community-in-singapore-study-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-household-study
#19
Nivedita Shankar, Angela Li Ping Chow, Jolene Oon, Li Yang Hsu, Brenda Ang, Junxiong Pang, Paola Florez De Sessions, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Paul A Tambyah, Desmond B Teo, Clarence C Tam
BACKGROUND/AIM: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings worldwide, but little is known about MRSA transmission outside of acute healthcare settings especially in Asia. We describe the methods for a prospective longitudinal study of MRSA prevalence and transmission. METHODS: MRSA-colonized individuals were identified from MRSA admission screening at two tertiary hospitals and recruited together with their household contacts...
October 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020210/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-reduces-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection-frequency
#20
Raseen Tariq, Darrell S Pardi, Pritish K Tosh, Randall C Walker, Raymund R Razonable, Sahil Khanna
Broad-spectrum antibiotics for recurrent multidrug-resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) disrupt the gut microbiome and promote antibiotic resistance. Fecal microbiota transplantation led to resolution of recurrent Clostridium difficile, significantly decreased recurrent UTI frequency, and improved antibiotic susceptibility profile of UTI-causing organisms.
July 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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