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Multidrug resistant organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213334/reactive-oxygen-a-novel-antimicrobial-mechanism-for-targeting-biofilm-associated-infection
#1
REVIEW
Matthew S Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami J Salib, Rebecca E Holding, Timothy Biggs, Ali A Salamat, Raymond N Allan, Rachel S Newby, Fenella Halstead, Beryl Oppenheim, Thomas Hall, Sophie C Cox, Liam M Grover, Zain Al-Hindi, Lilyann Novak-Frazer, Malcolm D Richardson
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a novel therapeutic strategy for topical or local application to wounds, mucosa or internal structures where there may be heavy bacterial bioburden with biofilm and chronic inflammation. Bacterial biofilms are a significant problem in clinical settings owing to their increased tolerance towards conventionally prescribed antibiotics and their propensity for selection of further antibacterial resistance. There is therefore a pressing need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies that can improve antibiotic efficacy towards biofilms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211567/isolation-precautions-use-for-multidrug-resistant-organism-infection-in-nursing-homes
#2
Catherine C Cohen, Andrew Dick, Patricia W Stone
OBJECTIVES: To examine factors associated with isolation precaution use in nursing home (NH) residents with multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infection. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Nursing homes with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' certification from October 2010 to December 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Elderly, long-stay NH residents with positive MDRO infection assessments. MEASUREMENTS: Data were obtained from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210973/renal-drug-transporters-and-drug-interactions
#3
REVIEW
Anton Ivanyuk, Françoise Livio, Jérôme Biollaz, Thierry Buclin
Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209130/determination-of-antibacterial-activity-and-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-larval-extract-of-fly-via-resazurin-based-turbidometric-assay
#4
Chien Huey Teh, Wasi Ahmad Nazni, Ab Hamid Nurulhusna, Ahmad Norazah, Han Lim Lee
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is currently a major global issue. As the rate of emergence of antimicrobial resistance has superseded the rate of discovery and introduction of new effective drugs, the medical arsenal now is experiencing shortage of effective drugs to combat diseases, particularly against diseases caused by the dreadful multidrug-resistant strains, such as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The ability of fly larvae to thrive in septic habitats has prompted us to determine the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of larval extract of flies, namely Lucilia cuprina, Sarcophaga peregrina and Musca domestica against 4 pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S...
February 16, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208859/diphtheroids-important-nosocomial-pathogens
#5
Reshmi Chandran, Dinju Raj Puthukkichal, Ethel Suman, Shashidhar Kotian Mangalore
INTRODUCTION: Diphtheroids are defined as aerobic, non-sporulating, pleomorphic Gram-positive bacilli which are more uniformly stained than Corynebacterium diphtheriae, lack the metachromatic granules and are arranged in a palisade manner. They are usually commensals of the skin and mucous membranes. They differ from C.diphtheriae in biochemical rea-ctions as well as in toxin production. Since, they are usually found as commensals on the skin, they are often considered as mere contaminants when isolated from clinical samples...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207079/the-growing-threat-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#6
Jose M Munita, Samuel Shelburne, David E Greenberg, Cesar A Arias
The emergence and widespread dissemination of multidrug-resistant organisms is considered one of the three most important public health threats for humankind in the 21st century and jeopardizes the practice of modern medicine. Failure to tackle this problem in a comprehensive fashion could result in a dire post-antibiotic era, impairing the future development of treatments against important diseases, such as cancer, and transplant medicine, among others. Here, we provide a global perspective of the problem and describe some of the most important antibiotic-resistant organisms affecting the health of our patients...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202577/nimesulide-and-4-hydroxynimesulide-as-bile-acid-transporters-inhibitors-are-contributory-factors-for-drug-induced-cholestasis
#7
Lei Zhou, Xiaoyan Pang, Jingfang Jiang, Dafang Zhong, Xiaoyan Chen
Nimesulide (NIM) is a classic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, some patients treated with NIM suffered from cholestatic liver injury. For this reason, we investigated the potential mechanism underlying NIM-induced cholestasis by using in vivo and in vitro models. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg/day NIM to Wistar rats for 5 days increased the levels of plasma total bile acids, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase by 1.49-, 1.31-, 1.60-, and 1.29-fold, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202091/isolation-unit-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-low-endemic-country-a-step-towards-the-world-health-organization-end-tb-strategy
#8
M C Payen, J P VAN Vooren, O Vandenberg, N Clumeck, S DE Wit
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the second cause of death due to a single infectious agent after HIV/AIDS. The worldwide distribution of TB is heterogeneous. The incidence is decreasing in most high-income regions, but the situation remains worrying in many parts of the world. The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to key agents used in treatment (rifampin and isoniazid) contributes to TB transmission around the world. To achieve TB elimination, both high and low endemic countries must upscale their efforts to decrease disease transmission and improve cure rates...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#9
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198682/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-phenotypes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-patients-in-three-hospitals-in-southern-vietnam
#10
Nguyen Tuan Anh, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Huynh Minh Tuan, Nguyen Si Tuan, Dao Minh Y, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Stephen Baker, Ho Huynh Thuy Duong
Multidrug resistance in the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii limits therapeutic options and impacts on clinical care. Resistance against carbapenems, a group of last-resort antimicrobials for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii infections, is associated with the expression (and over-expression) of carbapenemases encoded by the blaOXA genes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant A. baumannii associated with infection in three hospitals in southern Vietnam and to characterize the genetic determinants associated with resistance against carbapenems...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198170/antibacterial-effect-of-sevoflurane-and-isoflurane
#11
M Martínez-Serrano, M Gerónimo-Pardo, A Martínez-Monsalve, M D Crespo-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug resistant bacteria are increasing worldwide and therapeutic options are limited. Some anaesthetics have shown antibacterial activity before. In this study, we have investigated the antibacterial effect of the halogenated anaesthetic agents sevoflurane and isoflurane against a range of resistant pathogens. METHODS: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, bacterial suspensions of both ATCC and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exposed to liquid sevoflurane and isoflurane during 15, 30 and 60 minutes...
February 15, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192112/multiple-blood-brain-barrier-transport-mechanisms-limit-bumetanide-accumulation-and-therapeutic-potential-in-the-mammalian-brain
#12
Kerstin Römermann, Maren Fedrowitz, Philip Hampel, Edith Kaczmarek, Kathrin Töllner, Thomas Erker, Douglas H Sweet, Wolfgang Löscher
There is accumulating evidence that bumetanide, which has been used over decades as a potent loop diuretic, also exerts effects on brain disorders, including autism, neonatal seizures, and epilepsy, which are not related to its effects on the kidney but rather mediated by inhibition of the neuronal Na-K-Cl cotransporter isoform NKCC1. However, following systemic administration, brain levels of bumetanide are typically below those needed to inhibit NKCC1, which critically limits its clinical use for treating brain disorders...
February 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191840/se-ru-decorated-porous-metal-organic-framework-nanoparticles-for-the-delivery-of-pooled-sirnas-to-reversing-multidrug-resistance-in-taxol-resistant-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Qingchang Chen, Meng Xu, Wenjing Zheng, Taoyuan Xu, Hong Deng, Jie Liu
We report here a novel and personalized strategy of selenium/ruthenium nanoparticles modified metal organic frameworks MIL-101(Fe) for delivering pooled small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to enhance therapy efficacy by silencing multi-drug resistance (MDR) genes and interfere with microtubule (MT) dynamics in MCF-7/T (Taxol-resistance) cell. The existence of coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (CUSs) in MIL-101(Fe) can strongly interactions with the electron-rich functional groups of cysteine, which can be regarded as the linkage between selenium/ruthenium nanoparticles and MIL-101(Fe)...
February 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191309/co-existence-of-blaoxa-23-and-blandm-1-genes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-nepal-antimicrobial-resistance-and-clinical-significance
#14
Prabhu Raj Joshi, Mahesh Acharya, Trishna Kakshapati, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Sutthirat Sitthisak
BACKGROUND: Molecular analysis of carbapenem-resistant genes in Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging pathogen, is less commonly reported from Nepal. In this study we determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile and genetic mechanism of carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. METHODS: A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical specimens and identified based on Gram staining, biochemical tests, and PCR amplification of organism specific 16S rRNA and blaOXA-51 genes...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185618/tuberculosis-a-world-health-organization-perspective
#15
Giovanni Sotgiu, Giorgia Sulis, Alberto Matteelli
Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented and scaled-up three important global public health strategies (i.e., DOTS, Stop TB, and End TB) to improve the international scenario. Their epidemiological impact was relevant, as they decreased the number of potential new cases of disease and death. However, the emergence and spread of TB/HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant TB have hindered the progress towards the elimination of TB by 2050...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181665/multidrug-resistant-bacteria-among-patients-with-ventilatorassociated-pneumonia-in-an-emergency-intensive-care-unit-egypt
#16
Magda M Azzab, Rehab H El-Sokkary, Mohamed M Tawfeek, Manar G Gebriel
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common hospital-acquired infection among mechanically ventilated patients. Our objectives were to determine the incidence of VAP, isolate multidrug-resistant bacteria, identify the most prevalent resistant strains and identify their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. The VAP rate was calculated. The isolated microbes were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibilities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined of imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem for Klebsiella isolates...
February 1, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178199/combined-use-of-delamanid-and-bedaquiline-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Giovanni Battista Migliori, Emanuele Pontali, Giovanni Sotgiu, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Simon Tiberi, Marina Tadolini, Susanna Esposito
The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly being used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). The World Health Organization, based on lack of evidence, recommends their use under specific conditions and not in combination. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline used in combination. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was carried out, aimed at evaluating the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline-containing regimens in individuals with pulmonary/extrapulmonary disease, which were bacteriologically confirmed as M/XDR-TB...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176814/eunag-a-new-ligand-inducible-fluorescent-reporter-to-detect-drug-transporter-activity-in-live-cells
#18
Johannes T-H Yeh, Kwangho Nam, Joshua T-H Yeh, Norbert Perrimon
The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of metabolites and toxic organic solutes are orchestrated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the organic solute carrier family (SLC) proteins. A large number of ABC and SLC transpoters exist; however, only a small number have been well characterized. To facilitate the analysis of these transporters, which is important for drug safety and physiological studies, we developed a sensitive genetically encoded bilirubin (BR)-inducible fluorescence sensor (eUnaG) to detect transporter-coupled influx/efflux of organic compounds...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176132/checking-rounds-for-isolation-precautions-in-the-control-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-reduction-achieved
#19
P Barbadoro, E Martini, M G Gioia, R Stoico, S Savini, E Manso, G Serafini, E Prospero, M M D'Errico
The objective of this investigation was to analyze the effectiveness of a quality improvement initiative in limiting the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the hospital setting. During the period 2011-2013, a multimodal intervention was activated at a tertiary care center in Italy. The intervention included: laboratory-based surveillance, interdisciplinary training sessions, monitoring the adoption of isolation precautions and daily supervision provided by infection control nurses, and a monthly feedback...
February 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175954/multiple-resistance-to-carcinogens-and-xenobiotics-p-glycoproteins-as-universal-detoxifiers
#20
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Manfred Volm
The detoxification of toxic substances is of general relevance in all biological systems. The plethora of exogenous xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolic products explains the evolutionary pressure of all organisms to develop molecular mechanisms to detoxify and excrete harmful substances from the body. P-glycoprotein and other members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family extrude innumerous chemical compounds out of cells. Their specific expression in diverse biological contexts cause different phenotypes: (1) multidrug resistance (MDR) and thus failure of cancer chemotherapy, (2) avoidance of accumulation of carcinogens and prevention of carcinogenesis in healthy tissues, (3) absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion (ADME) of pharmacological drugs in human patients, (4) protection from environmental toxins in aquatic organisms (multi-xenobiotic resistance, MXR)...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
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