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Multidrug resistant organism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447024/microbiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-puerperal-sepsis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Rumbidzai Majangara, Muchabayiwa Francis Gidiri, Zvavahera Mike Chirenje
The objectives of this study were to determine the identity and antibacterial susceptibility profiles of bacteria colonising the female genital tract and blood stream and their association with clinical outcomes in women with puerperal sepsis. A prospective descriptive cohort study was conducted at two tertiary hospitals in Zimbabwe. Endocervical swabs and blood were collected for culture and susceptibility testing from 151 consecutive women who met the World Health Organisation criteria for puerperal sepsis...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446811/nosocomial-infections-current-situation-in-a-resuscitation-unit
#2
Ahlem Trifi, Sami Abdellatif, Mouna Oueslati, Meriem Zribi, Foued Daly, Rochdi Nasri, Rahma Mannai, Chadlia Fandri, Salah Ben Lakhal
BACKGROUND: The nosocomial infection (NI) is defined as an infection that is not present or incubating on admission in establishment of care. It can be caused by the patient's germs, care personnel or hospital environment. Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are particularly common in intensive care units that lead to a serious infections and increase morbidity, mortality and cost of care. PURPOSE: To identify the epidemiological characteristics of NI, the predisposing factors, the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of isolated bacteria and the impact on morbidity and mortality...
March 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432348/trends-of-incidence-and-risk-factors-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-elderly-patients-admitted-to-french-icus-between-2007-and-2014
#3
Cédric Dananché, Philippe Vanhems, Anaïs Machut, Martine Aupée, Caroline Bervas, François L'Hériteau, Alain Lepape, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Vincent Stoeckel, Jean-François Timsit, Anne Berger-Carbonne, Anne Savey, Thomas Bénet
OBJECTIVES: To assess trends and risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia according to age, particularly in the elderly admitted to French ICUs between 2007 and 2014. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective French national Healthcare-Associated Infection surveillance network of ICUs ("Réseau REA-Raisin"). SETTINGS: Two-hundred fifty six ICUs in 246 settings in France. PATIENTS: Included were all adult patients hospitalized greater than or equal to 48 hours in ICUs participating in the network...
February 9, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429556/infection-with-gram-negative-bacteria-among-children-in-a-tertiary-pediatric-hospital-in-egypt
#4
John Rene Labib, Sally K Ibrahim, Marwa Rashad Salem, Meray Rene L Youssef, Basant Meligy
BACKGROUND: Patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) are susceptible to infections with gram-negative bacteria (GNB). METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 2 PICUs at Cairo University Hospitals to determine the incidence and outcome of GNB infections over 1 year. Variables of interest included age, gender, isolated organism, susceptibility to antibiotics, and final outcome. RESULTS: During the study period, 1420 patients were admitted to the PICU; of these, 291 developed GNB infections...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427501/infections-complicating-cirrhosis
#5
REVIEW
Salvatore Piano, Alessandra Brocca, Sara Mareso, Paolo Angeli
Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of bacterial infections. Bacterial infections induce systemic inflammation that may lead to organ failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) resulting in a high risk of short term mortality. The early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections is essential to improve the patient's prognosis. However, in recent years, the spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has reduced the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424355/cytotoxicity-of-propolis-nanopreparations-in-cancer-cell-monolayers-multimode-of-action-including-apoptotsis-and-nitric-oxide-production
#6
Mahmoud S Sherif, Taha A Rehab, Zayed A Hamdia, Vladmir P Torchilin
Natural products are invaluable resource of anticancer drug discovery. They generally viewed as safe but weak, within the framework of nanotechnology, they can serve as template for potent anticancer drugs. We first evaluated the cytotoxic activity of different propolis extracts (water, 70% ethanol, absolute ethanol and hexane) in many cancer cell lines, then the solid nanoparticles from the organic solvent extracts were prepared and their cytotoxicity was evaluated as well. Finally, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) liposomes were prepared from the most cytotoxic organic solvent extract and their cytotoxicity was also evaluated...
January 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422728/multicenter-observational-study-to-evaluate-epidemiology-and-resistance-patterns-of-common-intensive-care-unit-infections
#7
Ramesh Venkataraman, Jigeeshu V Divatia, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, Rajesh Chawla, Pravin Amin, Palepu Gopal, Dhruva Chaudhry, Kapil Zirpe, Babu Abraham
Background: There is limited data regarding the microbiology of Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-acquired infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) from India. Objectives: To explore the microbiology and resistance patterns of ICU-acquired infections and evaluate their outcomes. Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter observational study, conducted by Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (MOSER study) between August 2011 and October 2012...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421668/first-report-of-sporadic-cases-of-candida-auris-in-colombia
#8
Claudia M Parra-Giraldo, Sandra L Valderrama, Gloria Cortes-Fraile, Javier R Garzón, Beatriz E Ariza, Florent Morio, Melva Y Linares-Linares, Andrés Ceballos-Garzón, Alejandro de la Hoz, Catalina Hernandez, Carlos Alvarez-Moreno, Patrice Le Pape
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a recently reported Candida species which is phenotypically similar to Candida haemulonii and related to hospital outbreaks. This organism can be misidentified as C. haemulonii, C. famata, C. catenulata or Rhodotorula glutinis by phenotypic approaches. MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequence analysis using ITS rDNA barcoding provide an accurate identification. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Three cases of C. auris infection in patients with risk factors for fungal infection (Admitted to the intensive care unit, lymphoma and HIV respectively, all three with previous antibiotic use) and not epidemiologically related...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420743/meropenem-potentiation-of-aminoglycoside-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-involvement-of-the-mexxy-oprm-multidrug-efflux-system
#9
Keith Poole, Christie Gilmour, Maya A Farha, Michael D Parkins, Rachael Klinoski, Eric D Brown
Objectives: To assess the ability of meropenem to potentiate aminoglycoside (AG) activity against laboratory and AG-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods: AG resistance gene deletions were engineered into P. aeruginosa laboratory and CF isolates using standard gene replacement technology. Susceptibility to AGs ± meropenem (at ½ MIC) was assessed using a serial 2-fold dilution assay...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417927/establishing-a-research-agenda-for-preventing-transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-acute-care-settings-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#10
Eli N Perencevich, Anthony D Harris, Christopher D Pfeiffer, Michael A Rubin, Jennifer N Hill, Gio J Baracco, Martin E Evans, J Stacey Klutts, Judy A Streit, Richard E Nelson, Karim Khader, Heather Schacht Reisinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417926/setting-the-research-agenda-for-preventing-infections-from-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#11
Daniel J Livorsi, Charlesnika T Evans, Daniel J Morgan, Heather S Reisinger, Nasia Safdar, Katie J Suda, Eli N Perencevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417924/research-agenda-for-microbiome-based-research-for-multidrug-resistant-organism-prevention-in-the-veterans-health-administration-system
#12
Ashley E Kates, Jessica S Tischendorf, Marin Schweizer, Loreen Herwaldt, Matthew Samore, Kimberly C Dukes, Dale N Gerding, Daniel J Diekema, Nasia Safdar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417921/setting-a-research-agenda-in-prevention-of-healthcare-associated-infections-hais-and-multidrug-resistant-organisms-mdros-outside-of-acute-care-settings
#13
Charlesnika T Evans, Robin L Jump, Sarah L Krein, Suzanne F Bradley, Christopher J Crnich, Kalpana Gupta, Eli N Perencevich, Mark W Vander Weg, Daniel J Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416463/effect-of-extended-infusion-of-meropenem-and-nebulized-amikacin-on-gram-negative-multidrug-resistant-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#14
Mona Ahmed Ammar, Waleed Abdalla
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is associated with a significant mortality in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of extended infusion of meropenem and nebulized amikacin on VAP caused by Gram-negative MDRO versus intravenous (IV) meropenem and amikacin alone. Methodology: A randomized nonblinded controlled trial was performed on ninety patients with VAP...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414119/shikonin-upregulates-the-expression-of-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-and-drug-transporters-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes
#15
Chin-Shiu Huang, Haw-Wen Chen, Tzu-Yu Lin, Ai-Hsuan Lin, Chong-Kuei Lii
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment abundant in the root of the Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Whether shikonin changes drug metabolism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether shikonin modulates the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the possible mechanisms of this action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0-2 μM shikonin and the protein and mRNA levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411661/novel-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#16
James M Kidd, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Introduction Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) are among the most prevalent infections in hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit. Importantly, the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative (GN) bacteria as the bacteriologic cause of HABP/VABP is increasing. These include MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem resistant Enterobactericeae (CRE). Few antibiotics are currently available when such MDR Gram-negatives are encountered and older agents such as polymyxin B, colistin (polymyxin E), and tigecycline have typically performed poorly in HABP/VABP...
February 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410368/surveillance-of-tigecycline-activity-tested-against-clinical-isolates-from-a-global-north-america-europe-latin-america-and-asia-pacific-collection-2016
#17
Michael A Pfaller, Michael D Huband, Jennifer Streit, Robert K Flamm, Helio S Sader
Tigecycline and comparators were tested by reference broth microdilution method against 33,348 non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected prospectively in 2016 from medical centers in Asia-Pacific (3,443 isolates), Europe (13,530 isolates), Latin America (3,327 isolates), and United States (13,048 isolates). Among 7,098 Staphylococcus aureus isolates tested, >99.9% were inhibited by ≤0.5 mg/L of tigecycline (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 mg/L), including >99.9% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 100.0% of methicillin-susceptible S...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409348/better-living-through-chemistry-addressing-emerging-antibiotic-resistance
#18
Nathan P Coussens, Ashley L Molinaro, Kayla J Culbertson, Tyler Peryea, Gergely Zahoránszky-Köhalmi, Matthew D Hall, Dayle A Daines
The increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is recognized as a major threat to human health worldwide. While the use of small molecule antibiotics has enabled many modern medical advances, it has also facilitated the development of resistant organisms. This minireview provides an overview of current small molecule drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans, the unintended consequences of antibiotic use, and the mechanisms that underlie the development of drug resistance...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408227/clinical-experience-with-ceftazidime-avibactam-for-treatment-of-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-other-than-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#19
Barbara A Santevecchi, Tiffeny T Smith, Shawn H MacVane
BACKGROUND: Ceftazidime/avibactam is a newly approved β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination with activity against antibiotic-resistant gram-negative organisms, including many carbapenem-resistant strains. While this agent may offer a promising treatment option for serious infections with limited alternatives available, clinical experience with ceftazidime/avibactam in treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms outside of Klebsiella pneumoniae is limited...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406804/comparative-evaluation-of-broth-microdilution-with-polystyrene-and-glass-coated-plates-agar-dilution-e-test-vitek-and-disk-diffusion-for-susceptibility-testing-of-colistin-and-polymyxin-b-on-carbapenem-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#20
Lipika Singhal, Megha Sharma, Salony Verma, Ramanpreet Kaur, Xavier Basil Britto, Surbhi Malhotra Kumar, Pallab Ray, Vikas Gautam
INTRODUCTION: With the increasing threat of multidrug-resistant organisms, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, the polymyxin class of drugs (colistin and polymyxin B) has become popular in clinical practice. A better understanding of antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for colistin and polymyxin B is needed for optimal patient management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing for colistin and polymyxin B using the following methods: broth microdilution (BMD) (glass-coated plates [BMD-Gs] and polystyrene plates [BMD-Ps]), agar dilution (AD), E-test®, Vitek®, and disk diffusion...
February 6, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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