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Multidrug resistant organism

Jiajia Dong, Olajide E Olaleye, Rongrong Jiang, Jing Li, Chuang Lu, Feifei Du, Fang Xu, Junling Yang, Fengqing Wang, Weiwei Jia, Chuan Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intravenous glycyrrhizin, having anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties, is incorporated into the management of liver diseases in China. This investigation was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying hepatobiliary excretion of glycyrrhizin and to investigate its potential for drug-drug interactions on organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP)1B. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human hepatic transporters were characterized for glycyrrhizin at the cellular and vesicular levels and compared with rat hepatic transporters...
June 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Rajendran Vijayakumar, Tim Sandle, Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody, Meshal K AlFonaisan, Wael Alturaiki, Suresh Mickymaray, Mariappan Premanathan, Suliman A Alsagaby
PURPOSES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of biocide resistant genes, qacA, qacE and cepA in multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii and to correlate the presence or absence of resistant genes with biocides susceptibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 44 MDR K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii microorganisms. The bacteria were screened for the presence of biocide resistant genes by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Lona Mody
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review describes our research experiences and efforts in advancing the field of infection prevention and control in nursing facilities including postacute and long-term care settings. RECENT FINDINGS: There are over two million infections in postacute and long-term care settings each year in the United States and $4 billion in associated costs. To define a target group most amenable to infection prevention and control interventions, we sought to quantify the relation between indwelling device use and microbial colonization in nursing facility patients...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Hendra Gunawan, Muljaningsih Sasmojo, Helena Eka Putri, Erda Avriyanti, Reti Hindritiani, Oki Suwarsa
Background: Rifampicin is one of the important components in the multidrug therapy (MDT)-World Health Organization regimen for leprosy. Clarithromycin is one of the alternative therapies of rifampicin. Methods: This clinical pilot study was to compare the efficacy of 2,000 mg clarithromycin to 600 mg rifampicin in combination with dapsone and clofazimine for 3 months in multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients. They were divided into an MDT-MB regimen group that consists of rifampicin-dapsone-clofazimine and clarithromycin-dapsone-clofazimine (CDC) regimen group, each group consisted of seven patients...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Simeon I B Cadmus, Olutayo I Falodun, Oba E Fagade, Robert Murphy, Babafemi Taiwo, Dick Van Soolingen
Background: The true burden of tuberculosis (TB) and particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Sub-Saharan Africa has remained underestimated. Methods: We investigated drug susceptibility profile and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected from confirmed tuberculosis patients in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Results: We confirmed that from 74 randomly selected Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates available for drug susceptibility testing in Ibadan, in 2011, 13...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Claire Aguilar, Shahid Husain, Olivier Lortholary
Background: Undergoing solid organ transplantation (SOT) exposes the recipient to various infectious risks, including possible transmission of pathogen by the transplanted organ, post-surgical infections, reactivation of latent pathogens, or novel infections. Recent advances: In the last few years, the emergence of Zika virus has raised concerns in the transplant community. Few cases have been described in SOT patients, and these were associated mainly with moderate disease and favorable outcome; the notable exception is a recent case of fatal meningo-encephalopathy in a heart transplant recipient...
2018: F1000Research
Ejikeugwu Chika, Esimone Charles, Iroha Ifeanyichukwu, Adikwu Michael
Objectives: Gram-negative bacteria represent the most relevant reservoir of resistance to antibiotics in the environment. The natural selection of resistant clones of bacteria in the environment by antimicrobial selective pressure is a relevant mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance traits in both the community and hospital environment. This is in scenarios where antimicrobials are used irrationally, and even in the propagation of livestock, poultry birds, and for other veterinary purposes...
May 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Andrew P-A Karalewitz, Samuel I Miller
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram negative organism that is a cause of hospital acquired multidrug resistant (MDR) infections. A. baumannii has a unique cell surface compared to many other Gram-negative pathogens in that it can live without LPS and it has a high content of cardiolipin in the outer membrane. Therefore, to better understand the cell envelope and mechanisms of A. baumannii MDR, we screened a transposon library for mutants with defective permeability barrier function, as defined as a deficiency in the ability to exclude the phosphatase chromogenic substrate, 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (XP)...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Anna Hucke, Ga Young Park, Oliver B Bauer, Georg Beyer, Christina Köppen, Dorothea Zeeh, Christoph A Wehe, Michael Sperling, Rita Schröter, Marta Kantauskaitè, Yohannes Hagos, Uwe Karst, Stephen J Lippard, Giuliano Ciarimboli
Cancer treatment with platinum compounds is an important achievement of modern chemotherapy. However, despite the beneficial effects, the clinical impact of these agents is hampered by the development of drug resistance as well as dose-limiting side effects. The efficacy but also side effects of platinum complexes can be mediated by uptake through plasma membrane transporters. In the kidneys, plasma membrane transporters are involved in their secretion into the urine. Renal secretion is accomplished by uptake from the blood into the proximal tubules cells, followed by excretion into the urine...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Ju Yeon Song, Ihn Sook Jeong
BACKGROUND: Few hospitals have conducted surveillance cultures to identity carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) colonization in Korea because of high test costs, long wait time to get results, and lack of personnel. This study aimed to identify risk factors of CRE colonization and to develop a model for predicting the risk of CRE colonization. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was done with medical record review at a tertiary hospital between October 1, 2016, and October 31, 2017, in 444 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit...
June 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
James D Finklea, Rita Hollaway, Karen Lowe, Francesca Lee, Jade Le, Raksha Jain
Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a combination intravenous antibiotic with potentially important activity against drug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Ceftolozane/tazobactam's in vitro activity was evaluated in 30 samples collected from 23 adult cystic fibrosis patients with extended and pan-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 2015. Testing results demonstrated that 30% of the isolates were susceptible,13% were intermediate, and 57% were resistant. This suggests that ceftolozane/tazobactam may be a useful antibiotic in carefully selected, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas isolates...
May 12, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Samreen Jatana, Craig R Homer, Maria Madajka, András K Ponti, Amrita Kabi, Francis Papay, Christine McDonald
Multidrug-resistant bacterial strains are a rapidly emerging healthcare threat; therefore it is critical to develop new therapies to combat these organisms. Prior antibacterial strategies directly target pathogen growth or viability. Host-directed strategies to increase antimicrobial defenses may be an effective alternative to antibiotics and reduce development of resistant strains. In this study, we demonstrated the efficacy of a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor, N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA), to enhance clearance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii strains by primary human dermal fibroblasts in vitro...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Deverick J Anderson, Rebekah W Moehring, David J Weber, Sarah S Lewis, Luke F Chen, J Conrad Schwab, Paul Becherer, Michael Blocker, Patricia F Triplett, Lauren P Knelson, Yuliya Lokhnygina, William A Rutala, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: The hospital environment is a source of pathogen transmission. The effect of enhanced disinfection strategies on the hospital-wide incidence of infection has not been investigated in a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of four disinfection strategies on hospital-wide incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile in the Benefits of Enhanced Terminal Room (BETR) Disinfection study. METHODS: We did a prespecified secondary analysis of the results from the BETR Disinfection study, a pragmatic, multicentre, crossover cluster-randomised trial that assessed four different strategies for terminal room disinfection in nine hospitals in the southeastern USA...
June 4, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Gaurav Nepal, Shekhar Bhatta
Antibiotics are essential treatments, especially in the developing world like World Health Organization (WHO) Southeast Asian region where infectious diseases are still the most common cause of death. In this part of the world, antibiotics are purchased and used without the prescription of a physician. Self-medication of antibiotics is associated with the risk of inappropriate drug use, which predisposes patients to drug interactions, masking symptoms of an underlying disease, and development of microbial resistance...
April 5, 2018: Curēus
Abdol Ahad Dogonchi, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi, Abdollah Ardebili, Sajjad Yazdansetad, Abazar Pournajaf
Objective: Carbapenems are effective agents to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa . However, there is a potential threat of emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-mediated resistance in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. Materials and Methods: Different clinical specimens were subjected to conventional culture-based identification of P...
April 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Agnes P Chan, Yongwook Choi, Lauren M Brinkac, Radha Krishnakumar, Jessica DePew, Maria Kim, Mary K Hinkle, Emil P Lesho, Derrick E Fouts
In light of the ongoing antimicrobial resistance crisis, there is a need to understand the role of co-pathogens, commensals, and the local microbiome in modulating virulence and antibiotic resistance. To identify possible interactions that influence the expression of virulence or survival mechanisms in both the multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and human host cells, unique cohorts of clinical isolates were selected for whole genome sequencing with enhanced assembly and full annotation, pairwise co-culturing, and transcriptome profiling...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ya-Xiong Yi, Yue Ding, Yong Zhang, Ning-Hui Ma, Feng Shi, Ping Kang, Zhen-Zhen Cai, Tong Zhang
Yinchenhao Decoction (YCHD), a famous traditional Chinese formula, has been used for treating cholestasis for 1000s of years. The cholagogic effect of YCHD has been widely reported, but its pharmacodynamic material and underlying therapeutic mechanism remain unclear. By using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 11 original active components and eight phase II metabolites were detected in rats after oral administration of YCHD, including three new phase II metabolites...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mary Ann Powles, Andrew Galgoci, Andrew Misura, Lawrence Colwell, Karen H Dingley, Wei Tang, Jin Wu, Timothy Blizzard, Mary Motyl, Katherine Young
The World Health Organization has identified antimicrobial resistance as a global public health threat as the prevalence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens worldwide are staggering. Carbapenems, such as imipenem and meropenem have been used to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria; however, since the development of resistance to carbapenems, β-lactam antibiotics in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors (BLI) has been one of the most successful strategies to enhance the activity of β-lactam antibiotics...
June 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Elizabeth A Mitgang, David M Hartley, Marissa D Malchione, Michala Koch, Jesse L Goodman
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are among the most difficult to treat emerging multidrug resistant organisms. Major limitations exist in surveillance needed to address CRE, particularly in areas with inadequate resources. METHODS: We utilized optimized strategies to search for data on carbapenem susceptibility of Klebsiella and Escherichia coli from the World Health Organization Africa region. Core data elements were extracted for meta-analysis and mapping...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Annelene Kossow, Bianca Stühmer, Frieder Schaumburg, Karsten Becker, Birgit Glatz, Mareike Möllers, Stefanie Kampmeier, Alexander Mellmann
With high numbers of refugees arriving in Europe uncertainty exists as to whether multidrug-resistant organisms are imported into the healthcare system. In our study, we identified 383 refugee-inpatients admitted to the University Hospital Münster, Germany between September 2015 and September 2016. For this patient cohort screening for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was recommended in our institution...
2018: PloS One
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