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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938307/design-and-development-of-a-miniaturized-percutaneously-deployable-wireless-left-ventricular-assist-device-early-prototypes-and-feasibility-testing
#1
Brian Letzen, Jiheum Park, Zeynep Tuzun, Pramod Bonde
The current left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are limited by a highly invasive implantation procedure in a severely unstable group of advanced heart failure patients. Additionally, the current transcutaneous power drive line acts as a nidus for infection resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. In an effort to decrease this invasiveness and eliminate drive line complications, we have conceived a wireless miniaturized percutaneous LVAD, capable of being delivered endovascularly with a tether-free operation...
September 21, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938110/monitoring-harm-perceptions-of-smokeless-tobacco-products-among-u-s-adults-health-information-national-trends-survey-2012-2014-2015
#2
Shari P Feirman, Elisabeth A Donaldson, Mark Parascandola, Kimberly Snyder, Cindy Tworek
INTRODUCTION: Changes to the U.S. smokeless tobacco landscape in recent years include a change to health warnings on packages, the implementation of bans in some stadiums, and the launch of a federal youth prevention campaign. It is unclear whether such changes have impacted consumer beliefs about smokeless tobacco. This study examines relative harm perceptions of smokeless tobacco compared to cigarettes among adults and assesses changes in smokeless tobacco harm perceptions over time...
September 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935640/attenuation-of-pulmonary-ace2-activity-impairs-inactivation-of-des-arg9-bradykinin-bkb1r-axis-and-facilitates-lps-induced-neutrophil-infiltration
#3
Chhinder P Sodhi, Christine Wohlford-Lenane, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Thomas Prindle, William B Fulton, Sanxia Wang, Paul B McCray, Mark C Chappell, David J Hackam, Hongpeng Jia
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a terminal carboxypeptidase with important functions in the renin angiotensin system and plays a critical role in inflammatory lung diseases. ACE2 cleaves single terminal residues from several bioactive peptides such as angiotensin II. However, few of its substrates in the respiratory tract have been identified and the mechanism underlying the role of ACE2 in inflammatory lung disease has not been fully characterized. In an effort to identify biological targets of ACE2 in the lung, we tested its effects on des-arg9 bradykinin (DABK) in airway epithelial cells based upon a hypothesis that DABK is a biological substrate of ACE2 in the lung and ACE2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung inflammation partly through modulating DABK/BKB1R axis signaling...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935007/an-international-survey-of-approaches-to-chair-restraint-of-nonhuman-primates
#4
Jennifer L McMillan, Mollie A Bloomsmith, Mark J Prescott
Specifically designed restraint chairs are the preferred method of restraint for research studies that require NHP to sit in place for sustained periods of time. In light of increasing emphasis on refinement of restraint to improve animal wellbeing, it is important to have a better understanding of this potentially stressful procedure. Although chair restraint is used internationally, very little published information is available on this subject. We developed a survey to obtain an overview of equipment, procedures, and plans for improvement regarding chair restraint...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934808/competency-based-teaching-in-radiology-implementation-and-evaluation-of-interactive-workstation-based-learning-to-apply-nklm-based-content
#5
Wolfgang Koestner, Wiebke Otten, Till Kaireit, Frank K Wacker, Sabine Dettmer
Purpose New teaching formats are required to implement competency-based teaching in radiology teaching. Therefore, we have established and evaluated two practical competency-based radiological courses. Materials and Methods The courses were held in a multimedia room with 25 computers and a professional DICOM viewer. Students were taught basic image analysis and presented clinical cases with a DICOM viewer under supervision of an instructor using desktop monitoring software. Two courses (elective course and obligatory course) were evaluated by the students (n = 160 and n = 100) and instructors (n = 9) using an anonymized online survey...
September 21, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934728/has-toxicity-testing-moved-into-the-21st-century-a-survey-and-analysis-of-perceptions-in-the-field-of-toxicology
#6
Virginia Zaunbrecher, Elizabeth Beryt, Daniela Parodi, Donatello Telesca, Joseph Doherty, Timothy Malloy, Patrick Allard
BACKGROUND: Ten years ago, leaders in the field of toxicology called for a transformation of the discipline and a shift from primarily relying on traditional animal testing to incorporating advances in biotechnology and predictive methodologies into alternative testing strategies (ATS). Governmental agencies and academic and industry partners initiated programs to support such a transformation, but a decade later, the outcomes of these efforts are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the use of ATS and the perceived barriers and drivers to their adoption by toxicologists and by others working in, or closely linked with, the field of toxicology...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934531/feasibility-and-emotional-impact-of-experimentally-extending-sleep-in-short-sleeping-adolescents
#7
Tori R Van Dyk, Nanhua Zhang, Perry A Catlin, Kaylin Cornist, Shealan McAlister, Catharine Whitacre, Dean W Beebe
Study Objectives: Published experimental sleep manipulation protocols for adolescents have been limited to the summer, limiting causal conclusions about how short sleep affects them on school nights, when they are most likely to restrict their sleep. This study assesses the feasibility and emotional impact of a school-night sleep manipulation protocol to test the effects of lengthening sleep in habitually short-sleeping adolescents. Methods: High school students aged 14-18 years who habitually slept 5-7 hours on school nights participated in a 5-week experimental sleep manipulation protocol...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934249/variability-in-objective-and-subjective-measures-affects-baseline-values-in-studies-of-patients-with-copd
#8
Wayne H Anderson, Jae Wook Ha, David J Couper, Wanda K O'Neal, R Graham Barr, Eugene R Bleecker, Elizabeth E Carretta, Christopher B Cooper, Claire M Doerschuk, M Bradley Drummond, MeiLan K Han, Nadia N Hansel, Victor Kim, Eric C Kleerup, Fernando J Martinez, Stephen I Rennard, Donald Tashkin, Prescott G Woodruff, Robert Paine, Jeffrey L Curtis, Richard E Kanner
RATIONALE: Understanding the reliability and repeatability of clinical measurements used in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of disease progression is of critical importance across all disciplines of clinical practice and in clinical trials to assess therapeutic efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVES: Our goal is to understand normal variability for assessing true changes in health status and to more accurately utilize this data to differentiate disease characteristics and outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934198/-koko-et-les-lunettes-magiques-an-educational-entertainment-tool-to-prevent-parasitic-worms-and-diarrheal-diseases-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#9
Clémence Essé, Véronique A Koffi, Abel Kouamé, Kouassi Dongo, Richard B Yapi, Honorine M Moro, Christiane A Kouakou, Marta S Palmeirim, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso
BACKGROUND: Integrated control programs, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy along with health education, can reduce the incidence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to develop an educational animated cartoon to improve school children's awareness regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis, diarrheal diseases, and related hygiene practices in Côte d'Ivoire. The key messages included in the cartoon were identified through prior formative research to specifically address local knowledge gaps...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933907/generating-lies-produces-lower-memory-predictions-and-higher-memory-performance-than-telling-the-truth-evidence-for-a-metacognitive-illusion
#10
Miri Besken
Manipulations that induce disfluency during encoding generally produce lower memory predictions for the disfluent condition than for the fluent condition. Similar to other manipulations of disfluency, generating lies takes longer and requires more mental effort than does telling the truth; hence, a manipulation of lie generation might produce patterns similar to other types of fluency for memory predictions. The current study systematically investigates the effect of a lie-generation manipulation on both actual and predicted memory performance...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933247/a-bayesian-decision-support-tool-for-child-sexual-abuse-assessment-and-investigation
#11
Alessandro Tadei, Johan Pensar, Jukka Corander, Katarina Finnilä, Pekka Santtila, Jan Antfolk
In assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA) allegations, informative background information is often overlooked or not used properly. We therefore created and tested an instrument that uses accessible background information to calculate the probability of a child being a CSA victim that can be used as a starting point in the following investigation. Studying 903 demographic and socioeconomic variables from over 11,000 Finnish children, we identified 42 features related to CSA. Using Bayesian logic to calculate the probability of abuse, our instrument-the Finnish Investigative Instrument of Child Sexual Abuse (FICSA)-has two separate profiles for boys and girls...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932965/best-practice-recommendations-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-helicobacter-pylori-synthesizing-the-guidelines
#12
REVIEW
David J Bjorkman, Matthew Steenblik
Purpose of review Three guidelines on Helicobacter pylori have been published recently with recommendations that differ from past guidelines. In this review, we summarize the Toronto consensus statement, the Maastricht V/Florence consensus report and the American College of Gastroenterology guidelines on H. pylori, comparing and contrasting the recommendations. We also provide a proposed approach integrating the information from all three guidelines. Findings Increasing antibiotic resistance has decreased the effectiveness of past treatment regimens for H...
September 21, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932769/microrna-expression-in-a-phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumour
#13
Darrell Green, Irina Mohorianu, Isabelle Piec, Jeremy Turner, Clare Beadsmoore, Andoni Toms, Richard Ball, John Nolan, Iain McNamara, Tamas Dalmay, William D Fraser
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are a heterogeneous set of bone and soft tissue neoplasms that can cause a number of paraneoplastic syndromes such as tumour induced osteomalacia. The term phosphaturic comes from the common finding that these tumours secrete high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 which causes renal phosphate wasting leading to hypophosphatemia. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are rare and diagnosis is difficult. A very active 68 year old male presented with bone pain and muscle weakness...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932605/is-dementia-screening-of-apparently-healthy-individuals-justified
#14
REVIEW
Larry W Chambers, Saskia Sivananthan, Carol Brayne
Despite efforts to raise awareness and develop guidelines for care of individuals with dementia, reports of poor detection and inadequate management persist. This has led to a call for more identification of people with dementia, that is, screening individuals who may or may not complain of symptoms of dementia in both acute settings and primary care. The following should be considered before recommending screening for dementia among individuals in the general population. Dementia Tests. Low prevalence reduces positive predictive value of tests and screening tests will miss people who have dementia and identify people who do not have dementia in substantial numbers...
2017: Advances in Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932243/sensitive-wavelengths-selection-in-identification-of-ophiopogon-japonicus-based-on-near-infrared-hyperspectral-imaging-technology
#15
Zhengyan Xia, Chu Zhang, Haiyong Weng, Pengcheng Nie, Yong He
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology has increasingly been applied as an analytical tool in fields of agricultural, food, and Traditional Chinese Medicine over the past few years. The HSI spectrum of a sample is typically achieved by a spectroradiometer at hundreds of wavelengths. In recent years, considerable effort has been made towards identifying wavelengths (variables) that contribute useful information. Wavelengths selection is a critical step in data analysis for Raman, NIRS, or HSI spectroscopy. In this study, the performances of 10 different wavelength selection methods for the discrimination of Ophiopogon japonicus of different origin were compared...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932180/hardware-efficient-on-line-learning-through-pipelined-truncated-error-backpropagation-in-binary-state-networks
#16
Hesham Mostafa, Bruno Pedroni, Sadique Sheik, Gert Cauwenberghs
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained using backpropagation are powerful learning architectures that have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various benchmarks. Significant effort has been devoted to developing custom silicon devices to accelerate inference in ANNs. Accelerating the training phase, however, has attracted relatively little attention. In this paper, we describe a hardware-efficient on-line learning technique for feedforward multi-layer ANNs that is based on pipelined backpropagation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931174/improvement-of-radiological-teaching-effects-of-focusing-of-learning-targets-and-increased-consideration-of-learning-theory-knowledge
#17
Stefan Wirth, York-Alexander William, Marco Paolini, Kathrin Wirth, Daniel Maxien, Maximilian Reiser, Martin R Fischer
Purpose Based on evaluation and examination results of students, a necessity for improvement of so far purely instructor-based radiological teaching at the local institution was determined. Aim of our study was to use one out of eight seminars to exemplify adaptation of the teaching concept according to learning theory knowledge, to determine the resulting effects and to interpret them. Materials and methods The institutional review board approved the prospective study of the seminar conversion, which was performed after the end of the winter semester 2015/2016...
September 20, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931022/examining-accident-reports-involving-autonomous-vehicles-in-california
#18
Francesca M Favarò, Nazanin Nader, Sky O Eurich, Michelle Tripp, Naresh Varadaraju
Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931013/a-pre-registered-naturalistic-observation-of-within-domain-mental-fatigue-and-domain-general-depletion-of-self-control
#19
Daniel Randles, Iain Harlow, Michael Inzlicht
Self-control is often believed to operate as if it were a finite, domain-general resource. However, recent attempts to demonstrate this under transparent conditions have failed to yield positive results. In the current study, we monitor two groups of students (N1 = 8,867, N2 = 8,754) over separate 17-week intervals with 24-hour coverage, as they engage in voluntary learning and self-testing using an online program. We use daily behavior to assess whether time-of-day effects support domain-general theories of self-control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930984/high-fat-diet-feeding-and-high-throughput-triacylglyceride-assay-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Soda Balla Diop, Ryan T Birse, Rolf Bodmer
Heart disease is the number one cause of human death worldwide. Numerous studies have shown strong connections between obesity and cardiac malfunction in humans, but more tools and research efforts are needed to better elucidate the mechanisms involved. For over a century, the genetically highly tractable model of Drosophila has been instrumental in the discovery of key genes and molecular pathways that proved to be highly conserved across species. Many biological processes and disease mechanisms are functionally conserved in the fly, such as development (e...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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