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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334617/chains-of-risk-for-alcohol-use-disorder-mediators-of-exposure-to-neighborhood-deprivation-in-early-and-middle-childhood
#1
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Sara L Lönn, Won K Cook, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
Our goal was to test a cascade model to identify developmental pathways, or chains of risk, from neighborhood deprivation in childhood to alcohol use disorder (AUD) in young adulthood. Using Swedish general population data, we examined whether exposure to neighborhood deprivation during early and middle childhood was associated with indicators of social functioning in adolescence and emerging adulthood, and whether these were predictive of AUD. Structural equation models showed exposure to neighborhood deprivation was associated with lower school achievement during adolescence, poor social functioning during emerging adulthood, and the development of AUD for both males and females...
January 12, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334569/assessment-of-prehospital-hemorrhage-and-airway-care-using-a-simulation-model
#2
Mariya E Skube, Seth Witthuhn, Kristine Mulier, Bonnie Boucher, Elizabeth Lusczek, Greg J Beilman
BACKGROUND: The quality of prehospital care impacts patient outcomes. Military efforts have focused on training revision and the creation of high fidelity simulation models to address potentially survivable injuries. We sought to investigate the applicability of models emphasizing hemorrhage control and airway management to a civilian population. METHODS: Prehospital healthcare providers (PHPs) undergoing their annual training were enrolled. A trauma scenario was simulated with two modules: hemorrhage control and airway management...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334552/effect-of-hiv-self-testing-on-the-number-of-sexual-partners-among-female-sex-workers-in-zambia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Catherine Oldenburg, Michael M Chanda, Katrina F Ortblad, Magdalene Mwale, Steven Chongo, Nyambe Kamungoma, Catherine Kanchele, Andrew Fullem, Caitlin Moe, Leah G Barresi, Guy D Harling, Till Bärnighausen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of two health systems approaches to distribute HIV self-tests on the number of female sex workers' client and non-client sexual partners in a randomized controlled trial of HIV self-testing among female sex workers (FSW) in Zambia. DESIGN: Cluster randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Peer educators recruited 965 participants. Peer educator-participant groups were randomized 1:1:1 to one of three arms: 1) delivery of HIV self-tests directly from a peer educator, 2) free facility-based delivery of HIV-self tests in exchange for coupons, or 3) referral to standard HIV testing (standard of care)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334274/an-overview-of-robotic-mechanical-devices-for-post-stroke-thumb-rehabilitation
#4
Marian Suarez-Escobar, Elizabeth Rendon-Velez
PURPOSE: This article aims to clarify the current state-of-the-art of robotic/mechanical devices for post-stroke thumb rehabilitation as well as the anatomical characteristics and motions of the thumb that are crucial for the development of any device that aims to support its motion. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify robotic/mechanical devices for post-stroke thumb rehabilitation. Specific electronic databases and well-defined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria were used for such purpose...
January 15, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334178/factors-associated-with-perceived-accuracy-of-the-undetectable%C3%A2-%C3%A2-untransmittable-slogan-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-implications-for-messaging-scale-up-and-implementation
#5
H Jonathon Rendina, Jeffrey T Parsons
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has shown high efficacy of HIV treatment for reducing the risk of HIV transmission to sexual partners. As the efficacy of treatment as prevention (TasP) has proliferated, a new messaging campaign, Undetectable = Untransmittable, has been gaining popularity. The purpose of this paper was to assess factors associated with the perceived accuracy of this TasP messaging strategy among a large and diverse sample of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in order to inform subsequent efforts at large-scale and implementation of the HIV prevention message...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334045/development-of-a-patient-experience-questionnaire-to-improve-lifestyle-services-in-primary-care
#6
Paula Brauer, Dawna Royall, Anneli Kaethler, Alexandra Mayhew, Maya Israeloff-Smith
Aim We developed a self-report tool to assess patients' experiences with lifestyle services in team-based primary care and pilot tested the questionnaire as part of a lifestyle intervention study to reverse metabolic syndrome. BACKGROUND: Older client satisfaction questionnaires have been generally inadequate for quality improvement purposes, as they have been focused mainly on interpersonal skills of providers and/or in the context of one disease. New approaches to assessing the patient experience of lifestyle programs in primary care are needed and could inform quality improvement efforts over time...
January 15, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333873/survey-regarding-the-05-blood-alcohol-concentration-limit-for-driving-in-the-united-states
#7
Dary D Fiorentino, Brian D Martin
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background: On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board ("NTSB") proposed that states lower the blood alcohol concentration ("BAC") illegal limit from .08 g/dL to .05 g/dL (also referred to as the ".08 law" and "the .05 limit," respectively). In March of 2017, this recommendation was signed into law in the State of Utah. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this survey is to investigate perceptions regarding enforcement of the .05 g/dL BAC limit. METHOD: Opinions of law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and defense attorneys were obtained through a series of questionnaires and focus groups...
January 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333678/supplementary-feeding-as-a-source-of-multiresistant-salmonella-in-endangered-egyptian-vultures
#8
Guillermo Blanco
Wild birds have repeatedly been highlighted as vectors in the dissemination of livestock and human pathogens. Here, the occurrence, serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella were assessed in adult Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus), to test the hypothesis that infection is associated with the consumption of swine carcasses provided at supplementary feeding stations (SFSs). Faeces of year-round resident griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) were also tested to assess whether infection was acquired in the breeding grounds of both species or in the African wintering quarters of Egyptian vultures...
January 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333144/did-creatinine-standardization-give-benefits-to-the-evaluation-of-glomerular-filtration-rate
#9
Laurence Piéroni, Anne-Sophie Bargnoux, Jean-Paul Cristol, Etienne Cavalier, Pierre Delanaye
During the last decade, a lot of efforts has been made to improve the evaluation of renal functions. Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) remains the only valuable test to confirm or confute the status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is recommended by Kidney Disease Global Outcomes guidelines when estimation of GFR is not reliable. However, in routine clinical practice, serum creatinine remains the one of the most prescribed biological parameters and is an undeniable factor, alone or in association with other parameters, of the estimation of GFR...
December 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333088/bone-regeneration-using-silk-hydroxyapatite-hybrid-composite-in-a-rat-alveolar-defect-model
#10
Kyung S Koh, Jong Woo Choi, Eun Jeong Park, Tae Suk Oh
Background: To overcome the limited source of autogenous bone in bone grafting, many efforts have been made to find bone substitutes. The use of hybrid composites of silk and hydroxyapatite to simulate natural bone tissue can overcome the softness and brittleness of the individual components. Methods: Critical-sized, 7 x 4 x 1.5 mm alveolar defects were created surgically in 36 Sprague-Dawley rats. Three treatment groups were tested: an empty defect group (group I), a silk fibrin scaffold group (group II), and a hydroxyapatite-conjugated silk fibrin scaffold group (group III)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332214/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-in-patients-with-non-syndromic-congenital-heart-disease
#11
Silvia Pulignani, Cecilia Vecoli, Andrea Borghini, Ilenia Foffa, Lamia Ait-Alì, Maria Grazia Andreassi
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a genetically heterogeneous disease. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) offers a unique opportunity to sequence multiple genes at lower cost and effort compared to Sanger sequencing. We tested a targeted NGS of a specific gene panel in a relatively large population of non-syndromic CHD patients. The patient cohort comprised 68 CHD patients (45 males; 8.3 ± 1.7 years). Amplicon libraries for 16 CHD-strictly related genes were generated using a TruSeq® Custom Amplicon kit (Illumina, CA) and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform...
January 13, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331802/hair-cortisol-and-work-stress-importance-of-workload-and-stress-model-jdcs-or-eri
#12
Leander van der Meij, Nikkie Gubbels, Jaap Schaveling, Mercedes Almela, Mark van Vugt
Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) are a potential physiological indicator of work related stress. However, studies that tested the relationship between HCC and self-reported stress in a work setting show mixed findings. This may be because few studies used worker samples that experience prolonged stress. Therefore, we compared a high workload sample (n = 81) and a normal workload sample (n = 91) and studied whether HCC was related to: (i) high job demands, low control, and low social support (JDCS model), and (ii) high effort, low reward, and high overcommitment (ERI model)...
December 26, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331707/the-mediation-effect-of-ptsd-perceived-job-stress-and-resilience-on-the-relationship-between-trauma-exposure-and-the-development-of-depression-and-alcohol-use-problems-in-korean-firefighters-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Heyeon Park, Jeong-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Firefighters constitute a high-risk group for depression and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) due to frequent exposure to trauma. Perceived job stress and resilience are powerful factors affecting the occurrence of depression and AUDs; however, research on this subject is scarce. METHODS: We investigated the relationship of perceived job stress and resilience with depression or AUDs in firefighters. A total of 7151 Korean firefighters were included for analysis...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331504/a-systematic-review-of-health-care-provider-perceived-barriers-and-facilitators-to-routine-hiv-testing-in-primary-care-settings-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#14
Kelly Tan, Beth Perry Black
Despite efforts to improve HIV screening and testing, many primary care settings do not follow established guidelines. The purpose of our systematic review was to describe health care providers' perceived barriers and facilitators to testing for HIV at poorly used/novel testing sites in the southeastern United States. PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies of providers' perceived barriers and facilitators to routine HIV testing from January 2016 to April 2017 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331233/a-biophysical-modelling-platform-of-the-cochlear-nucleus-and-other-auditory-circuits-from-channels-to-networks
#15
Paul B Manis, Luke Campagnola
Models of the auditory brainstem have been an invaluable tool for testing hypotheses about auditory information processing and for highlighting the most important gaps in the experimental literature. Due to the complexity of the auditory brainstem, and indeed most brain circuits, the dynamic behavior of the system may be difficult to predict without a detailed, biologically realistic computational model. Despite the sensitivity of models to their exact construction and parameters, most prior models of the cochlear nucleus have incorporated only a small subset of the known biological properties...
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330936/give-me-a-sample-of-air-and-i-will-tell-which-species-are-found-from-your-region-molecular-identification-of-fungi-from-airborne-spore-samples
#16
Nerea Abrego, Veera Norros, Panu Halme, Panu Somervuo, Heini Ali-Kovero, Otso Ovaskainen
Fungi are a megadiverse group of organisms, they play major roles in ecosystem functioning, and are important for human health, food production, and nature conservation. Our knowledge on fungal diversity and fungal ecology is however still very limited, in part because surveying and identifying fungi is time demanding and requires expert knowledge. We present a method that allows anyone to generate a list of fungal species likely to occur in a region of interest, with minimal effort and without requiring taxonomical expertise...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330892/ophthalmic-artery-doppler-prediction-of-preeclampsia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Erkan Kalafat, Ariana Laoreti, Asma Khalil, Fabricio Da Silva Costa, Basky Thilaganathan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of ophthalmic artery Doppler in pregnancy for the prediction of preeclampsia. METHODS: MEDLINE (1947-2017), EMBASE (1974-2017), CINAHL (inception-2017) and the Cochrane Library (inception-2017) were searched for relevant citations without language restrictions. Two reviewers independently selected studies that evaluated the accuracy of ophthalmic artery Doppler to predict the development of preeclampsia and performed data extraction to construct 2 × 2 tables...
January 12, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330596/cognitive-functioning-is-it-all-or-none
#18
Isabel M Introzzi, María M Richard S, Ana Comesaña, Ana García Coni
Under various circumstances, the cognitive system operates in a global manner that is not very precise and barely discriminatory. This form of operating has been described via a general principal that Diamond (Developmental Psychology 45:130-138, 2009) has denominated the All or None Hypothesis. This author has described a set of corollaries derived from this hypothesis that make it possible to verify it in each one of these domains. Although there is evidence of the global and non-discriminate way in which the cognitive system operates in populations of children, to date, there are no studies that have examined whether this mode of operation is also present in populations of adults...
January 12, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329702/ten-factors-to-consider-when-developing-usability-scenarios-and-tasks-for-health-information-technology
#19
Alissa L Russ, Jason J Saleem
The quality of usability testing is highly dependent upon the associated usability scenarios. To promote usability testing as part of electronic health record (EHR) certification, the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) for Health Information Technology requires that vendors test specific capabilities of EHRs with clinical end-users and report their usability testing process - including the test scenarios used - along with the results. The ONC outlines basic expectations for usability testing, but there is little guidance in usability texts or scientific literature on how to develop usability scenarios for healthcare applications...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329446/standardisation-of-the-in-vitro-comet-assay-influence-of-lysis-time-and-lysis-solution-composition-on-the-detection-of-dna-damage-induced-by-x-rays
#20
José M Enciso, Kristine B Gutzkow, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann-Karin Olsen, Adela López de Cerain, Amaya Azqueta
The alkaline comet assay, in vivo and in vitro, is currently used in several areas of research and in regulatory genotoxicity testing. Several efforts have been made in order to decrease the inter-experimental and inter-laboratory variability and increase the reliability of the assay. In this regard, lysis conditions are considered as one of the critical variables and need to be further studied. Here, we tested different times of lysis (from no lysis to 1 week) and two different lysis solutions in human lymphoblast (TK6) cells unexposed or exposed to X-rays...
January 10, 2018: Mutagenesis
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