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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155224/medical-encounter-mental-health-diagnoses-non-fatal-injury-and-polypharmacy-indicators-of-risk-for-accident-death-in-the-us-army-enlisted-soldiers-2004-2009
#1
Lisa Lewandowski-Romps, Heather M Schroeder, Patricia A Berglund, Lisa J Colpe, Kenneth Cox, Keith Hauret, Jeffrey D Hay, Bruce Jones, Roderick J A Little, Colter Mitchell, Michael Schoenbaum, Paul Schulz, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Steven G Heeringa
Accidents are a leading cause of deaths in U.S. active duty personnel. Understanding accident deaths during wartime could facilitate future operational planning and inform risk prevention efforts. This study expands prior research, identifying health risk factors associated with U.S. Army accident deaths during the Afghanistan and Iraq war. Military records for 2004-2009 enlisted, active duty, Regular Army soldiers were analyzed using logistic regression modeling to identify mental health, injury, and polypharmacy (multiple narcotic and/or psychotropic medications) predictors of accident deaths for current, previously, and never deployed groups...
November 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155060/controlling-cell-free-metabolism-through-physiochemical-perturbations
#2
Ashty S Karim, Jacob T Heggestad, Samantha A Crowe, Michael C Jewett
Building biosynthetic pathways and engineering metabolic reactions in cells can be time-consuming due to complexities in cellular metabolism. These complexities often convolute the combinatorial testing of biosynthetic pathway designs needed to define an optimal biosynthetic system. To simplify the optimization of biosynthetic systems, we recently reported a new cell-free framework for pathway construction and testing. In this framework, multiple crude-cell extracts are selectively enriched with individual pathway enzymes, which are then mixed to construct full biosynthetic pathways on the time scale of a day...
November 15, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154965/noninvasive-assessment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-clinical-prediction-rules-and-blood-based-biomarkers
#3
REVIEW
Eduardo Vilar-Gomez, Naga Chalasani
The correct identification of patients at increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis is a critical step in the assessment of NAFLD. Since liver biopsy is invasive, expensive and prone to sampling error, several clinical prediction rules and blood-based biomarkers have been developed as an attractive and affordable alternatives to guide clinicians to identify patients at high risk of NASH and advanced fibrosis. Current biomarkers constitute predictive models (e.g., NAFLD fibrosis score, FIB-4 index and BARD score) or direct measures of inflammation (e...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154612/alexithymia-is-associated-with-a-multidomain-multidimensional-failure-of-interoception-evidence-from-novel-tests
#4
Jennifer Murphy, Caroline Catmur, Geoffrey Bird
Interoception, the perception of the body's internal state, contributes to numerous aspects of higher-order cognition. Several theories suggest a causal role for atypical interoception in specific psychiatric disorders, including a recent claim that atypical interoception represents a transdiagnostic impairment across disorders characterized by reduced perception of one's own emotion (alexithymia). Such theories are supported predominantly by evidence from only one interoceptive domain (cardiac); however, evidence of domain-specific interoceptive ability highlights the need to assess interoception in noncardiac domains...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154574/a-multivariate-dynamic-systems-model-for-psychotherapy-with-more-than-one-client
#5
Jonathan E Butner, Carlene Deits-Lebehn, Alexander O Crenshaw, Travis J Wiltshire, Nicholas S Perry, Robert G Kent de Grey, Jasara N Hogan, Timothy W Smith, Katherine J W Baucom, Brian R W Baucom
The dynamics of the give and take between therapist and client(s) is frequently of interest to therapy process researchers. Characterizing the ways that therapists respond to clients and clients respond to therapists can be challenging in therapeutic encounters involving a single therapist and a single client. The complexity of this challenge increases as the number of people involved in a therapeutic encounter increases not only because there are more people responding to one another but also because the patterns of responding can become more complex...
November 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154527/water-quality-survey-of-splash-pads-after-a-waterborne-salmonellosis-outbreak-tennessee-2014
#6
Joshua L Clayton, Judy Manners, Susan Miller, Craig Shepherd, John R Dunn, William Schaffner, Timothy F Jones
Waterborne outbreaks of salmonellosis are uncommon. The Tennessee Department of Health investigated a salmonellosis outbreak of 10 cases with the only common risk factor being exposure to a single splash pad. Risks included water splashed in the face at the splash pad and no free residual chlorine in the water system. We surveyed water quality and patron behaviors at splash pads statewide. Of the 29 splash pads participating in the water quality survey, 24 (83%) used a recirculating water system. Of the 24, 5 (21%) water samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction and found to be positive for E...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154393/using-participatory-system-dynamics-modeling-to-examine-the-local-hiv-test-and-treatment-care-continuum-in-order-to-reduce-community-viral-load
#7
Margaret R Weeks, Jianghong Li, David Lounsbury, Helena Danielle Green, Maryann Abbott, Marcie Berman, Lucy Rohena, Rosely Gonzalez, Shawn Lang, Heather Mosher
Achieving community-level goals to eliminate the HIV epidemic requires coordinated efforts through community consortia with a common purpose to examine and critique their own HIV testing and treatment (T&T) care system and build effective tools to guide their efforts to improve it. Participatory system dynamics (SD) modeling offers conceptual, methodological, and analytical tools to engage diverse stakeholders in systems conceptualization and visual mapping of dynamics that undermine community-level health outcomes and identify those that can be leveraged for systems improvement...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153630/increasing-hiv-testing-in-inpatient-psychiatry
#8
Martha Shumway, Christina Mangurian, Noah Carraher, Amanda Momenzadeh, Mark Leary, Emily K Lee, James W Dilley
BACKGROUND: People with serious mental illness (SMI) are at elevated risk of HIV infection, but do not receive HIV tests regularly. Inpatient psychiatric admissions provide opportunities for HIV testing. OBJECTIVE: This study retrospectively examined the impact of three sequential interventions designed to increase HIV testing on an acute inpatient psychiatry service: (1) advocacy by an administrative champion, (2) an on-site HIV counselor, and (3) a clinician championing HIV testing...
October 23, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153592/missing-the-mark-for-patient-engagement-mhealth-literacy-strategies-and-behavior-change-processes-in-smoking-cessation-apps
#9
Samantha R Paige, Julia M Alber, Michael L Stellefson, Janice L Krieger
OBJECTIVE: To examine how Transtheoretical Model (TTM)'s processes of change and mHealth literacy strategies are employed in mobile smoking cessation apps. METHODS: A purposive sample of 100 iTunes apps were coded to assess descriptive (price, type, developer, user-rating) and engagement metrics, including processes of change and mHealth literacy strategies (plain language, usability, interactivity). One-way ANOVAs and independent samples t-tests examined associations between descriptive and engagement metrics...
November 12, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153331/reduced-mortality-risk-in-the-recent-era-in-early-stage-hodgkin-lymphoma-patients-treated-with-radiation-therapy-with-or-without-chemotherapy
#10
Chirayu G Patel, Evan Michaelson, Yu-Hui Chen, Barbara Silver, Karen J Marcus, Mary Ann Stevenson, Peter M Mauch, Andrea K Ng
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of treatment changes over time on all-cause mortality risk in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) after radiation therapy. The long-term survivorship of those with HL necessitates quantification of the late risk of mortality from HL and other causes. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted using a multi-institutional database of 1541 stage I and II HL patients treated from 1968 to 2007 with radiation therapy alone or combined-modality treatment...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153171/a-100-year-review-mastitis-detection-management-and-prevention
#11
Pamela L Ruegg
Mastitis is the most frequent disease of dairy cows and has well-recognized detrimental effects on animal wellbeing and dairy farm profitability. Since the beginning of modern dairy farming, producers have sought effective methods to minimize the occurrence of mastitis in their herds. The objective of this paper is to review and highlight important advances in detection, management, and prevention of mastitis that have occurred since the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published in 1917. Initial research efforts were directed at understanding the nature of pathogenic bacteria that were responsible for most intramammary infections...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152853/development-of-the-self-regulated-learning-scale-in-clinical-nursing-practice-for-nursing-students-consideration-of-its-reliability-and-validity
#12
Satoko Iyama, Hitomi Maeda
AIM: This study aimed to develop the Self-Regulated Learning Scale in Clinical Nursing Practice (SRLS-CNP) for the assessment of nursing students and to validate it. METHODS: Questionnaires, including the SRLS-CNP item pool, were sent to 766 students in the second-to-fourth grades of nursing universities in Japan. The analysis involved an exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's α, confirmatory factor analysis, and calculation of the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient...
November 20, 2017: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152705/an-epidemological-study-on-peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-tripoli-region-lybia
#13
REVIEW
Mohamed Dakil Almeshay, Abubaker Gusbi, Ibrahim Eldaghayes, Riadh Mansouri, Mohammed Bengoumi, Abdunaser S Dayhum
A cross‑sectional study was conducted in Libya in 7 areas of Tripoli to determine the seroprevalence of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Virus (PPRV) in small ruminants (sheep and goats) between June and August 2013, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with the infection. The study involved 10% of small ruminant herds with ≥50 animals in the Tripoli region. They were selected randomly (15 herds), and 35 to 58 samples, depending on its size, were collected from each selected herd. Seven‑hundred and twenty‑one serum samples from unvaccinated animals (601 of sheep and 120 of goats) were collected and then tested using cELISA commercial kit in the National Center of Animal Health Laboratory in Tripoli, Libya...
September 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152689/role-of-wnt-signaling-in-epididymal-sperm-maturation
#14
Jin-Mei Cheng, Ji-Xin Tang, Jian Li, Yu-Qian Wang, Xiu-Xia Wang, Yan Zhang, Su-Ren Chen, Yi-Xun Liu
PURPOSE: Spermatozoa maturation, a process required for spermatozoa to acquire progressive motility and the ability to fertilize ova, primarily occurs in the caput and corpus of the epididymis. Despite considerable efforts, the factor(s) promoting epididymal sperm maturation remains unclear. Recently, WNT signaling has been implicated in epididymal sperm maturation. METHODS: To further investigate WNT signaling function in epididymal sperm maturation, we generated Wntless conditional knockout mice (Wls cKO), Wls (flox/flox) ; Lcn5-Cre...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152443/psychiatric-comorbidities-and-outcomes-in-epilepsy-patients-an-insight-from-a-nationwide-inpatient-analysis-in-the-united-states
#15
Rikinkumar S Patel, Ahmed Elmaadawi, Zeeshan Mansuri, Mandeep Kaur, Kaushal Shah, Suhayl Nasr
Background Psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy impose significant burdens on patients and their families. It affects their quality of life and medical care and results in cost increases. This study reports the impact of various psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients regarding hospital outcomes and in-hospital mortality. Methods We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) from years 2013-2014. We identified epilepsy as the primary diagnosis and psychiatric comorbidities, namely, alcohol abuse, depression, drug abuse, and psychosis, using validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD--9--CM) codes...
September 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152308/emergency-blood-transfusion-practices-among-anaemic-children-presenting-to-an-urban-emergency-department-of-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania
#16
Catherine R Shari, Hendry R Sawe, Brittany L Murray, Victor G Mwafongo, Juma A Mfinanga, Michael S Runyon
Background: Severe anaemia contributes significantly to mortality, especially in children under 5 years of age. Timely blood transfusion is known to improve outcomes. We investigated the magnitude of anaemia and emergency blood transfusion practices amongst children under 5 years presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Tanzania. Methods: This prospective observational study enrolled children under 5 years old with anaemia, over a 7-week period in August and September of 2015...
2017: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151673/the-perfectly-matched-layer-absorbing-boundary-for-fluid-structure-interactions-using-the-immersed-finite-element-method
#17
Jubiao Yang, Feimi Yu, Michael Krane, Lucy T Zhang
In this work, a non-reflective boundary condition, the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique, is adapted and implemented in a fluid-structure interaction numerical framework to demonstrate that proper boundary conditions are not only necessary to capture correct wave propagations in a flow field, but also its interacted solid behavior and responses. While most research on the topics of the non-reflective boundary conditions are focused on fluids, little effort has been done in a fluid-structure interaction setting...
January 2018: Journal of Fluids and Structures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151662/associations-between-economic-pressure-and-diabetes-efficacy-in-couples-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Joshua R Novak, Jared R Anderson, Matthew D Johnson, Ann Walker, Allison Wilcox, Virginia L Lewis, David C Robbins
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore dyadic associations between economic pressure and diabetes self-efficacy via emotional distress in patients with type 2 diabetes and their partners. Background: Understanding how economic pressure is associated with successful diabetes management is an important area for research, as couples with type 2 diabetes can incur heavy economic pressures that could likely influence diabetes outcomes. Method: Data from 117 married couples were used to test actor-partner associations using moderated mediation analyses in a structural equation modeling framework...
April 2017: Family Relations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151636/bedaquiline-fallible-hope-against-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Priya Singh, Rashmi Kumari, Rup Lal
Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly bacterial infectious disease caused by intra-cellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). There were an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015 and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB among individuals with HIV. Drug-discovery for its cure is very slow in comparison with the causative organism's fast pace of mutations conferring drug resistance. Moreover, the field of drug-discovery of anti-TB drugs is constantly being challenged by the drug resistant strains of Mtb...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150480/effect-of-time-to-diagnostic-testing-for-breast-cervical-and-colorectal-cancer-screening-abnormalities-on-screening-efficacy-a-modeling-study
#20
Carolyn M Rutter, Jane J Kim, Reinier G S Meester, Brian L Sprague, Emily A Burger, Ann G Zauber, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Nicole G Campos, Chyke A Doubeni, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Stephen Sy, Oguz Alagoz, Natasha Stout, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Douglas A Corley, Anna Tosteson
BACKGROUND: Patients who receive an abnormal cancer screening result require follow-up for diagnostic testing, but the time to follow-up varies across patients and practices. METHODS: We used a simulation study to estimate the change in lifetime screening benefits when time to follow-up for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers was increased. Estimates were based on four independently developed microsimulation models that each simulated the life course of adults eligible for breast (women aged 50-74 years), cervical (women aged 21-65 years), or colorectal (adults aged 50-75 years) cancer screening...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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