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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441240/emergency-department-management-of-bronchiolitis-in-the-united-states
#1
Constance Gong, Terri Byczkowski, Constance McAneney, Monika K Goyal, Todd A Florin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine differences between general and pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) in adherence to the American Academy of Pediatrics bronchiolitis management guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative study of ED visits by infants younger than 24 months with bronchiolitis from 2002 to 2011 using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Diagnostic testing (complete blood counts, radiographs) and medication use (albuterol, corticosteroids, antibiotics and intravenous fluids) in general emergency departments (GEDs) were compared with those in PEDs before and after 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics guideline publication...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441097/antismoking-ads-at-the-point-of-sale-the-influence-of-ad-type-and-context-on-ad-reactions
#2
Annice Kim, James Nonnemaker, Jamie Guillory, Paul Shafer, Sarah Parvanta, John Holloway, Matthew Farrelly
Efforts are underway to educate consumers about the dangers of smoking at the point of sale (POS). Research is limited about the efficacy of POS antismoking ads to guide campaign development. This study experimentally tests whether the type of antismoking ad and the context in which ads are viewed influence people's reactions to the ads. A national convenience sample of 7,812 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 39 conditions. Participants viewed one of the four types of antismoking ads (negative health consequences-graphic, negative social consequences-intended emotive, benefits of quitting-informational, benefits of quitting-graphic) in one of the three contexts (alone, next to a cigarette ad, POS tobacco display)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440708/towards-in-vitro-to-in-vivo-translation-of-monoclonal-antibody-pharmacokinetics-application-of-a-neonatal-fc-receptor-mediated-transcytosis-assay-to-understand-the-interplaying-clearance-mechanisms
#3
Claudia A Castro Jaramillo, Sara Belli, Anne-Christine Cascais, Sherri Dudal, Martin R Edelmann, Markus Haak, Marie-Elise Brun, Michael B Otteneder, Mohammed Ullah, Christoph Funk, Franz Schuler, Silke Simon
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a rapidly growing drug class for which great efforts have been made to optimize certain molecular features in order to achieve the desired pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. One approach is to engineer the interactions of the mAb with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) by introducing specific amino acid sequence mutations, and to assess their effect on the PK profile with in vivo studies. Indeed, FcRn protects mAbs from intracellular degradation, thereby prolongs antibody circulation time in plasma and modulates its systemic clearance...
April 25, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440597/external-quality-assessment-for-laboratory-testing-of-hla-b-15-02-allele-in-relation-to-carbamazepine-therapy
#4
Guigao Lin, Kuo Zhang, Yanxi Han, Jiehong Xie, Jinming Li
BACKGROUND: Due to the significant risk of developing Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), the use of carbamazepine is not recommended in patients carrying the human leukocyte antigen B (HLA-B) *15:02 allele. In an effort to guarantee reliable community-based HLA-B*15:02 testing throughout China, a HLA-B*15:02 genotyping external quality assessment (EQA) program was set up. METHODS: In 2016, 10 genomic DNA samples with known HLA-B*15:02 allele status were sent to 37 laboratories from 16 provinces with a request for routine HLA-B*15:02 screening...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439751/development-of-a-streamlined-work-flow-for-handling-patients-genetic-testing-insurance-authorizations
#5
Wendy R Uhlmann, Katie Schwalm, Victoria M Raymond
Obtaining genetic testing insurance authorizations for patients is a complex, time-involved process often requiring genetic counselor (GC) and physician involvement. In an effort to mitigate this complexity and meet the increasing number of genetic testing insurance authorization requests, GCs formed a novel partnership with an industrial engineer (IE) and a patient services associate (PSA) to develop a streamlined work flow. Eight genetics clinics and five specialty clinics at the University of Michigan were surveyed to obtain benchmarking data...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439532/recruiting-to-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-trials-through-registries
#6
Joshua D Grill
Participant registries are repositories of individuals who have expressed willingness to learn about studies for which they may be eligible. Registries are increasingly being utilized to improve recruitment to preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials, which require large screening efforts to identify adequate numbers of participants who meet enrollment criteria. Recruiting to preclinical AD trials from registries is made more efficient through registry collection of data that permits exclusion of those who will not be eligible and identifies individuals most likely to qualify for trials...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439480/development-of-microsatellite-markers-based-on-expressed-sequence-tags-in-asparagus-cochinchinensis-asparagaceae
#7
Bo-Yun Kim, Han-Sol Park, Jung-Hoon Lee, Myounghai Kwak, Young-Dong Kim
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Transcriptome-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed in Asparagus cochinchinensis (Asparagaceae). Due to its application in traditional medicine, its wild populations are threatened by over-collection even in protected areas, requiring immediate conservation efforts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on transcriptome data of A. cochinchinensis, 96 primer pairs with two to seven alleles per locus were selected for initial validation; of those, 27 primer pairs amplified across all samples, resulting in 15 polymorphic and 12 monomorphic microsatellite markers...
April 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439473/the-behavioral-response-of-prey-fish-to-predators-the-role-of-predator-size
#8
Zhong-Hua Tang, Qing Huang, Hui Wu, Lu Kuang, Shi-Jian Fu
Predation is one of the key factors governing patterns in natural systems, and adjustments of prey behaviors in response to a predator stimulus can have important ecological implications for wild fish. To investigate the effects of predators on the behavior of prey fish and to test whether the possible effects varied with predator size, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and snakehead (Channa argus) (a size-matched predator treatment with a similar body size to prey fish and a larger predator treatment with approximately 2...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439318/bodily-effort-enhances-learning-and-metacognition-investigating-the-relation-between-physical-effort-and-cognition-using-dual-process-models-of-embodiment
#9
Alexander Skulmowski, Günter Daniel Rey
Recent embodiment research revealed that cognitive processes can be influenced by bodily cues. Some of these cues were found to elicit disparate effects on cognition. For instance, weight sensations can inhibit problem-solving performance, but were shown to increase judgments regarding recall probability (judgments of learning; JOLs) in memory tasks. We investigated the effects of physical effort on learning and metacognition by conducting two studies in which we varied whether a backpack was worn or not while 20 nouns were to be learned...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439002/reading-a-400-000-year-record-of-earthquake-frequency-for-an-intraplate-fault
#10
Randolph T Williams, Laurel B Goodwin, Warren D Sharp, Peter S Mozley
Our understanding of the frequency of large earthquakes at timescales longer than instrumental and historical records is based mostly on paleoseismic studies of fast-moving plate-boundary faults. Similar study of intraplate faults has been limited until now, because intraplate earthquake recurrence intervals are generally long (10s to 100s of thousands of years) relative to conventional paleoseismic records determined by trenching. Long-term variations in the earthquake recurrence intervals of intraplate faults therefore are poorly understood...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438204/evidence-on-anti-malarial-and-diagnostic-markets-in-cambodia-to-guide-malaria-elimination-strategies-and-policies
#11
Sochea Phok, Dysoley Lek
BACKGROUND: Understanding Cambodia's anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in 2015 is critical for informing and monitoring strategies and policies as Cambodia moves forward with national efforts to eliminate malaria. The aim of this paper is to present timely and key findings on the public and private sector anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in Cambodia. This evidence can serve as a baseline benchmark for guiding implementation of national strategies as well as other regional initiatives to address malaria elimination activities...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437549/poor-utility-of-gonadal-shielding-for-pediatric-pelvic-radiographs
#12
Mark C Lee, Jessica Lloyd, Matthew J Solomito
Plain pelvic radiographs are commonly used for a variety of pediatric orthopedic disorders. Lead shielding is typically placed over the gonads to minimize radiation exposure to these sensitive tissues. However, misplaced shielding can sabotage efforts to protect patients from excessive radiation exposure either by not covering radiosensitive tissues or by obscuring anatomic areas of interest, prompting repeat radiographic examinations. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of misplaced shielding for pelvic radiographs obtained for pediatric orthopedic evaluation...
April 24, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437547/concordance-of-patient-and-physician-perceptions-of-care-in-an-orthopedic-clinic
#13
Kelly Zhang, Charles Day, Matthew L Iorio
It is essential to study whether physicians' perceptions align with their patients' views, as understanding patient perception leads to superior satisfaction and health outcomes. Previous studies have established differences in physician-patient perceptions, but no studies have been conducted in orthopedic clinics. The authors' primary goal was to evaluate differences in physician and patient perceptions of an orthopedic clinic visit. Their secondary objective was to determine the influence of visit length, demographics, and depression risk-level on patient satisfaction...
April 24, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437223/exercise-and-peripheral-nerve-grafts-as-a-strategy-to-promote-regeneration-after-acute-or-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Catherine C Theisen, Rahul Sachdeva, Scarett Austin, Danielle Kulich, Victoria Kranz, John D Houle
Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury (SCI) routinely are designed to address multiple aspects of the primary and/or secondary damage that occurs. Exercise has a demonstrated efficacy for post-SCI complications such as cardiovascular dysfunction, neuropathic pain and chronic inflammation yet there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which improvements might result from this non-invasive approach. Here we review several of our observations of molecular and cellular changes within the injured spinal cord following acute or delayed exercise regimens that illustrate the potential for positive effects on neuroprotection and rehabilitation...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437011/noise-reduction-and-functional-maps-image-quality-improvement-in-dynamic-ct-perfusion-using-a-new-k-means-clustering-guided-bilateral-filter-kmgb
#15
Francesco Pisana, Thomas Henzler, Stefan Schönberg, Ernst Klotz, Bernhard Schmidt, Marc Kachelrieß
PURPOSE: Dynamic CT perfusion (CTP) consists in repeated acquisitions of the same volume in different time steps, slightly before, during and slightly afterwards the injection of contrast media. Important functional information can be derived for each voxel, which reflect the local hemodynamic properties and hence the metabolism of the tissue. Different approaches are being investigated to exploit data redundancy and prior knowledge for noise reduction of such datasets, ranging from iterative reconstruction schemes to high dimensional filters...
April 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436563/an-in-vitro-system-for-measuring-genotoxicity-mediated-by-human-cyp3a4-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
Michael Fasullo, Julian Freedland, Nicholas St John, Cinzia Cera, Patricia Egner, Matthew Hartog, Xinxin Ding
P450 activity is required to metabolically activate many chemical carcinogens, rendering them highly genotoxic. CYP3A4 is the most abundantly expressed P450 enzyme in the liver, accounting for most drug metabolism and constituting 50% of all hepatic P450 activity. CYP3A4 is also expressed in extrahepatic tissues, including the intestine. However, the role of CYP3A4 in activating chemical carcinogens into potent genotoxins is unclear. To facilitate efforts to determine whether CYP3A4, per se, can activate carcinogens into potent genotoxins, we expressed human CYP3A4 in the DNA-repair mutant (rad4 rad51) strain of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tested the novel, recombinant yeast strain for ability to report CYP3A4-mediated genotoxicity of a well-known genotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 )...
April 24, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435785/impact-of-a-brief-intervention-on-cervical-health-literacy-a-waitlist-control-study-with-jailed-women
#17
Megha Ramaswamy, Jaehoon Lee, Joi Wickliffe, Molly Allison, Amanda Emerson, Patricia J Kelly
Jailed women are four-five times more likely to have had cervical cancer compared to women without criminal justice histories. Previous research has shown that an important contributor to cervical cancer risk, and perhaps lack of follow-up, is incarcerated women's low health literacy about broader reproductive health issues. Little work has been done to address this disparity. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention to improve incarcerated women's cervical health literacy and ultimately address cervical cancer disparities...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435666/health-care-and-social-media-what-patients-really-understand
#18
Kyle Hoedebecke, Lindsey Beaman, Joy Mugambi, Sanam Shah, Marwa Mohasseb, Cheyanne Vetter, Kim Yu, Irini Gergianaki, Emily Couvillon
Background: Low health literacy is associated with decreased patient compliance and worse outcomes - with clinicians increasingly relying on printed materials to lower such risks. Yet, many of these documents exceed recommended comprehension levels. Furthermore, patients look increasingly to social media (SoMe) to answer healthcare questions. The character limits built into Twitter encourage users to publish small quantities of text, which are more accessible to patients with low health literacy. The present authors hypothesize that SoMe posts are written at lower grade levels than traditional medical sources, improving patient health literacy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435484/outcomes-by-mode-of-transport-of-st-elevation-mi-patients-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#19
Edward L Callachan, Alawi A Alsheikh-Ali, Satish Chandrasekhar Nair, Stevan Bruijns, Lee A Wallis
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this multicenter study was to assess differences in demographics, medical history, treatment times, and follow-up status among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who were transported to the hospital by emergency medical services (EMS) or by private vehicle, or were transferred from other medical facilities. METHODS: This multicenter study involved the collection of both retrospective and prospective data from 455 patients admitted to four hospitals in Abu Dhabi...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435354/control-efficacy-of-streptomyces-sp-a501-against-ginseng-damping-off-and-its-antifungal-substance
#20
Nguyen Van Minh, E-Eum Woo, Gang-Seon Lee, Dae-Won Ki, In-Kyoung Lee, Sang-Yeob Lee, Kyeonghun Park, Jaekyeong Song, Jae Eul Choi, Bong-Sik Yun
Ginseng damping-off, caused by the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp., is a critical disease in ginseng seedling. In a continuing effort to find microorganisms with the potential of acting as a biocontrol agent against Rhizoctonia damping-off, we found that a Streptomyces sp. A501 showed significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In field experiment to test the efficacy of Streptomyces sp. A501 in controlling ginseng damping-off, the incidence of damping-off disease was meaningfully reduced when ginseng seeds were soaked in the culture broth of Streptomyces sp...
March 2017: Mycobiology
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