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Effort testing

Samrat Thouta, Garman Lo, Lukas Grajauskas, Tom Claydon
The hERG channel is a key player in repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological blockade of hERG channels depletes the cardiac repolarization reserve, increasing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. The promiscuous nature of drug interactions with hERG presents a therapeutic challenge for drug design and development. Despite considerable effort, the mechanisms of drug binding remain incompletely understood. One proposed mechanism is that high-affinity drug binding preferentially occurs when channels are in the inactivated state...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manan Khan, Nazish Jabeen, Teka Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Jafar Hussain, Asim Ali, Ranjha Khan, Long Jiang, Tao Li, Qizhao Tao, Xingxia Zhang, Hao Yin, Changping Yu, Xiaohua Jiang, Qinghua Shi
There are more than 2300 genes that are predominantly expressed in mouse testes. The role of hundreds of these genes has been studied in mouse spermatogenesis but still there are many genes whose function is unknown. Gene knockout (KO) strategy in mice is widely used for in vivo study of gene function. The present study was designed to explore the function of the four genes: Tex37, Ccdc73, Prss55 and Nxt2, which were evolutionarily conserved in eutherians. We found that these genes had a testis-enriched expression pattern in mice except Nxt2...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
S S Shin, C Modongo, N M Zetola, Q Wang, T Phologolo, M Kestler, A Ho-Foster
OBJECTIVE: To compare daily exposure to tuberculosis (TB) patients between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected health care workers (HCWs), and examine the uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among HIV-infected HCWs in Botswana. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study among HCWs in 30 hospitals and clinics. We determined self-reported exposure frequency to TB patients and HIV status through in-person interviews. HCWs with unknown or negative HIV status were offered rapid HIV testing...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Patrick R J Fortuna, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Dmitry A Ovchinnikov, Ernst Jurgen Wolvetang, Deanne Jeanette Whitworth
Horses are susceptible to a number of neurotropic viruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), which is a pathogen of global significance in both horses and humans. However, there are no in vitro models with which to study infectious neuropathic diseases in the horse. In an effort to redress this we have generated neurons from equine induced pluripotent stem cells (equiPSCs) that express a range of cortical neuron-specific markers, in addition to the membrane-bound ligand Ephrin B3, which plays an important role in axon guidance as well as functioning as the receptor through which henipaviruses, such as Hendra virus, enter mammalian neurons...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Cyril Jacquot, Meghan Delaney
The US blood supply has never been safer. This level of safety depends on a multifaceted approach including blood donor screening, sensitive infectious disease testing, and good manufacturing practice. However, risks remain for transfusion-transmitted infections due to bacterial contamination of platelets and emerging diseases. Thus, ongoing improvements in screening and testing are required. Newer pathogen reduction technologies have shown promise in further ameliorating the safety of the blood supply.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
William H Curley, Peter B Forgacs, Henning U Voss, Mary M Conte, Nicholas D Schiff
Patients with severe brain injury are difficult to assess and frequently subject to misdiagnosis. 'Cognitive motor dissociation' is a term used to describe a subset of such patients with preserved cognition as detected with neuroimaging methods but not evident in behavioural assessments. Unlike the locked-in state, cognitive motor dissociation after severe brain injury is prominently marked by concomitant injuries across the cerebrum in addition to limited or no motoric function. In the present study, we sought to characterize the EEG signals used as indicators of cognition in patients with disorders of consciousness and examine their reliability for potential future use to re-establish communication...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Paulo Gentil, Vítor A Marques, Josaphat P P Neto, Anna C G Santos, James Steele, James P Fisher, Antonio Paoli, Martim Bottaro
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes in movement velocity during resistance training with different loads while the trainees are attempting to move the load at a pre-determined repetition duration. Twenty-one resistance-trained men (age: 25.7 ± 5 years; height: 177.0 ± 7.2 cm; mass: 85.4 ± 13.56 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants performed two tests sessions. The first to determine 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load, and the second to evaluate velocity loss during a set to failure performed at 75% and 50% of 1RM using a 2 second concentric and 2 second eccentric repetition duration, controlled by a mobile app metronome...
March 21, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Songhao Li, Young Hyun Kim, Wing Li, Meng C Lin, Clayton J Radke
SIGNIFICANCE: A simple methodology is presented to quantify basal tear production with a modified Schirmer-tear test. PURPOSE: We introduce a simple clinical procedure to measure quantitative basal tear-production flowrates, QL, from a modified Schirmer-tear test (STT). METHODS: Eight healthy subjects aged at least 18 years underwent modified STTs on both eyes for two visits each. Schirmer strips were sheathed with transparent tape before insertion...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Batool Tirgari, Leili Mirshekari, Mansooreh Azzizadeh Forouzi
BACKGROUND: Pressure injuries are the third most expensive condition after cancer and cardiovascular disease. Nurses are responsible for the direct and continuous care, treatment, and prevention of pressure injuries. To achieve optimal quality care, nursing knowledge and attitudes must be based on the best scientific evidence. This study aimed to examine the knowledge and attitudes of nurses working in intensive care units of hospitals affiliated with Zahedan Medical Sciences University regarding the prevention of pressure injuries...
April 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Jorge Valencia, Pablo Ryan, Alejandro Alvaro-Meca, Jesus Troya, Jorge Gutierrez, Guillermo Cuevas, Santiago Moreno
OBJECTIVES: Current harm reduction strategies will probably remain insufficient to eliminate HIV transmission among drug users. We aimed to estimate the HIV seroconversion rate among drug users followed at a Harm Reduction Unit (HRU) to evaluate the potential use of PrEP as a prevention tool. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of drug users have been followed at a HRU in Madrid between 2013 and 2016. Individuals who were HIV-negative at baseline and who had at least one re-test for HIV infection were eligible...
March 20, 2018: AIDS
Bruno Gonfiotti, Sandro Paci
During the last 40 years, many studies have been carried out to investigate the different phenomena occurring during a Severe Accident (SA) in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Such efforts have been supported by the execution of different experimental campaigns, and the integral Phébus FP tests were probably some of the most important experiments in this field. In these tests, the degradation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel bundle was investigated employing different control rod materials and burn-up levels in strongly or weakly oxidizing conditions...
March 2018: Heliyon
Lara Bieler, Lukas Grassner, Pia Zaunmair, Christina Kreutzer, Lukas Lampe, Eugen Trinka, Julia Marschallinger, Ludwig Aigner, Sebastien Couillard-Despres
Following spinal cord injury, severe deficits result from damages to ascending and descending tracts, such as the corticospinal tract (CST) which is highly relevant for the motor execution in humans. Unfortunately, no curative treatment is available and intensive efforts are deployed in animal models, such as the CST transection model, to identify interventions providing functional regeneration after spinal cord injury. The CatWalk XT is a system for multi-parameter gait analysis of voluntary locomotion. In this study, the performance of the CatWalk XT for monitoring of functional deficits associated with dorsal CST lesion in rats was compared to skilled locomotion tests...
February 2018: Heliyon
Christopher J Smith, Russell J Buzalko, Nathan Anderson, Joel Michalski, Jordan Warchol, Stephen Ducey, Chad E Branecki
Introduction: Miscommunication during inter-unit handoffs between emergency and internal medicine physicians may jeopardize patient safety. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of a structured communication strategy on the quality of admission handoffs. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods, pre-test/post-test study at a 560-bed academic health center with 60,000 emergency department (ED) patient visits per year. Admission-handoff best practices were integrated into a modified SBAR format, resulting in the Situation, Background, Assessment, Responsibilities & Risk, Discussion & Disposition, Read-back & Record (SBAR-DR) model...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Daniel G Miller, Priyanka Vakkalanka, Mark L Moubarek, Sangil Lee, Nicholas M Mohr
Introduction: This study investigated whether a 9.6% decrease in the use of head computed tomography (HCT) for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a chief complaint of headache was followed by an increase in proportions of death or missed intracranial diagnosis during the 22.5-month period following each index ED visit. Methods: We reviewed the electronic medical records of all patients sampled during a quality improvement effort in which the aforementioned decrease in HCT use had been observed...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marco Janko, Michael Wiertlewski, Yon Visell
When we touch an object, complex frictional forces are produced, aiding us in perceiving surface features that help to identify the object at hand, and also facilitating grasping and manipulation. However, even during controlled tactile exploration, sliding friction forces fluctuate greatly, and it is unclear how they relate to the surface topography or mechanics of contact with the finger. We investigated the sliding contact between the finger and different relief surfaces, using high-speed video and force measurements...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amanda Rodrigues Vieira, Nayara Salles, Marco Borges, Theo Mota
For more than a century, visual learning and memory has been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals can hardly be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of that, different efforts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performances remain considerably poorer than those obtained in free-flying animals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Marcin Kubik, Alicja Dąbrowska-Kugacka, Ewa Lewicka, Ludmiła Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz, Grzegorz Raczak
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a unique inherited cardiomyopathy, characterized by an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events such as heart failure, arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death. Although in comparison to dilated cardiomyopathy, the number of clinical studies concerning LVNC is still small, it is quickly increasing, which reflects a huge effort of the cardiovascular society to develop data to improve understanding of this cardiomyopathy. However, the predictors of adverse outcomes in LVNC are not well established...
March 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Miranda E Spindel, Matthew R Krecic, Margaret R Slater, Nicole Vigil
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Jack W O'Sullivan, Carl Heneghan, Rafael Perera, Jason Oke, Jeffrey K Aronson, Brian Shine, Ben Goldacre
Efforts to reduce healthcare costs have led to the development of metrics to identify unwarranted variation in care. Previous work assessing diagnostic tests is limited, despite their substantial contribution to expenditure. We explored C-reactive Protein (CRP) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) tests ordered across Oxfordshire NHS General Practices, and the proportion of tests that yielded an abnormal result, and identified practices that had a proportion of abnormal CRP and ESR results 3 standard deviations below the mean...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
J A McDougall, C G Helmick, S S Lim, J M Johnston, J R Gaddy, C Gordon, E D Ferucci
Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate differences in the diagnosis and management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by primary care and specialist physicians in a population-based registry. Methods This study includes individuals from the 2009 Indian Health Service lupus registry population with a diagnosis of SLE documented by either a primary care provider or specialist. SLE classification criteria, laboratory testing, and medication use at any time during the course of disease were determined by medical record abstraction...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
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