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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749247/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-a-community-based-hygiene-promotion-program-in-a-rural-salvadoran-setting
#1
Elizabeth L Andrade, Jeffrey B Bingenheimer, Mark C Edberg, Kathryn L Zoerhoff, Emily M Putzer
There has been considerable progress in the reduction of diarrheal disease among children under five through health and nutrition interventions. However, diarrheal disease is still the second leading cause of child death worldwide. There is growing recognition that comprehensive hygiene behavior improvements should be integral to prevention efforts, but the effectiveness of different approaches for hygiene promotion is still being established. Hygiene risk practices vary across settings, suggesting that prevention strategies should be adapted to local contexts using community-based approaches...
July 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749156/employee-conscientiousness-agreeableness-and-supervisor-justice-rule-compliance-a-three-study-investigation
#2
Jason L Huang, Russell Cropanzano, Andrew Li, Ping Shao, Xin-An Zhang, Yuhui Li
Researchers have paid limited attention to what makes organizational authority figures decide to treat their employees either justly or unjustly. Drawing from the actor-focused model of justice, as well as the stereotype content model, we argue that employee conscientiousness and agreeableness can impact the extent to which supervisors adhere to normative rules for distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice, as a result of supervisors' evaluations of their employees' effort and their liking of the employees...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749151/on-the-boundary-conditions-of-effort-losses-and-effort-gains-in-action-teams
#3
Joachim Hüffmeier, Michael Filusch, Jens Mazei, Guido Hertel, Andreas Mojzisch, Stefan Krumm
While people's willingness to work hard can be reduced in teams (i.e., effort losses in teams as compared with individual work), it is less recognized that teamwork can also stimulate additional efforts (i.e., effort gains). Building on and extending existing theory, we (a) suggest an integration of these two research streams, and (b) provide evidence for team-related effort gains in action teams. In a first study, we tested our predictions by reanalyzing a field data set of 302,576 swimming performances in individual and relay races (Neugart & Richiardi, 2013)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748753/investigating-the-practices-of-patients-and-hospitals-in-treatment-of-diabetes-a-survey-questionnaire-for-arabic-speaking-countries
#4
Irfan Anjum Manarvi, Nader Mahr Matta, Abdulrahman Yassin
Diabetes is one of the most chronic diseases prevalent in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Its number of patients have increased in past few decades. Best efforts to provide world class treatments to patients through public and private hospitals are in hand. However, feedback of practices observed by patients and hospitals is not being achieved to assess the treatment efficacy. Absence of an elaborated questionnaire in Arabic language is a major hurdle to seek information from patients' due to their limited knowledge of English language in which most of the survey questionnaire exist in internationally published literature...
July 27, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748599/a-comparison-of-statistical-methods-for-the-study-of-etiologic-heterogeneity
#5
Emily C Zabor, Colin B Begg
Cancer epidemiologic research has traditionally been guided by the premise that certain diseases share an underlying etiology, or cause. However, with the rise of molecular and genomic profiling, attention has increasingly focused on identifying subtypes of disease. As subtypes are identified, it is natural to ask the question of whether they share a common etiology or in fact arise from distinct sets of risk factors. In this context, epidemiologic questions of interest include (1) whether a risk factor of interest has the same effect across all subtypes of disease and (2) whether risk factor effects differ across levels of each individual tumor marker of which the subtypes are comprised...
July 26, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748216/t-cells-targeting-neuromyelitis-optica-autoantigen-aquaporin-4-cause-paralysis-and-visual-system-injury
#6
COMMENT
Andrés Cruz-Herranz, Sharon A Sagan, Raymond A Sobel, Ari J Green, Scott S Zamvil
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-specific antibodies are instrumental in promoting central nervous system (CNS) tissue injury in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), yet evidence indicates that AQP4-specific T cells also have a pivotal role in NMO pathogenesis. Although considerable effort has been devoted to creation of animal models to study how AQP4-specific T cells and antibodies may cooperate in development of both clinical and histologic opticospinal inflammatory disease, the initial attempts were unsuccessful. Recently, it was discovered that T cells from AQP4-deficient (AQP4(-/-)) mice recognize distinct AQP4 epitopes that were not identified previously in wild-type (WT) mice, and that donor Th17 cells from AQP4(-/-) mice that target those novel epitopes could cause paralysis and visual system injury associated with opticospinal inflammation in WT recipient mice...
May 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748092/a-focused-ultrasound-treatment-system-for-moving-targets-part-i-generic-system-design-and-in-silico-first-stage-evaluation
#7
Michael Schwenke, Jan Strehlow, Daniel Demedts, Sabrina Haase, Diego Barrios Romero, Sven Rothlübbers, Caroline von Dresky, Stephan Zidowitz, Joachim Georgii, Senay Mihcin, Mario Bezzi, Christine Tanner, Giora Sat, Yoav Levy, Jürgen Jenne, Matthias Günther, Andreas Melzer, Tobias Preusser
BACKGROUND: Focused ultrasound (FUS) is entering clinical routine as a treatment option. Currently, no clinically available FUS treatment system features automated respiratory motion compensation. The required quality standards make developing such a system challenging. METHODS: A novel FUS treatment system with motion compensation is described, developed with the goal of clinical use. The system comprises a clinically available MR device and FUS transducer system...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747810/differences-in-social-preference-between-the-sexes-during-ontogeny-drive-segregation-in-a-precocial-species
#8
Mark A Whiteside, Jayden O van Horik, Ellis J G Langley, Christine E Beardsworth, Philippa R Laker, Joah R Madden
ABSTRACT: Hypotheses for why animals sexually segregate typically rely on adult traits, such as differences in sexual roles causing differential habitat preferences, or size dimorphism inducing differences in diet or behaviour. However, segregation can occur in juveniles before such roles or size dimorphism is well established. In young humans, leading hypotheses suggest that (1) sexes differ in their activity and the synchronisation of behaviour causes segregation and (2) sexes separate in order to learn and maximise future reproductive roles...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747697/live-reef-fish-displaying-physiological-evidence-of-cyanide-poisoning-are-still-traded-in-the-eu-marine-aquarium-industry
#9
Marcela C M Vaz, Valdemar I Esteves, Ricardo Calado
The illegal use of cyanide poisoning to supply live reef fish to several markets is one of the main threats to coral reefs conservation in the Indo-Pacific. The present study performed the first survey ever monitoring the marine aquarium trade in the EU for the presence of physiological evidence consistent with cyanide poisoning in live reef fish. This survey was also the first one worldwide employing a non-invasive sampling approach. Nearly 15% of the fish screened displayed physiological evidence of being illegally collected using cyanide poisoning (by testing positive for the presence of the thiocyanate anion (SCN(-)) in their urine)...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747489/a-novel-selective-inverse-agonist-of-the-cb2-receptor-as-a-radiolabeled-tool-compound-for-kinetic-binding-studies
#10
Andrea Martella, Huub Sijben, Arne Rufer, Juergen Fingerle, Uwe Grether, Christoph Ullmer, Thomas Hartung, Ad IJzerman, Mario van der Stelt, Laura Heitman
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) and in particular the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R), raised the interest of many medicinal chemistry programs for its therapeutic relevance in several (patho)physiological processes. However, the the physico-chemical properties of tool compounds for CB2R (e.g. the radioligand [(3)H]CP55,940) are not optimal, despite the research efforts in developing effective drugs to target this system. At the same time, the importance of drug-target binding kinetics is growing, as the kinetic binding profile of a ligand may provide important insights for the resulting in vivo efficacy...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747153/temporal-and-spatial-analysis-of-psittacosis-in-association-with-poultry-farming-in-the-netherlands-2000-2015
#11
Lenny Hogerwerf, Manon M C Holstege, Elisa Benincà, Frederika Dijkstra, Wim van der Hoek
BACKGROUND: Human psittacosis is a highly under diagnosed zoonotic disease, commonly linked to psittacine birds. Psittacosis in birds, also known as avian chlamydiosis, is endemic in poultry, but the risk for people living close to poultry farms is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the temporal and spatial patterns of human psittacosis infections and identify possible associations with poultry farming in the Netherlands. METHODS: We analysed data on 700 human cases of psittacosis notified between 01-01-2000 and 01-09-2015...
July 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747142/development-of-the-first-who-lentiviral-vector-standard-towards-the-production-control-and-standardisation-of-lentivirus-based-gene-therapy-products
#12
Yuan Zhao, Hannah Stepto, Christian K Schneider
Gene therapy is a rapidly evolving field; so far, there have been more than 2400 gene therapy products in clinical trials and four products on the market (http://www.abedia.com/wiley/vectors.php). A prerequisite for producing gene therapy products is ensuring their quality and safety. This requires appropriately controlled and standardized production and testing procedures that result in consistent safety and efficacy. Assuring the quality and safety of lentivirus based gene therapy products in particular presents a great challenge because they are cell-based multi-gene products which include viral and therapeutic proteins as well as modified cells...
July 26, 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747076/a-global-incremental-development-method-for-a-web-based-prostate-cancer-treatment-decision-aid-and-usability-testing-in-a-dutch-clinical-setting
#13
Maarten Cuypers, Romy Ed Lamers, Paul Jm Kil, Regina The, Klemens Karssen, Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse, Marieke de Vries
Many new decision aids are developed while aspects of existing decision aids could also be useful, leading to a sub-optimal use of resources. To support treatment decision-making in prostate cancer patients, a pre-existing evidence-based Canadian decision aid was adjusted to Dutch clinical setting. After analyses of the original decision aid and routines in Dutch prostate cancer care, adjustments to the decision aid structure and content were made. Subsequent usability testing (N = 11) resulted in 212 comments...
July 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746731/towards-improved-oligonucleotide-therapeutics-through-faster-target-binding-kinetics
#14
Mirjam Menzi, Bettina Wild, Ugo Pradère, Andreas Brunschweiger, Anna L Malinowska, Helen Louise Lightfoot, Jonathan Hall
When used as inhibitors of gene expression in vivo, oligonucleotides require modification of their structures to boost their binding affinity for complementary target RNAs. To date, hundreds of modifications have been designed and tested but few have proven to be useful. Among those investigated are mono- and polyamino-groups. These are positively charged at physiological pH and have been appended to oligonucleotides in an effort to reduce electrostatic repulsion during hybridization to RNAs, but have generally shown relatively minor benefits to binding...
July 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746520/relationship-between-cardiometabolic-parameters-and-elevated-resting-and-effort-heart-rate-in-schoolchildren
#15
Cristiane Fernanda da Silva, Miria Suzana Burgos, Priscila Tatiana da Silva, Leandro Tibiriçá Burgos, Letícia Welser, Ana Paula Sehn, Jorge André Horta, Elza Daniel de Mello, Cézane Priscila Reuter
Background: Little has been studied on heart rate and its relationship with metabolic disorders. Objective: To identify possible association between heart rate (HR) and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 2.098 subjects, aged between 7 and 17 years. The variables evaluated were: HR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), double-product (DP), myocardial oxygen consumption (mVO2), lipids, glucose and uric acid levels, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)...
July 20, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746333/transmission-dynamics-of-co-endemic-plasmodium-vivax-and-p-falciparum-in-ethiopia-and-prevalence-of-antimalarial-resistant-genotypes
#16
Eugenia Lo, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Jennifer Nguyen, Estifanos Kebede, Endalew Zemene, Sisay Getachew, Kora Tushune, Daibin Zhong, Guofa Zhou, Beyene Petros, Guiyun Yan
Ethiopia is one of the few African countries where Plasmodium vivax is co-endemic with P. falciparum. Malaria transmission is seasonal and transmission intensity varies mainly by landscape and climate. Although the recent emergence of drug resistant parasites presents a major issue to malaria control in Ethiopia, little is known about the transmission pathways of parasite species and prevalence of resistant markers. This study used microsatellites to determine population diversity and gene flow patterns of P...
July 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745809/rural-urban-differentials-in-the-rates-and-factors-associated-with-post-neonatal-mortality-in-nigeria-evidence-from-the-2013-national-household-survey
#17
Emmanuel Olorunleke Adewuyi, Samuel John Adama, Kazeem Adefemi, Olufemi Abayomi Akintunde, Lydia Babatunde Bulndi
BACKGROUND: The burden of post-neonatal mortality remains considerably high in Nigeria. This study examines the rural-urban differences in post-neonatal mortality rates (PNMR) and associated factors in Nigeria. METHODS: Dataset from the 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey, disaggregated by rural-urban residence, was analyzed. PNMR was reported using frequency tabulation, whereas, factors associated were first evaluated using Chi-Square test and further examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis...
July 26, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744716/predictors-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-prior-to-implementation-of-a-large-pragmatic-trial-in-federally-qualified-health-centers
#18
Amanda F Petrik, Thuy Le, Erin Keast, Jennifer Rivelli, Keshia Bigler, Beverly Green, William M Vollmer, Gloria Coronado
Colorectal cancer screening can prevent cancer deaths. Federally qualified health centers serve a unique patient population that often is not screened. Knowing who in this environment is getting screened via fecal testing and via colonoscopy can assist in tailoring intervention to raise rates of colorectal cancer screening. We examined patient-level and neighborhood-level characteristics associated with being up to date with colorectal cancer screening guidelines. We also examined associations between these factors and being screened with a fecal test...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744665/perceived-discrimination-and-health-related-quality-of-life-gender-differences-among-older-african-americans
#19
Sheryl L Coley, Carlos F Mendes de Leon, Earlise C Ward, Lisa L Barnes, Kimberly A Skarupski, Elizabeth A Jacobs
PURPOSE: Emerging data suggest that African-American women may fare worse than African-American men in health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL). Perceived discrimination is an important contributor to poor health overall among African Americans, but few studies examined the intersecting effects of perceived discrimination and gender in explaining HRQOL disparities. We investigated gender differences in HRQOL and tested whether perceived discrimination accounted for these differences. METHODS: We examined data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project in which 5652 African-American adults aged 65 and older completed structured questionnaires about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, HRQOL, perceived discrimination, and health-related variables...
July 25, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743680/internet-based-assessment-of-oncology-health-care-professional-learning-style-and-optimization-of-materials-for-web-based-learning-controlled-trial-with-concealed-allocation
#20
Christine M Micheel, Ingrid A Anderson, Patricia Lee, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Katy Justiss, Nunzia B Giuse, Fei Ye, Sheila V Kusnoor, Mia A Levy
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine has resulted in increasing complexity in the treatment of cancer. Web-based educational materials can help address the needs of oncology health care professionals seeking to understand up-to-date treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess learning styles of oncology health care professionals and to determine whether learning style-tailored educational materials lead to enhanced learning. METHODS: In all, 21,465 oncology health care professionals were invited by email to participate in the fully automated, parallel group study...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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