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Mark Haden, John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: MDMB-CHMICA (methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist that has been detected in several recreational drug products in Europe since August 2014. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the prevalence of use, availability, and desired and adverse effects of MDMB-CHMICA. METHODS: Data were collated from published scientific literature, and systematic searches were conducted of publically available Internet sources (the "gray literature"), including websites offering to sell MDMB-CHMICA and Internet discussion forums featuring user reports...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Bryce Pardo, Peter Reuter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Addiction
Jenny L Wiley, Julie A Marusich, Brian F Thomas
Originally developed as research tools for use in structure-activity relationship studies, synthetic cannabinoids contributed to significant scientific advances in the cannabinoid field. Unfortunately, a subset of these compounds was diverted for recreational use beginning in the early 2000s. As these compounds were banned, they were replaced with additional synthetic cannabinoids with increasingly diverse chemical structures. This chapter focuses on integration of recent results with those covered in previous reviews...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Alicia G Lydecker, Abhisheak Sharma, Christopher R McCurdy, Bonnie A Avery, Kavita M Babu, Edward W Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Christian Brinch Mollerup, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Marie Mardal, Kristian Linnet
High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is widely used for the drug screening of biological samples in clinical and forensic laboratories. With the continuous addition of new psychoactive substances (NPS), keeping such methods updated is challenging. HRMS allows for combined targeted and non-targeted screening; first, peaks are identified by software algorithms, and identifications are based on reference standard data. Remaining unknown peaks are attempted identified with in silico and literature data. However, several thousand peaks remain where most are unidentifiable or uninteresting in drug screening...
October 17, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jonas Schaffrath, Mario Schmitz-Buhl, Ali Kemal Gün, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
Medical and psychological care of refugees is among the most important current challenges in German health politics. Work with patients from this heterogeneous group who have often faced severe stress before, during and after their migration is currently based on a thin data foundation. Based on introductory information on current knowledge concerning psychiatric morbidity of refugees this article presents the psychiatric care of refugees at LVR Clinics Cologne - a psychiatric specialty hospital situated in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Bikram Subedi, Keshava Balakrishna, Derrick Ian Joshua, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is barely studied in India despite being one of the largest global producers and consumers of pharmaceuticals. In this study, 29 pharmaceuticals and six metabolites were determined in sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Udupi (STPU: population served ∼150,000) and Mangalore (STPM: population served ∼450,000); the measured mean concentrations ranged from 12 to 61,000 ng/L and 5.0 to 31,000 ng/L, respectively. Atorvastatin (the most prescribed antihypercholesterolemic in India), mefenamic acid, and paraxanthine were found for the first time in wastewater in India at the mean concentrations of 395 ng/L, 1100 ng/L, and 13,000 ng/L, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Catherine Shaw, Brendan McCormack, Carmel M Hughes
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in how culture may affect the quality of healthcare services, and previous research has shown that 'treatment culture'-of which there are three categories (resident centred, ambiguous and traditional)-in a nursing home may influence prescribing of psychoactive medications. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore and understand treatment culture in prescribing of psychoactive medications for older people with dementia in nursing homes...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Fabien Cohen
This article reminds you that, whatever the psychoactive substance in question, it is not one that has repercussions on the oral health of its user. This affects both the tooth, the periodontal and oral mucosa. Drug addicts, especially those engaged in polydrug use, represent the population at the largest risk for oral cancer. Of all the factors, smoking is by far the largest risk. The alcohol has a synergistic effect with the tobacco, so that the combined effect is more than multiplied. Preventing risks of these products is possible through good oral hygiene and lifestyle, preventive care and followed by a regular dentist...
October 10, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Pierre M Geyer, Matthew C Hulme, Joseph P B Irving, Paul D Thompson, Ryan N Ashton, Robert J Lee, Lucy Johnson, Jack Marron, Craig E Banks, Oliver B Sutcliffe
The prevalence of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) in forensic casework has increased prominently in recent years. This has given rise to significant legal and analytical challenges in the identification of these substances. The requirement for validated, robust and rapid testing methodologies for these compounds is obvious. This study details the analysis of 13 synthesised diphenidine derivatives encountered in casework using presumptive testing, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 15, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yuri P Springer, Roy Gerona, Erich Scheunemann, Sarah L Shafer, Thomas Lin, Samuel D Banister, Michael P Cooper, Louisa J Castrodale, Michael Levy, Jay C Butler, Joseph B McLaughlin
In July 2015, personnel in the Alaska Division of Public Health's Section of Epidemiology became aware of an increase in the number of patients being treated in Anchorage hospital emergency departments for adverse reactions associated with use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). SCs are a chemically diverse class of designer drugs that bind to the same cannabinoid receptors as tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis. A public health investigation was initiated to describe clinical outcomes, characterize the outbreak, and identify SC chemicals circulating in Anchorage...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Roberta Silvestrin, Felipe Ornell, Vinícius Roglio, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are associated with the increased risk of driving under the influence (DUI), but little is known about crack-cocaine and its relationship with road traffic crashes (RTC). METHOD: A multicenter sample of 765 crack-cocaine users was recruited in six Brazilian capitals in order to estimate the prevalence of DUI and RTC involvement. Legal, psychiatric, and drug-use aspects related with traffic safety were evaluated using the Addiction Severity Index - 6th version (ASI-6) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Andrea E Steuer, Elena Williner, Sandra Staeheli, Thomas Kraemer
Increasing numbers of new psychoactive substances (NPS) among them fentanyl derivatives has been reported by the European monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction (EMCDDA). Butyrfentanyl is a new fentanyl derivative whose potency ratio was found to be seven compared to morphine and 0.13 compared to fentanyl. Several case reports on butyrfentanyl intoxications have been described. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties including its metabolism. However, knowledge of metabolism is essential for analytical detection in clinical and forensic toxicology...
October 13, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jadwiga Nędza, Renata Polaniak, Rafał J Bułdak, Milena Majchrzak, Joanna Margasiń-Ska, Marcin Rojkiewicz, Rafał Celiński, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok
Recently, there has been an increase in the consumption of designer drugs, substances aimed at producing psychoactive, energizing, euphoric or anesthetic effects. Designer drugs are substitutes of actual narcotics, whose possession is banned under Polish law according to the Act of 29 July 2005. The latest reports suggest that the number of synthetic psychoactive substances is increasing. In the span of 2012, a total of 28 new synthetic cannabinoids were discovered in member states of the European Union. Synthetic psychoactive substances appear in different forms on the market: tablets (often very colourful and interestingly-shaped), seeds, dried product (sprayed with synthetic substance and redried), crystals or powder...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Roger W Byard, Matthew Cox, Peter Stockham
The body of a 19-year-old male was found apparently concealed underneath bushes with recent head and facial trauma, and multiple superficial abrasions. Subsequently, it was discovered that the decedent had been running into objects and buildings following the ingestion the evening before of what was thought to be lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Blood staining of a nearby wall close to where the body was lying was in keeping with the described behavior. Toxicology revealed 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy), in addition to two only recently available drugs 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine, (25B-NBOMe), and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-butanone, (MDPBP)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Inge Van Schipstal, Swasti Mishra, Moritz Berning, Hayley Murray
This article focuses on how recreational drug users in the Netherlands and in online communities navigate the risks and reduce the harms they associate with psychoactive drug use. To do so, we examined the protective practices they invent, use, and share with their immediate peers and with larger drug experimenting communities online. The labor involved in protective practices and that which ultimately informs harm reduction from below follows three interrelated trajectories: (1) the handling and sharing of drugs to facilitate hassle-free drug use, (2) creating pleasant and friendly spaces that we highlight under the practices of drug use attunements, and (3) the seeking and sharing of information in practices to spread the good high...
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Sandra Petersen, Susan Houston, Huanying Qin, Corey Tague, Jill Studley
BACKGROUND: Behavioral problems may affect individuals with dementia, increasing the cost and burden of care. Pet therapy has been known to be emotionally beneficial for many years. Robotic pets have been shown to have similar positive effects without the negative aspects of traditional pets. Robotic pet therapy offers an alternative to traditional pet therapy. OBJECTIVE: The study rigorously assesses the effectiveness of the PARO robotic pet, an FDA approved biofeedback device, in treating dementia-related symptoms...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Christoph Heier, Hao Xie, Robert Zimmermann
Ethanol is a widely used psychoactive drug whose chronic abuse is associated with organ dysfunction and disease. Although the prevalent metabolic fate of ethanol in the human body is oxidation a smaller fraction undergoes nonoxidative metabolism yielding ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolites persist in tissues and body fluids for much longer than ethanol itself and represent biomarkers for the assessment of ethanol intake in clinical and forensic settings...
October 6, 2016: IUBMB Life
Gustavo C Oliveira, Alexandre M Valença, Talvane M de Moraes, Mauro V Mendlowicz, Miles C Forrest, Fred F Batista, Gabriella A Mendes, Tiago N Lima, Vinicius R Gonçalves, Kátia Mecler
Objectives: To evaluate factors related to dangerousness cessation at the end of involuntary commitment based on an analysis of expert reports. In light of the current legal requirement of dangerousness cessation as a pre-requisite for prison or internment release of individuals subjected to the safety measure, we sought elements to reflect on the practice of expert examiners in charge of making this decision. Methods: The authors revised 224 expert psychiatric dangerousness cessation reports released 2011 through 2014 and collected data for a statistical analysis...
September 29, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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