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Ahmed S Sultan, Mona A Marie, Salah A Sheweita
Studies have emphasized an antineoplastic effect of the non-psychoactive, phyto-cannabinoid, Cannabidiol (CBD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying its antitumor activity is not fully elucidated. Herein, we have examined the effect of CBD on two different human breast cancer cell lines: the ER-positive, well differentiated, T-47D and the triple negative, poor differentiated, MDA-MB-231 cells. In both cell lines, CBD inhibited cell survival and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner as observed by MTT assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and ELISA apoptosis assay...
June 22, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
G Fond, A Bourbon, P Auquier, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Lançon, L Boyer
Medical student wellness has emerged as an important issue in medical education. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gender influence on psychiatric and/or psychological follow-up, psychotropic and illicit drug consumption, addictive behaviors, quality of life and motives for consumption in a large multicentric national sample of medical students. METHODS: Medical students of the 35 French Medicine faculties were recruited through mailing lists and social networks between December 2016 and May 2017 and fulfilled Internet anonymized questionnaires...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Eric Janssen, Stanislas Spilka, Olivier Le Nézet, Jalpa Shah
Little is known about the use of non-medical cognitive enhancers (NCEs) in the general population, and even less among youth. The study utilises a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of adolescents attending high schools to provide a comprehensive overview of NCEs and to assess risk factors such as socio-demographics, schooling, mental health and related substance use among French adolescents. A total of 6692 students attending high school (secondary schools) answered an anonymous questionnaire collecting information on demographics, health, psychoactive substance uses (neuroleptics, tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, illicit substances) and patterns of sociability...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Gaétan Gentile, Maeva Jego, Michel Spadari, Karolina Griffiths, Emilie Jouanjus, Joëlle Micallef
Addictovigilance is a health vigilance dedicated to the survey of medicinal or illicit psychoactive substance use disorders (SUDs). France is the only European country to have a vigilance system specifically dedicated to substances with an abuse/addiction potential. The French Addictovigilance system is organized in a network of regional tertiary centers (called Abuse and Dependence Monitoring Centres, CEIP-Addictovigilance) and works in close collaboration with Regional and National health authorities. Because of the essential and unavoidable nature of their practice in the French Healthcare system, general practitioners (GPs) are key actors to identify and track Addictovigilance signals...
July 12, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Kazi T Ahmed, Md Ruhul Amin, Parv Shah, Declan W Ali
Marijuana is one of the most commonly used illicit recreational drugs and is widely used for medicinal purposes. The psychoactive ingredient in marijuana is ∆9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9 -THC), whereas the major non-psychoactive ingredient is cannabidiol (CBD). Here, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ∆9 -THC or CBD for 5 hours during the critical stage of development known as gastrulation. Embryos were allowed to develop normally and were examined at 2 and 5 days post fertilization. THC and CBD treated embryos exhibited reduced heart rates, axial malformations and shorter trunks...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
C J Lucas, P Galettis, J Schneider
There is increasing interest in the use of cannabinoids for disease and symptom management, but limited information available regarding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to guide prescribers. Cannabis medicines contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is psychoactive, and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis use is associated with both pathological and behavioural toxicity and accordingly, is contraindicated in the context of significant psychiatric, cardiovascular, renal or hepatic illness...
July 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Pei-Pei Chen, Peng Du, Zi-Lei Zhou, Ze-Qiong Xu, Ting-Ting Gao, Xi-Qing Li
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are emerging continuously, as the crackdown against traditional drugs becomes stricter. Metabolites of NPSs and the unchanged drugs enter wastewater through urine and are collected and treated by wastewater treatment plants before being discharged into the aquatic environment. Based on previous research, solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) were used and the detection method of 11 NPSs was optimized. Influences of wastewater pretreatment procedures, including SPE columns; pH values of water samples; and processes of flushing and redissolving on NPS recoveries were compared...
August 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Agnieszka Janeczek, Marcin Zawadzki, Pawel Szpot, Artur Niedzwiedz
BACKGROUND: Cannabis from hemp (Cannabis sativa and C. indica) is one of the most common illegal drugs used by drug abusers. Indian cannabis contains around 70 alkaloids, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) is the most psychoactive substance. Animal intoxications occur rarely and are mostly accidental. According to the US Animal Poison Control Center, cannabis intoxication mostly affects dogs (96%). The most common cause of such intoxication is unintentional ingestion of a cannabis product, but it may also occur after the exposure to marijuana smoke...
July 11, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Per Ole M Gundersen, Olav Spigset, Martin Josefsson
Synthetic cannabinoids are one of the most significant groups within the category new psychoactive substances and in recent years new compounds have continuously been introduced to the market of recreational drugs. A sensitive and quantitative screening method in urine with metabolites of frequently seized compounds in Norway (AB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, AB-CHMINACA, AM-2201, AKB48, 5F-AKB48, BB-22, JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-203, JWH-250, PB-22, 5F-PB-22, RCS-4, THJ-2201 and UR-144) using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography quadropole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) has been developed...
July 11, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Madeleine Pettersson Bergstrand, Lilian H J Richter, Hans H Maurer, Lea Wagmann, Markus R Meyer
Multiple new psychoactive substances (NPS) are released into the recreational drug market each year. One NPS drug class that has become more common in recent years is that of the benzodiazepines ("designer benzodiazepines", DBZ). Several metabolism studies have been performed to improve their bioanalytical detection via the best target. These studies have shown presence of parent glucuronides and as polymorphisms have been noted for the catalyzing enzymes (UDP-glucuronyltransferases) responsible for glucuronide conjugation reactions it is important to keep this in mind when interpreting DBZ cases in clinical and/or forensic toxicology...
July 11, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marjolein Soethoudt, Georgios Alachouzos, Eva J van Rooden, María Dolores Moya-Garzón, Richard J B H N van den Berg, Laura H Heitman, Mario van der Stelt
Introduction: Δ9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principle psychoactive ingredient in Cannabis , is widely used for its therapeutic effects in a large variety of diseases, but it also has numerous neurological side effects. The cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) are responsible to a large extent for these, but not all biological responses are mediated via the CBRs. Objectives: The identification of additional target proteins of THC to enable a better understanding of the (adverse) physiological effects of THC. Methods: In this study, a chemical proteomics approach using a two-step photoaffinity probe is applied to identify potential proteins that may interact with THC...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Slavica Vučinić, Vesna Kilibarda, Snežana Đorđević, Dragana Đorđević, Nataša Perković-Vukčević, Gordana Vuković-Ercegović, Biljana Antonijević, Marijana Ćurčić, Evica Antonijević, Gordana Brajković
A rising number of patients are being treated for overdosing with new psychoactive substances (NPS) available at the illegal drug market in Serbia. The aim of this study was to report clinical and analytical experience of the National Poison Control Centre of Serbia (NPCC) with synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) and point to the NPS available at the illegal drug market in our country. From January 2013 to December 2016, 58 patients (aged between 14 and 25) were treated for the effects of synthetic cannabinoids at the NPCC...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Davorka Sutlović, Ingrid Prkačin, Fabio Vaiano, Elisabetta Bertol, Maja Veršić Bratinčević, Marija Definis-Gojanović
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS), synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) in particular, is growing constantly. Because of the insufficiently explored effects on consumer health, they have become a major problem in the emergency departments. They are difficult to identify, and there are no antidotes that could reverse their detrimental effects. We report a case of poisoning of a young man who used SCs. The patient was admitted to the emergency department of the Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zagreb (Croatia) after sniffing and smoking a herbal product bought on the street...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Agnese Gugliandolo, Federica Pollastro, Gianpaolo Grassi, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Inflammation and oxidative stress play main roles in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, different natural compounds may be able to exert neuroprotective actions against inflammation and oxidative stress, protecting from neuronal cell loss. Among these natural sources, Cannabis sativa represents a reservoir of compounds exerting beneficial properties, including cannabigerol (CBG), whose antioxidant properties have already been demonstrated in macrophages. Here, we aimed to evaluate the ability of CBG to protect NSC-34 motor neurons against the toxicity induced from the medium of LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
July 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amanda R Bolbecker, Deborah Apthorp, Ashley Schnakenberg Martin, Behdad Tahayori, Leah Moravec, Karen L Gomez, Brian F O'Donnell, Sharlene D Newman, William P Hetrick
INTRODUCTION: A prominent effect of acute cannabis use is impaired motor coordination and driving performance. However, few studies have evaluated balance in chronic cannabis users, even though density of the CB1 receptor, which mediates the psychoactive effects of cannabis, is extremely high in brain regions critically involved in this fundamental behavior. The present study measured postural sway in regular cannabis users and used rambling and trembling analysis to quantify the integrity of central and peripheral nervous system contributions to the sway signal...
June 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jin Young Kim, Sunglll Suh, Jaehyeong Park, Moon Kyo In
Despite the efforts to prevent the spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) such as synthetic amphetamine derivatives, it is apparent that newer types of NPS are still emerging on the market in recent years. Due to high potential for their abuse, reliable analytical methods are required to determine these substances in biological samples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate the gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 13 amphetamine-related NPS (amphetamine; AP, 4-fluoroamphetamine; 4FA, methamphamine; MA, 4-fluoromethamphetamine; 4FMA, 4-chloroamphetamine; 4CA, para-methoxyamphetamine; PMA, 4-chloromethamphetamine; 4CMA, 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran; 6APB, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; MDA, para-methoxymethamphetamine; PMMA, 6-(2-methylaminopropyl)benzofuran; 6MAPB, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA, 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane; MDAI) in urine...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
B Cuccurazzu, E Zamberletti, C Nazzaro, P Prini, M Trusel, M Grilli, D Parolaro, R Tonini, T Rubino
Background: In rodent models, chronic exposure to cannabis' psychoactive ingredient Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence leads to abnormal behavior in adulthood. In female rats, this maladaptive behavior is characterized by endophenotypes for depressive-like and psychotic-like disorders, as well as cognitive deficits. We have recently reported that most depressive-like behaviors triggered by adolescent THC exposure can be rescued by manipulating endocannabinoid signaling in adulthood with the anandamide inactivating enzyme FAAH inhibitor, URB597...
June 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Samuel D Banister, Mark Connor
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) have proliferated as new psychoactive substances (NPS) over the past decade. Relative to other classes of NPS, SCRAs are structurally heterogeneous; however, most SCRAs act as potent, high-efficacy agonists of cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors (CB1 and CB2 , respectively). Characterization of the pharmacology and toxicology of these substances is hindered by the dynamic nature of the SCRA marketplace. Beyond basic pharmacological profiling at CB1 and CB2 receptors, very little is known about the acute or chronic effects of SCRAs...
July 7, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Katarzyna Simonienko, Natalia Wygnał, Urszula Cwalina, Mikołaj Kwiatkowski, Agata Szulc, Napoleon Waszkiewicz
OBJECTIVES: Both cannabinoids and psychoactive substances from the group of stimulants can have a significant effect on the induction, course and treatment of severe mental illness. They also can be treated as self-medication. Many patients feel subjective benefits of using psychoactive substances in the areas of social competence, to cope with side effects of neuroleptics, stress accompanying mental illness or to control its symptoms. Our research tries to explain the causes of taking psychoactive substances by patients with schizophrenia...
April 30, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
Kristen L Fowble, Rabi A Musah
Herein we describe a new method of statistical analysis processing of direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry-derived neutral loss spectra of synthetic cathinones. The dark matter observed under collision-induced dissociation conditions is rendered as "neutral loss spectra," and these are subsequently subjected to statistical analysis processing, specifically hierarchical clustering analysis. The resulting hierarchical clustering dendrogram provides a means by which to classify an unknown as a member of a subgroup of cathinones, based on structural similarity of its backbone to that of the scaffolds of the drugs represented in the training set...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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