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Enteric nervous system electrophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777423/characterization-and-transplantation-of-enteric-neural-crest-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379647/excitability-and-synaptic-transmission-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-does-diet-play-a-role
#2
Paul P Bertrand, Kate E Polglaze, Hui Chen, Shaun L Sandow, Anna Walduck, Trisha A Jenkins, Rebecca L Bertrand, Alan E Lomax, Lu Liu
Changes in diet are a challenge to the gastrointestinal tract which needs to alter its processing mechanisms to continue to process nutrients and maintain health. In particular, the enteric nervous system (ENS) needs to adapt its motor and secretory programs to deal with changes in nutrient type and load in order to optimise nutrient absorption.The nerve circuits in the gut are complex, and the numbers and types of neurons make recordings of specific cell types difficult, time-consuming, and prone to sampling errors...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379645/enteric-neurobiology-discoveries-and-directions
#3
Jackie D Wood
Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26909894/electrophysiological-and-morphological-changes-in-colonic-myenteric-neurons-from-chemotherapy-treated-patients-a-pilot-study
#4
S E Carbone, V Jovanovska, S J H Brookes, K Nurgali
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy experience a multitude of gastrointestinal side-effects. However, the causes of these symptoms are uncertain and whether these therapeutics directly affect the enteric nervous system is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether the function and morphology of myenteric neurons are altered in specimens of the colon from chemotherapy-treated patients. METHODS: Colon specimens were compared from chemotherapy-treated and non-treated patients following colorectal resections for removal of carcinoma...
July 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557020/electrophysiological-and-mechanical-characteristics-in-human-ileal-motility-recordings-of-slow-waves-conductions-and-contractions-in-vitro
#5
Seung-Bum Ryoo, Heung-Kwon Oh, Sang Hui Moon, Eun Kyung Choe, Sung A Yu, Sung-Hye Park, Kyu Joo Park
Little human tissue data are available for slow waves and migrating motor complexes, which are the main components of small bowel motility. We investigated the electrophysiological and mechanical characteristics of human ileal motility, in vitro. Ileum was obtained from patients undergoing bowel resection. Electrophysiological microelectrode recordings for membrane potential changes and mechanical tension recordings for contraction from smooth muscle strips and ileal segments were performed. Drugs affecting the enteric nervous system were applied to measure the changes in activity...
November 2015: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26214267/investigation-of-neurotrophic-factor-concentrations-with-a-novel-in-vitro-concept-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#6
Johann K Mika, Karin Schwarz, Heinz D Wanzenboeck, Petra Scholze, Emmerich Bertagnolli
The regeneration of nerves of the peripheral nervous system after injuries is a complex process. This study presents a novel in vitro neurite regeneration concept to investigate the regeneration of neurons and their processes with different concentrations of neurotrophic factors. The core part of the concept is a transparent microfluidic neurite isolation (NI) device affixed on top of a microelectrode array (MEA), providing a fast and easy way to assess both the growth and the electrical activity of neurites...
November 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26054908/atp-as-a-cotransmitter-in-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Charles Kennedy
The role of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a major intracellular energy source is well-established. In addition, ATP and related nucleotides have widespread extracellular actions via the ionotropic P2X (ligand-gated cation channels) and metabotropic P2Y (G protein-coupled) receptors. Numerous experimental techniques, including myography, electrophysiology and biochemical measurement of neurotransmitter release, have been used to show that ATP has several major roles as a neurotransmitter in peripheral nerves...
September 2015: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25727007/the-gut-microbiome-restores-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-nerve-function-in-germ-free-mice-accompanied-by-changes-in-calbindin
#8
K A McVey Neufeld, A Perez-Burgos, Y K Mao, J Bienenstock, W A Kunze
BACKGROUND: The microbiome is essential for normal myenteric intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN) excitability. These neurons control gut motility and modulate gut-brain signaling by exciting extrinsic afferent fibers innervating the enteric nervous system via an IPAN to extrinsic fiber sensory synapse. We investigated effects of germ-free (GF) status and conventionalization on extrinsic sensory fiber discharge in the mesenteric nerve bundle and IPAN electrophysiology, and compared these findings with those from specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice...
May 2015: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25697022/-participation-of-peripheral-sensory-structures-of-autonomic-nervous-system-in-the-mechanisms-of-neuroimmune-interactions
#9
REVIEW
L V Filippova, A D Nozdrachev
On the basis of the electrophysiological research carried out with immunohystochemical methods on rats, it is found, that introduction of products of mast cell degranulation into blood as well as endogenous release of mast cell mediators with either the compound 48/80 or introduction of egg albumin to presensitized rats, enhances activity of mesenteric afferent nerve fibers. The obtained data provide evidence that intestinal afferents contribute an early signal to the brain regarding potential pathogens. The question of whether or not the intrinsic enteric neurons are involved in these processes, however, has not been carefully studied...
October 2014: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25427854/corticosterone-analgesia-is-mediated-by-the-spinal-production-of-neuroactive-metabolites-that-enhance-gabaergic-inhibitory-transmission-on-dorsal-horn-rat-neurons
#10
Vivien Zell, Pierre-Éric Juif, Ulrike Hanesch, Pierrick Poisbeau, Fernand Anton, Pascal Darbon
Corticosterone (CORT) is a glucocorticoid produced by adrenal glands under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Circulating CORT can enter the central nervous system and be reduced to neuroactive 3α5α-reduced steroids, which modulate GABAA receptors. In the dorsal spinal cord, GABAergic transmission modulates integration of nociceptive information. It has been shown that enhancing spinal inhibitory transmission alleviates hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, the spinal neuronal network is a pivotal target to counteract pain symptoms...
February 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25128265/a-comparative-morphological-electrophysiological-and-functional-analysis-of-axon-regeneration-through-peripheral-nerve-autografts-genetically-modified-to-overexpress-bdnf-cntf-gdnf-ngf-nt3-or-vegf
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Stefan A Hoyng, Fred De Winter, Sara Gnavi, Ralph de Boer, Lennard I Boon, Laura M Korvers, Martijn R Tannemaat, Martijn J A Malessy, Joost Verhaagen
The clinical outcome of microsurgical repair of an injured peripheral nerve with an autograft is suboptimal. A key question addressed here is: can axon regeneration through an autograft be further improved? In this article the impact of six neurotrophic factors (BDNF, CNTF, GDNF, NGF, NT3 or VEGF) on axon regeneration was compared after delivery to a 1cm long nerve autograft by gene therapy. To distinguish between early and late effects, regeneration was assessed at 2 and 20weeks post-surgery by histological, electrophysiological and functional analysis...
November 2014: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25012843/a-detailed-conductance-based-computer-model-of-intrinsic-sensory-neurons-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#12
Jordan D Chambers, Joel C Bornstein, Rachel M Gwynne, Katerina Koussoulas, Evan A Thomas
Intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs) of the enteric nervous system respond to stimuli such as muscle tension, muscle length, distortion of the mucosa, and the chemical content in the lumen. ISNs form recurrent networks that probably drive many intestinal motor patterns and reflexes. ISNs express a large number of voltage- and calcium-gated ion channels, some of which are modified by inflammation or repeated physiological stimuli, but how interactions between different ionic currents in ISNs produce both normal and pathological behaviors in the intestine remains unclear...
September 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24954839/deoxycholic-acid-induced-changes-in-electrophysiological-parameters-and-macromolecular-permeability-in-murine-small-intestine-with-and-without-functional-enteric-nervous-system-plexuses
#13
R A Forsgård, R Korpela, L K Stenman, P Osterlund, R Holma
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown in mice that the fecal proportion and concentration of the hydrophobic bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) is elevated with high-fat feeding and that these changes are able to disrupt the intestinal barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these changes are mediated by the enteric nervous system (ENS). METHODS: The function of the ENS in the small intestinal tissues of mice was compromised by two different methods: by removing the seromuscular layer and by incubating the intact tissues with tetrodotoxin (TTX), a neural conduction blocker, before DCA treatment...
August 2014: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24907674/serotonergic-pathways-in-the-drosophila-larval-enteric-nervous-system
#14
Andreas Schoofs, Sebastian Hückesfeld, Sandya Surendran, Michael J Pankratz
The enteric nervous system is critical for coordinating diverse feeding-related behaviors and metabolism. We have characterized a cluster of four serotonergic neurons in Drosophila larval brain: cell bodies are located in the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) whose neuronal processes project into the enteric nervous system. Electrophysiological, calcium imaging and behavioral analyses indicate a functional role of these neurons in modulating foregut motility. We suggest that the axonal projections of this serotonergic cluster may be part of a brain-gut neural pathway that is functionally analogous to the vertebrate vagus nerve...
October 2014: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24871092/isolation-expansion-and-transplantation-of-postnatal-murine-progenitor-cells-of-the-enteric-nervous-system
#15
Heike Monika Dettmann, Ying Zhang, Nadine Wronna, Udo Kraushaar, Elke Guenther, Roland Mohr, Peter Helmut Neckel, Andreas Mack, Joerg Fuchs, Lothar Just, Florian Obermayr
Neural stem or progenitor cells have been proposed to restore gastrointestinal function in patients suffering from congenital or acquired defects of the enteric nervous system. Various, mainly embryonic cell sources have been identified for this purpose. However, immunological and ethical issues make a postnatal cell based therapy desirable. We therefore evaluated and quantified the potential of progenitor cells of the postnatal murine enteric nervous system to give rise to neurons and glial cells in vitro...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24797813/simulating-pancreatic-neuroplasticity-in-vitro-dual-neuron-plasticity-assay
#16
Ihsan Ekin Demir, Elke Tieftrunk, Karl-Herbert Schäfer, Helmut Friess, Güralp O Ceyhan
Neuroplasticity is an inherent feature of the enteric nervous system and gastrointestinal (GI) innervation under pathological conditions. However, the pathophysiological role of neuroplasticity in GI disorders remains unknown. Novel experimental models which allow simulation and modulation of GI neuroplasticity may enable enhanced appreciation of the contribution of neuroplasticity in particular GI diseases such as pancreatic cancer (PCa) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Here, we present a protocol for simulation of pancreatic neuroplasticity under in vitro conditions using newborn rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and myenteric plexus (MP) neurons...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24782615/gastric-nnos-reduction-accompanied-by-natriuretic-peptides-signaling-pathway-upregulation-in-diabetic-mice
#17
Hong-Li Lu, Xu Huang, Yi-Song Wu, Chun-Mei Zhang, Xiang-Min Meng, Dong-Hai Liu, Young-Chul Kim, Wen-Xie Xu
AIM: To investigate the relationship between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression and the natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in the gastric fundus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. METHODS: Diabetic mice were induced by injection of STZ solution. Immunofluorescence labeling of HuC/D, nNOS and natriuretic peptide receptor-A, B, C (NPRs) in the gastric fundus (GF) was used to observe nNOS expression and whether NPRs exist on enteric neurons...
April 28, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24427524/the-predictad-project-development-of-novel-biomarkers-and-analysis-software-for-early-diagnosis-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Kari Antila, Jyrki Lötjönen, Lennart Thurfjell, Jarmo Laine, Marcello Massimini, Daniel Rueckert, Roman A Zubarev, Matej Orešič, Mark van Gils, Jussi Mattila, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Gunhild Waldemar, Hilkka Soininen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia affecting 36 million people worldwide. As the demographic transition in the developed countries progresses towards older population, the worsening ratio of workers per retirees and the growing number of patients with age-related illnesses such as AD will challenge the current healthcare systems and national economies. For these reasons AD has been identified as a health priority, and various methods for diagnosis and many candidates for therapies are under intense research...
April 6, 2013: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23975821/mouse-enteric-neuronal-cell-culture
#19
Yonggang Zhang, Wenhui Hu
In the enteric nervous system, there exist a lot of local intrinsic neurons which control the gastrointestinal functions. Culture of enteric neurons provides a good model system for physiological, electrophysiological, and pharmacological studies. Here, we describe two methods to obtain sufficient enteric neurons from mouse myenteric plexuses by directly culturing primary neurons or inducing neuronal differentiation of enteric neural stem/progenitor cells.
2013: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23962959/an-in-vitro-preparation-of-isolated-enteric-neurons-and-glia-from-the-myenteric-plexus-of-the-adult-mouse
#20
Tricia H Smith, Joy Ngwainmbi, John R Grider, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
The enteric nervous system is a vast network of neurons and glia running the length of the gastrointestinal tract that functionally controls gastrointestinal motility. A procedure for the isolation and culture of a mixed population of neurons and glia from the myenteric plexus is described. The primary cultures can be maintained for over 7 days, with connections developing among the neurons and glia. The longitudinal muscle strip with the attached myenteric plexus is stripped from the underlying circular muscle of the mouse ileum or colon and subjected to enzymatic digestion...
2013: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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