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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458191/a-novel-neuropilin-1-binding-sequence-in-the-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-envelope-glycoprotein
#1
Hideki Kusunoki, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Toshiyuki Kohno, Kazuhiko Matsuhashi, Kazuo Hosoda, Kaori Wakamatsu, Isao Hamaguchi
Entry of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) into host cells is mainly mediated by interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein surface unit (SU) and three host receptors: glucose transporter type 1, heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and neuropilin-1 (Nrp1). Here, we analyzed the interaction between HTLV-1 SU and Nrp1 using nuclear magnetic resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. We found that two SU peptides, residues 85-94 and residues 304-312, bound directly to the Nrp1 b1 domain with affinities of 7...
February 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458010/galectin-9-is-critical-for-mucosal-adaptive-immunity-through-the-t-h-17-iga-axis
#2
Chih-Chia Liang, Chi-Shan Li, I-Chun Weng, Huan-Yuan Chen, Hsueh-Han Lu, Chiu-Ching Huang, Fu-Tong Liu
Impairment of the intestinal mucosal immunity significantly increases the risk of acute and chronic diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a major role in humoral mucosal immunity to provide protection against pathogens and toxins in the gut. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous galectin-9, a tandem repeat-type β-galactoside-binding protein, in intestinal mucosal immunity. By mucosal immunization of Lgals9-/- and littermate control mice, it was found that lack of galectin-9 impaired mucosal antigen-specific IgA response in the gut...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457614/poly-trimethylene-carbonate-and-poly-d-l-lactic-acid-modify-human-dendritic-cell-responses-to-staphylococci-but-do-not-affect-th1-and-th2-cell-development
#3
P P Balraadjsing, E C de Jong, D W Grijpma, M W Tanck, S A Zaat
Biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) are frequent complications in the use of medical devices (biomaterials) correlated with considerable patient discomfort and high treatment costs. The presence of a biomaterial in the host causes derangement of local immune responses increasing susceptibility to infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) have an important role in directing the nature of immune responses by activating and controlling CD4+ T helper (Th) cell responses. To assess the immunomodulatory effect of the combined presence of biomaterials and Staphylococcus aureus (S...
February 19, 2018: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457125/enhanced-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-cells-cultured-on-microtubular-polymer-scaffolds-in-vitro
#4
Morteza Haeri, Karen Sagomonyants, Mina Mina, Liisa T Kuhn, A Jon Goldberg
Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease. Dental tissue engineering is a promising alternative approach to alleviate the shortcomings of the currently available restorative materials. Mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) could enhance the performance of tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, we developed microtubular (~20 μm diameter) polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) scaffolds resembling the tubular (~2.5 μm diameter) structure of dentin, the collagen-based mineralized tissue that forms the major portion of teeth, to study the effect of scaffold architecture on differentiation of mouse dental pulp cells in vitro ...
June 2017: Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456858/enhanced-biostability-and-cellular-uptake-of-zinc-oxide-nanocrystals-shielded-with-a-phospholipid-bilayer
#5
B Dumontel, M Canta, H Engelke, A Chiodoni, L Racca, A Ancona, T Limongi, G Canavese, V Cauda
The widespread use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including therapeutic drug delivery or stimuli-responsive activation, as well as imaging, imposes a careful control over the colloidal stability and long-term behaviour of ZnO in biological media. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on living cells, in particular cancer cells, is still under debate. This paper discusses the role of surface chemistry and charge of zinc oxide nanocrystals, of around 15 nm in size, which influence their behaviour in biological fluids and effect on cancer cells...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456710/mechanism-of-apoptosis-induction-associated-with-erk1-2-upregulation-via-goniothalamin-in-melanoma-cells
#6
Suphakorn Tangchirakhaphan, Sukanda Innajak, Sirinun Nilwarangkoon, Nudjaree Tanjapatkul, Wilawan Mahabusrakum, Ramida Watanapokasin
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of goniothalamin on apoptosis induction in the A375 melanoma cell line. Melanoma is a type of skin cancer with increased prevalence and no potential standard treatment. Goniothalamin is a plant, bioactive styrly-lactone, which has various bioactivities including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer. Apoptosis induction by goniothalamin has been studied in numerous cancer cell lines, however not in the melanoma cell line A375. The results of the MTT assay demonstrated that goniothalamin induced anti-proliferation in a dose dependent manner...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456638/biobran-mgn-3-an-arabinoxylan-rice-bran-enhances-nk-cell-activity-in-geriatric-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Ahmed F Elsaid, Magda Shaheen, Mamdooh Ghoneum
Aging is associated with a decline in natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell function that may contribute to increased susceptibility to malignancy and infection. A preliminary investigation was conducted examining the hypothesis that arabinoxylan rice bran (Biobran/MGN-3), a denatured hemicellulose with known immunomodulatory activity, could counteract this decline in NK/NKT cell activity in geriatrics. A total of 12 healthy geriatric subjects of both sexes and over 56 years old, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456539/generation-of-human-immunosuppressive-myeloid-cell-populations-in-human-interleukin-6-transgenic-nog-mice
#8
Asami Hanazawa, Ryoji Ito, Ikumi Katano, Kenji Kawai, Motohito Goto, Hiroshi Suemizu, Yutaka Kawakami, Mamoru Ito, Takeshi Takahashi
The tumor microenvironment contains unique immune cells, termed myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that suppress host anti-tumor immunity and promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Although these cells are considered a key target of cancer immune therapy, in vivo animal models allowing differentiation of human immunosuppressive myeloid cells have yet to be established, hampering the development of novel cancer therapies. In this study, we established a novel humanized transgenic (Tg) mouse strain, human interleukin (hIL)-6-expressing NOG mice (NOG-hIL-6 transgenic mice)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456531/first-occurrence-of-plasmablastic-lymphoma-in-adenosine-deaminase-deficient-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-disease-patient-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Maddalena Migliavacca, Andrea Assanelli, Maurilio Ponzoni, Roberta Pajno, Federica Barzaghi, Fabio Giglio, Francesca Ferrua, Marta Frittoli, Immacolata Brigida, Francesca Dionisio, Roberto Nicoletti, Miriam Casiraghi, Maria Grazia Roncarolo, Claudio Doglioni, Jacopo Peccatori, Fabio Ciceri, Maria Pia Cicalese, Alessandro Aiuti
Adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency disease (ADA-SCID) is a primary immune deficiency characterized by mutations in the ADA gene resulting in accumulation of toxic compounds affecting multiple districts. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched donor and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy are the preferred options for definitive treatment. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is used to manage the disease in the short term, while a decreased efficacy is reported in the medium-long term...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456508/the-molecular-determinants-of-small-molecule-ligand-binding-at-p2x-receptors
#10
Gaia Pasqualetto, Andrea Brancale, Mark T Young
P2X receptors are trimeric eukaryotic ATP-gated cation channels. Extracellular ATP-their physiological ligand-is released as a neurotransmitter and in conditions of cell damage such as inflammation, and substantial evidence implicates P2X receptors in diseases including neuropathic pain, cancer, and arthritis. In 2009, the first P2X crystal structure, Danio rerio P2X4 in the apo - state, was published, and this was followed in 2012 by the ATP-bound structure. These structures transformed our understanding of the conformational changes induced by ATP binding and the mechanism of ligand specificity, and enabled homology modeling of mammalian P2X receptors for ligand docking and rational design of receptor modulators...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456015/multi-antigenic-human-cytomegalovirus-mrna-vaccines-that-elicit-potent-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immunity
#11
Shinu John, Olga Yuzhakov, Angela Woods, Jessica Deterling, Kimberly Hassett, Christine A Shaw, Giuseppe Ciaramella
A cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine that is effective at preventing congenital infection and reducing CMV disease in transplant patients remains a high priority as no approved vaccines exist. While the precise correlates of protection are unknown, neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific T cells have been implicated in controlling infection. We demonstrate that the immunization of mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs) with lipid nanoparticles (LNP) encapsulating modified mRNA encoding CMV glycoproteins gB and pentameric complex (PC) elicit potent and durable neutralizing antibody titers...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455932/a-paradigm-shift-on-beta-thalassaemia-treatment-how-will-we-manage-this-old-disease-with-new-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Maria Domenica Cappellini, John B Porter, Vip Viprakasit, Ali T Taher
Beta-thalassaemia causes defective haemoglobin synthesis leading to ineffective erythropoiesis, chronic haemolytic anaemia, and subsequent clinical complications. Blood transfusion and iron chelation allow long-term disease control, and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation offers a potential cure for some patients. Nonetheless, there are still many challenges in the management of beta-thalassaemia. The main treatment option for most patients is supportive care; furthermore, the long-term efficacy and safety of current therapeutic strategies are limited and adherence is suboptimal...
February 12, 2018: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455847/the-fate-choice-between-effector-and-memory-t-cell-lineages-asymmetry-signal-integration-and-feedback-to-create-bistability
#13
Ronald A Backer, Pleun Hombrink, Christina Helbig, Derk Amsen
CD8+ T cells clear primary infections with intracellular pathogens and provide long-term immunity against reinfection. Two different types of CD8+ T cells are responsible for these functions: short-lived effector T cells and memory T cells. The cellular relationship between these two types of CD8+ T cells has been subject to much investigation. Both cell types can derive from a single naïve CD8+ T cell precursor. Their generation requires a fate choice early during a T cell response. As a result, two populations of T cells emerge...
2018: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455665/pten-ptenp1-regulating-the-regulator-of-rtk-dependent-pi3k-akt-signalling-new-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Nahal Haddadi, Yiguang Lin, Glena Travis, Ann M Simpson, Eileen M McGowan, Najah T Nassif
Regulation of the PI-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway is essential for maintaining the integrity of fundamental cellular processes, cell growth, survival, death and metabolism, and dysregulation of this pathway is implicated in the development and progression of cancers. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are major upstream regulators of PI3K/Akt signalling. The phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), a well characterised tumour suppressor, is a prime antagonist of PI3K and therefore a negative regulator of this pathway...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455366/phospholipase-d%C3%AE-assists-to-cortical-microtubule-recovery-after-salt-stress
#15
Jindřiška Angelini, Stanislav Vosolsobě, Petr Skůpa, Angela Yeuan Yen Ho, Erica Bellinvia, Olga Valentová, Jan Marc
The dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton plays fundamental roles in the growth and development of plants including regulation of their responses to environmental stress. Plants exposed to hyper-osmotic stress commonly acclimate, acquiring tolerance to variable stress levels. The underlying cellular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show, for the first time, by in vivo imaging approach that linear patterns of phospholipase Dδ match the localization of microtubules in various biological systems, validating previously predicted connection between phospholipase Dδ and microtubules...
January 24, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455325/development-of-a-luminescence-syncytium-induction-assay-lusia-for-easily-detecting-and-quantitatively-measuring-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection
#16
Hirotaka Sato, Sonoko Watanuki, Hironobu Murakami, Reiichiro Sato, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Yoko Aida
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to the human T cell leukemia virus. Since BLV infection mostly occurs via cell-to-cell transmission, BLV infectivity is generally measured by culturing BLV-infected cells with reporter cells that form syncytia upon BLV infection. However, this method is time-consuming and requires skill. To visualize the infectivity of BLV, we developed a new assay called the luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuSIA) that is based on a new reporter cell line designated CC81-BLU3G...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455261/phytoglobins-regulate-nitric-oxide-dependent-abscisic-acid-synthesis-and-ethylene-induced-program-cell-death-in-developing-maize-somatic-embryos
#17
Karuna Kapoor, Mohamed M Mira, Belay T Ayele, Tran-Nguyen Nguyen, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasolla
During maize somatic embryogenesis, suppression of phytoglobins (Pgbs) reduced ABA levels leading to ethylene-induced programmed cell death in the developing embryos. These effects modulate embryonic yield depending on the cellular localization of specific phytoglobin gene expression. Suppression of Zea mays phytoglobins (ZmPgb1.1 or ZmPgb1.2) during somatic embryogenesis induces programmed cell death (PCD) by elevating nitric oxide (NO). While ZmPgb1.1 is expressed in many embryonic domains and its suppression results in embryo abortion, ZmPgb1...
February 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455246/notch-expressed-by-osteocytes-plays-a-critical-role-in-mineralisation
#18
Jin Shao, Yinghong Zhou, Jinying Lin, Trung Dung Nguyen, Rong Huang, Yuantong Gu, Thor Friis, Ross Crawford, Yin Xiao
Notch is actively involved in various life processes including osteogenesis; however, the role of Notch signalling in the terminal mineralisation of bone is largely unknown. In this study, it was noted that Hey1, a downstream target of Notch signalling was highly expressed in mature osteocytes compared to osteoblasts, indicating a potential role of Notch in osteocytes. Using a recently developed thermosensitive cell line (IDG-SW3), we demonstrated that dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1) expression was inhibited and mineralisation process was significantly altered when Notch pathway was inactivated via administration of N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), an inhibitor of Notch...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455062/enhanced-contraception-of-canine-zona-pellucida-3-dna-vaccine-via-targeting-dec-205-in-mice
#19
Ying Wang, Beibei Zhang, Jinyao Li, Adila Aipire, Yijie Li, Fuchun Zhang
Zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) is a potential antigen for the development of contraceptive vaccines to control animal population. In this study, we designed a canine ZP3 (CZP3) DNA vaccine through targeting DEC-205 (named as pcD-scFv-CZP3c) and investigated its contraceptive effect in mice. Female BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized 3 times at 2 weeks intervals. After immunization, humoral and cellular immune responses were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry. The results showed that pcD-CZP3 and pcD-scFv-CZP3c induced CZP3-specific antibody (Ab) responses both in serum and vaginal secretions compared to pcDNA3...
February 9, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455019/ocular-myasthenia-induced-by-rivaroxaban-in-patient-with-deep-vein-thrombosis
#20
Enrique M San Norberto, Irene García-Saiz, Diana Gutiérrez, Liliana Domingos, Carlos Vaquero
The non-VKA oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban is indicated in prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. A 60-year-old male patient complained of bilateral ptosis after administration of rivaroxaban for deep vein thrombosis. Myasthenia gravis was confirmed by positive serum antiacetylcholine receptor antibody test. No mediastinal thymoma was found. The ocular myasthenia reversed after discontinuing rivaroxaban treatment. Nevertheless, ptosis recurred and chronic oral pyridostigmine bromide treatment was necessary...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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