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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346719/reduced-th22-cell-proportion-and-prevention-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-infants-following-maternal-probiotic-supplementation
#1
Anne Dorthea Bjerkenes Rø, Melanie Rae Simpson, Torstein Baade Rø, Ola Storrø, Roar Johnsen, Vibeke Videm, Torbjørn Øien
In the randomized, controlled study Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), maternal probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring. In the current study, we hypothesized that the effect was mediated by a shift in the T helper (Th) cells in the children. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether Th cell proportions were affected by maternal probiotic supplementation and thus could mediate the preventive effect of probiotics on AD...
March 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346521/hiv-1-gp120-envelope-glycoprotein-determinants-for-cytokine-burst-in-human-monocytes
#2
Benoît Levast, Lucie Barblu, Mathieu Coutu, Jérémie Prévost, Nathalie Brassard, Adam Peres, Camille Stegen, Joaquín Madrenas, Daniel E Kaufmann, Andrés Finzi
The first step of HIV infection involves the interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein to its receptor CD4, mainly expressed on CD4+ T cells. Besides its role on HIV-1 entry, the gp120 has been shown to be involved in the production of IL-1, IL-6, CCL20 and other innate response cytokines by bystander, uninfected CD4+ T cells and monocytes. However, the gp120 determinants involved in these functions are not completely understood. Whether signalling leading to cytokine production is due to CD4 or other receptors is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346423/mob1-yap1-taz-nkx2-1-axis-controls-bronchioalveolar-cell-differentiation-adhesion-and-tumour-formation
#3
K Otsubo, H Goto, M Nishio, K Kawamura, S Yanagi, W Nishie, T Sasaki, T Maehama, H Nishina, K Mimori, T Nakano, H Shimizu, T W Mak, K Nakao, Y Nakanishi, A Suzuki
Mps One Binder Kinase Activator (MOB)1A/1B are core components of the Hippo pathway. These proteins, which coactivate LArge Tumour Suppressor homologue kinases, are also tumour suppressors. To investigate MOB1A/B's roles in normal physiology and lung cancer, we generated doxycycline (Dox)-inducible, bronchioalveolar epithelium-specific, null mutations of MOB1A/B in mice (SPC-rtTA/(tetO)7-Cre/Mob1a(flox/flox)/Mob1b(-/-); termed luMob1DKO mice). Most mutants (70%) receiving Dox in utero (luMob1DKO (E6.5-18.5) mice) died of hypoxia within 1 h post-birth...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346327/development-of-a-new-outcome-prediction-model-in-early-stage-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oral-cavity-based-on-histopathologic-parameters-with-multivariate-analysis-the-aditi-nuzhat-lymph-node-prediction-score-anlps-system
#4
Aditi Arora, Nuzhat Husain, Ankur Bansal, Azfar Neyaz, Ritika Jaiswal, Kavitha Jain, Arun Chaturvedi, Nidhi Anand, Kiranpreet Malhotra, Saumya Shukla
The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic parameters that predict lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to design a new assessment score on the basis of these parameters that could ultimately allow for changes in treatment decisions or aid clinicians in deciding whether there is a need for close follow-up or to perform early lymph node dissection. Histopathologic parameters of 336 cases of OSCC with stage cT1/T2 N0M0 disease were analyzed. The location of the tumor and the type of surgery used for the management of the tumor were recorded for all patients...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346303/eccrine-syringofibroadenoma-in-association-with-acquired-epidermodysplasia-verruciformis
#5
Timothy Tan, Joan Guitart, Luzheng Lisa Liu, Joaquin C Brieva, Sapna Amin, Monica Rani, Pedram Gerami, Pedram Yazdan
A 75-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection and numerous biopsy-proven warts for 10 years, refractory to cryosurgery, cimetidine, and topical imiquimod, presented with numerous pink to hypopigmented verrucous papules and plaques involving the face, trunk, buttocks, and groin. Laboratory evaluation revealed a CD4 T-cell count of 62 cells per microliter and human immunodeficiency virus viral load of <117 copies per milliliter. Biopsy of a plaque groin lesion was performed. Histopathology revealed vertically oriented anastomosing strands of basaloid epithelium arising from multiple points along the epidermis in a background fibrovascular stroma...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346234/outstanding-animal-studies-in-allergy-i-from-asthma-to-food-allergy-and-anaphylaxis
#6
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Franziska Roth-Walter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346099/development-of-novel-cell-lines-for-high-throughput-screening-to-detect-estrogen-related-receptor-alpha-modulators
#7
Christina T Teng, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Jinghua Zhao, Ruili Huang, Menghang Xia, Negin Martin, Xiaohua Gao, Darlene Dixon, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt, B Alex Merrick
Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), the first orphan nuclear receptor discovered, is crucial for the control of cellular energy metabolism. ERRα and its coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), are required for rapid energy production in response to environmental challenges. They have been implicated in the etiology of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. ERRα also plays a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Identification of compounds that modulate ERRα signaling may elucidate environmental factors associated with these diseases...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346043/structural-abnormalities-in-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-and-a-normal-behavioral-profile-in-contactin-5-deficient-mice
#8
Kristel T E Kleijer, Denise van Nieuwenhuize, Henk A Spierenburg, Sara Gregorio-Jordan, Martien J H Kas, J Peter H Burbach
Contactin-5 (Cntn5) is an immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule that is exclusively expressed in the central nervous system. In view of its association with neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study focused on Cntn5-positive areas in the forebrain and aimed to explore the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of the Cntn5 null mutant (Cntn5(-/-)) mouse in relation to these areas and ASD symptomatology. A newly generated antibody enabled us to elaborately describe the spatial expression pattern of Cntn5 in P7 wild type (Cntn5(+/+)) mice...
March 27, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346024/increased-il-4-and-il-17-producing-cd8-cells-are-related-to-decreased-cd39-cd4-foxp3-cells-in-allergic-asthma
#9
Li Ping, Zhen Yang, Qin Zhang, Wei Wang, Jiong Yang
OBJECTIVE: In allergic asthma, regulatory T cell (Treg) number and function are decreased. Antigen primed CD8(+) T cells play an indispensable role in the full development of airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) occurring in asthma. In this study, we investigated the relationship between subpopulations of CD8(+) T cells and CD39(+) Tregs. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were used to develop the model of allergic asthma. Experimental mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) by intra-peritoneal (i...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345676/bioconversion-of-stilbenes-in-genetically-engineered-root-and-cell-cultures-of-tobacco
#10
Diego Hidalgo, Ascensión Martínez-Márquez, Elisabeth Moyano, Roque Bru-Martínez, Purificación Corchete, Javier Palazon
It is currently possible to transfer a biosynthetic pathway from a plant to another organism. This system has been exploited to transfer the metabolic richness of certain plant species to other plants or even to more simple metabolic organisms such as yeast or bacteria for the production of high added value plant compounds. Another application is to bioconvert substrates into scarcer or biologically more interesting compounds, such as piceatannol and pterostilbene. These two resveratrol-derived stilbenes, which have very promising pharmacological activities, are found in plants only in small amounts...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345617/stimulation-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-physical-exercise-and-enriched-environment-is-disturbed-in-a-cadasil-mouse-model
#11
C Klein, S Schreyer, F E Kohrs, P Elhamoury, A Pfeffer, T Munder, B Steiner
In the course of CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), a dysregulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested as a potential mechanism for early cognitive decline. Previous work has shown that mice overexpressing wild type Notch3 and mice overexpressing Notch3 with a CADASIL mutation display impaired cell proliferation and survival of newly born hippocampal neurons prior to vascular abnormalities. Here, we aimed to elucidate how the long-term survival of these newly generated neurons is regulated by Notch3...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345582/enhancing-titres-of-therapeutic-viral-vectors-using-the-transgene-repression-in-vector-production-trip-system
#12
H E Maunder, J Wright, B R Kolli, C R Vieira, T T Mkandawire, S Tatoris, V Kennedy, S Iqball, G Devarajan, S Ellis, Y Lad, N G Clarkson, K A Mitrophanous, D C Farley
A key challenge in the field of therapeutic viral vector/vaccine manufacturing is maximizing production. For most vector platforms, the 'benchmark' vector titres are achieved with inert reporter genes. However, expression of therapeutic transgenes can often adversely affect vector titres due to biological effects on cell metabolism and/or on the vector virion itself. Here, we exemplify the novel 'Transgene Repression In vector Production' (TRiP) system for the production of both RNA- and DNA-based viral vectors...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345004/homology-directed-recombination-for-enhanced-engineering-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells
#13
Malika Hale, Baeckseung Lee, Yuchi Honaker, Wai-Hang Leung, Alexandra E Grier, Holly M Jacobs, Karen Sommer, Jaya Sahni, Shaun W Jackson, Andrew M Scharenberg, Alexander Astrakhan, David J Rawlings
Gene editing by homology-directed recombination (HDR) can be used to couple delivery of a therapeutic gene cassette with targeted genomic modifications to generate engineered human T cells with clinically useful profiles. Here, we explore the functionality of therapeutic cassettes delivered by these means and test the flexibility of this approach to clinically relevant alleles. Because CCR5-negative T cells are resistant to HIV-1 infection, CCR5-negative anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells could be used to treat patients with HIV-associated B cell malignancies...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344987/safe-and-effective-gene-therapy-for-murine-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-using-an-insulated-lentiviral-vector
#14
Swati Singh, Iram Khan, Socheath Khim, Brenda Seymour, Karen Sommer, Matthew Wielgosz, Zachary Norgaard, Hans-Peter Kiem, Jennifer Adair, Denny Liggitt, Arthur Nienhuis, David J Rawlings
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a life-threatening immunodeficiency caused by mutations within the WAS gene. Viral gene therapy to restore WAS protein (WASp) expression in hematopoietic cells of patients with WAS has the potential to improve outcomes relative to the current standard of care, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. However, the development of viral vectors that are both safe and effective has been problematic. While use of viral transcriptional promoters may increase the risk of insertional mutagenesis, cellular promoters may not achieve WASp expression levels necessary for optimal therapeutic effect...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344881/immunosurveillance-and-immunoediting-in-mmtv-pymt-induced-mammary-oncogenesis
#15
Emilie T E Gross, Semi Han, Prasantha Vemu, Carlos D Peinado, Martin Marsala, Lesley G Ellies, Jack D Bui
Evidence of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting processes has been primarily demonstrated in mouse models of chemically induced oncogenesis. Although these models are very tractable, they are characterized by high mutational loads that represent a minority of human cancers. In this study, we sought to determine whether cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting could be demonstrated in a more clinically relevant oncogene-induced model of carcinogenesis, the MMTV-PyMT (PyMT) mammary carcinoma model...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344876/2b4-sap-signaling-is-required-for-the-priming-of-naive-cd8-t-cells-by-antigen-expressing-b-cells-and-b-lymphoma-cells
#16
Yu-Hsuan Huang, Kevin Tsai, Sara Y Tan, Sohyeong Kang, Mandy L Ford, Kenneth W Harder, John J Priatel
Mutations in SH2D1A gene that encodes SAP (SLAM-associated protein) result in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare primary immunodeficiency disease defined by exquisite sensitivity to the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and B cell lymphomas. However, the precise mechanism of how the loss of SAP function contributes to extreme vulnerability to EBV and the development of B cell lymphomas remains unclear. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that SAP is critical for CD8(+) T cell immune surveillance of antigen (Ag)-expressing B cells or B lymphoma cells under conditions of defined T cell receptor (TCR) signaling...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344869/il-15-tim-3-and-nk-cells-subsets-predict-responsiveness-to-anti-ctla-4-treatment-in-melanoma-patients
#17
Rossana Tallerico, Costanza M Cristiani, Elina Staaf, Cinzia Garofalo, Rosa Sottile, Mariaelena Capone, Yago Pico de Coaña, Gabriele Madonna, Eleonora Palella, Maria Wolodarski, Valentina Carannante, Domenico Mallardo, Ester Simeone, Antonio M Grimaldi, Sofia Johansson, Paolo Frumento, Elio Gulletta, Andrea Anichini, Francesco Colucci, Gennaro Ciliberto, Rolf Kiessling, Klas Kärre, Paolo A Ascierto, Ennio Carbone
Despite the success of immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma, the majority of patients do not respond. We hypothesized that the T and NK cell subset frequencies and expression levels of their receptors may predict responses and clinical outcome of anti-CTLA-4 treatment. We thus characterized the NK and T cell phenotype, as well as serum levels of several cytokines in 67 melanoma patients recruited in Italy and Sweden, using samples drawn prior to and during treatment. Survival correlated with low expression of the inhibitory receptor TIM-3 on circulating T and NK cells prior to and during treatment and with the increased frequency of mature circulating NK cells (defined as CD3(-)CD56(dim) CD16(+)) during treatment...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344867/cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-are-both-needed-to-induce-paraneoplastic-neurological-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Christina Gebauer, Béatrice Pignolet, Lidia Yshii, Emilie Mauré, Jan Bauer, Roland Liblau
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs) are rare human autoimmune diseases that mostly affect the central nervous system (CNS). They are triggered by an efficient immune response against a neural self-antigen that is ectopically expressed in neoplastic tumors. Due to this shared antigenic expression, the immune system reacts not only to tumor cells but also to neural cells resulting in neurological damage. Growing data point to a major role of cell-mediated immunity in PNDs associated to autoantibodies against intracellular proteins...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344860/il-32-induces-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-cd1c-dendritic-cells-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-cd163-macrophages-relevance-to-mycosis-fungoides-progression
#19
Hanako Ohmatsu, Daniel Humme, Juana Gonzalez, Nicholas Gulati, Markus Möbs, Wolfram Sterry, James G Krueger
Mycosis fungoides (MF) progresses from patch to tumor stage by expansion of malignant T-cells that fail to be controlled by protective immune mechanisms. In this study, we focused on IL-32, a cytokine, highly expressed in MF lesions. Depending on the other cytokines (IL-4, GM-CSF) present during in vitro culture of healthy volunteers' monocytes, IL-32 increased the maturation of CD11c(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and/or CD163(+) macrophages, but IL-32 alone showed a clear ability to promote dendritic cell (DC) differentiation from monocytes...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344788/lymphoma-development-and-survival-in-refractory-coeliac-disease-type-ii-histological-response-as-prognostic-factor
#20
P Nijeboer, Rlj van Wanrooij, T van Gils, N J Wierdsma, G J Tack, B I Witte, H J Bontkes, O Visser, Cjj Mulder, G Bouma
BACKGROUND: Refractory coeliac disease type II (RCDII) frequently transforms into an enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) and therefore requires intensive treatment. Current evaluated treatment strategies for RCDII include cladribine (2-CdA) and autologous stem cell transplantation (auSCT). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term survival and define clear prognostic criteria for EATL development comparing two treatment strategies...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
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