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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882325/antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-in-critical-care-medicine-a-prospective-interventional-study
#1
J Ruiz, P Ramirez, M Gordon, E Villarreal, J Frasquet, J L Poveda-Andres, M Salavert-Lletí, A Catellanos
OBJECTIVE: Hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes have achieved savings and a more rational use of antimicrobial treatments in general wards. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the experience of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in an intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Prospective interventional, before-and-after study. SCOPE: 24-bed medical ICU in a tertiary hospital. INTERVENTION: Prospective audit and feedback antimicrobial stewardship programme...
September 4, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869082/development-of-botanicals-to-combat-antibiotic-resistance
#2
REVIEW
Pooja D Gupta, Tannaz J Birdi
The discovery of antibiotics in the previous century lead to reduction in mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases but their inappropriate and irrational use has resulted in emergence of resistant microbial populations. Alteration of target sites, active efflux of drugs and enzymatic degradations are the strategies employed by the pathogenic bacteria to develop intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. This has led to an increased interest in medicinal plants since 25-50% of current pharmaceuticals are plant derived...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845129/sepsis-epidemiology-and-outcome-in-the-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-of-vilnius-university-children-s-hospital
#3
Odeta Bobelytė, Ieva Gailiūtė, Vytautas Zubka, Virginija Žilinskaitė
Research was carried out at the paediatric intensive care unit (paediatric ICU) of the Children's Hospital, affiliate of Vilnius University Hospital Santariškių klinikos. BACKGROUND: Being the most common cause of children's death, sepsis is a challenge for most physicians. In order to improve the outcomes, it is important to know the aetiology and peculiarities of sepsis in a particular region and hospital. The aim of this study was to analyse the outcomes of sepsis in a paediatric intensive care unit and their relation with patients' characteristics and causative microorganisms...
2017: Acta medica Lituanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756167/a-multimodal-infection-control-concept-in-a-burn-intensive-care-unit-lessons-learnt-from-a-meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-outbreak
#4
C Baier, R Ipaktchi, E Ebadi, A Limbourg, T R Mett, P M Vogt, F-C Bange
BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequently encountered pathogen in burn units. Burn patients are especially susceptible to MRSA acquisition and MRSA spread may cause outbreaks in burn units. AIM: To report the characteristics and successful control of an MRSA outbreak and to demonstrate a multimodal infection control concept. METHODS: In addition to a pre-existing infection control concept, several control measures were implemented including weekly prevalence screenings for MRSA, reinforcement of disinfection, restriction of admissions, and short-term unit closure...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706515/more-pathogenicity-or-just-more-pathogens-on-the-interpretation-problem-of-multiple-pathogen-detections-with-diagnostic-multiplex-assays
#5
REVIEW
Andreas E Zautner, Uwe Groß, Matthias F Emele, Ralf M Hagen, Hagen Frickmann
Modern molecular diagnostic approaches in the diagnostic microbiological laboratory like real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) have led to a considerable increase of diagnostic sensitivity. They usually outperform the diagnostic sensitivity of culture-based approaches. Culture-based diagnostics were found to be insufficiently sensitive for the assessment of the composition of biofilms in chronic wounds and poorly standardized for screenings for enteric colonization with multi-drug resistant bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669833/pathobiology-of-lomentospora-prolificans-could-this-species-serve-as-a-model-of-primary-antifungal-resistance
#6
Aize Pellon, Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Idoia Buldain, Aitziber Antoran, Leire Martin-Souto, Aitor Rementeria, Fernando L Hernando
The number of fungal isolates resistant to antifungal drugs has increased dramatically over the last few years and has become an important concern for clinicians. Among these isolates, fungi showing multidrug resistance are especially worrying because of the difficulties associated with their treatment. These factors hamper the successful recovery of patients and drastically raise mortality rates. Therefore, since it is well known that antifungal resistance is multifactorial and several mechanisms in different fungi have been described, there is a need to study these processes in depth...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650661/triaryl-benzimidazoles-as-a-new-class-of-antibacterial-agents-against-resistant-pathogenic-microorganisms
#7
Pietro Picconi, Charlotte Hind, Shirin Jamshidi, Kazi Nahar, Melanie Clifford, Matthew E Wand, J Mark Sutton, Khondaker Miraz Rahman
A new class of nontoxic triaryl benzimidazole compounds, derived from existing classes of DNA minor groove binders, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-positive and Gram-negative species. Molecular modeling experiments suggest that the newly synthesized class cannot be accommodated within the minor groove of DNA due to a change in the shape of the molecules. Compounds 8, 13, and 14 were found to be the most active of the series, with MICs in the range of 0...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625995/novel-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-from-agricultural-soil-exposed-to-antibiotics-widely-used-in-human-medicine-and-animal-farming
#8
Calvin Ho-Fung Lau, Kalene van Engelen, Stephen Gordon, Justin Renaud, Edward Topp
Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610560/prevalence-and-molecular-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-including-methicillin-resistant-strains-isolated-from-bulk-can-milk-and-raw-milk-products-in-pastoral-communities-of-south-west-uganda
#9
Benon B Asiimwe, Rossella Baldan, Alberto Trovato, Daniela M Cirillo
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people...
June 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584446/antimicrobial-activity-of-various-ethanolic-plant-extracts-against-pathogenic-multi-drug-resistant-candida-spp
#10
Shaista Khan, Mohd Imran, Mohammed Imran, Nuzhat Pindari
A total of 50 Candida isolates were isolated and identified from clinical specimens and these were tested for resistance to various antifungal drugs. It was observed multi-drug resistance in all candida isolates by 84%, 62%, 60%, 76%, 46, 30%, and 22% against fluconazole, clotrimazole, Amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and nystatin tested respectively. The isolates, which were found to be resistant to antifungal drugs were selected and subjected to antifungal testing against six ethanolic plants, extract namely Azadiracta indica, Allium sativum, Cordia dichotoma Ocimum sanctum, Syzygium cumini and Trigonella foenum grecum...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577494/antibacterial-modulatory-activity-of-antibiotics-and-toxicity-from-rhinella-jimi-stevaux-2002-anura-bufonidae-glandular-secretions
#11
Débora Lima Sales, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga, Antonia Thassya Lucas Dos Santos, Antonio Judson Targino Machado, João Antonio de Araujo Filho, Diógenes de Queiroz Dias, Francisco Assis Bezerra da Cunha, Rogério de Aquino Saraiva, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José Galberto Martins Costa, Felipe Silva Ferreira, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega Alves, Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida
The increase in microorganisms with resistance to medications has caused a strong preoccupation within the medical and scientific community. Animal toxins studies, such as parotoid glandular secretions from amphibians, possesses a great potential in the development of drugs, such as antimicrobials, as these possess bioactive compounds. It was evaluated Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) glandular secretions against standard and multi-resistant bacterial strains; the effect of secretions combined with drugs; and determined the toxicity using two biologic in vivo models, and a in vitro model with mice livers...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570651/polydim-i-antimicrobial-activity-against-mdr-bacteria-and-its-model-membrane-interaction
#12
Marisa Rangel, Fabíola Fernandes Dos Santos Castro, Lilian Daiene Mota-Lima, Patricia Bianca Clissa, Danubia Batista Martins, Marcia Perez Dos Santos Cabrera, Marcia Renata Mortari
The rapid spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens represents a serious threat to public health, considering factors such as high mortality rates, treatment restrictions and high prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in the hospital environment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) may exhibit powerful antimicrobial activity against different and diverse microorganisms, also presenting the advantage of absence or low toxicity towards animal cells. In this study, the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria of a recently described AMP from wasp, Polydim-I, was performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560237/elizabethkingia-miricola-a-rare-non-fermenter-causing-urinary-tract-infection
#13
Parakriti Gupta, Kamran Zaman, Balvinder Mohan, Neelam Taneja
Elizabethkingia miricola (E. miricola) is a gram-negative non-fermentative bacterium which is rarely encountered. It is usually misidentified or considered as a contaminant in routine microbiology laboratories due to the limitations in conventional biochemical techniques. However, with the advent of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), the identification of non-fermenters has become easy and this has led to enhanced understanding of the clinical significance of these uncommonly isolated microorganisms...
May 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512606/antimicrobial-activity-of-nigerian-medicinal-plants
#14
REVIEW
Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu, Rosemary Chinazam Okoye
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals...
April 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472505/the-antibiotic-resistant-target-seeker-arts-an-exploration-engine-for-antibiotic-cluster-prioritization-and-novel-drug-target-discovery
#15
Mohammad Alanjary, Brent Kronmiller, Martina Adamek, Kai Blin, Tilmann Weber, Daniel Huson, Benjamin Philmus, Nadine Ziemert
With the rise of multi-drug resistant pathogens and the decline in number of potential new antibiotics in development there is a fervent need to reinvigorate the natural products discovery pipeline. Most antibiotics are derived from secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms and plants. To avoid suicide, an antibiotic producer harbors resistance genes often found within the same biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) responsible for manufacturing the antibiotic. Existing mining tools are excellent at detecting BGCs or resistant genes in general, but provide little help in prioritizing and identifying gene clusters for compounds active against specific and novel targets...
May 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403894/antibiotic-resistant-airborne-bacteria-and-their-multidrug-resistance-pattern-at-university-teaching-referral-hospital-in-south-ethiopia
#16
Fithamlak Bisetegen Solomon, Fiseha Wada Wadilo, Amsalu Amache Arota, Yishak Leka Abraham
BACKGROUND: Hospitals provide a reservoir of microorganisms, many of which are multi-resistant to antibiotics. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains in a hospital environment, particularly in developing countries is an increasing problem to infection treatment. This study aims at assessing antibiotic resistant airborne bacterial isolates. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Wolaita Sodo university teaching and referral Hospital. Indoor air samples were collected by using passive air sampling method...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384858/antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-among-intensive-care-units-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-india
#17
Kailash Moolchandani, Apurba Sankar Sastry, R Deepashree, Sujatha Sistla, B N Harish, Jharna Mandal
INTRODUCTION: Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) are the rising threat in the health care facilities across the globe. As most Intesive Care Unit (ICU) patients are frequently on broad spectrum antimicrobials, this induces selective antibiotic pressure which leads to development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) among the microorganisms of ICUs. AIM: To study the occurrence of different types of HAIs in patients admitted to various ICUs of JIPMER and the AMR pattern of the bacterial pathogens isolated from them...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368216/an-overview-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-the-latest-advances-in-their-development
#18
Josep M Sierra, Ester Fusté, Francesc Rabanal, Teresa Vinuesa, Miguel Viñas
The recent dramatic increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance has been recognized by organizations such as the United Nations and World Health Organization as well as the governments of the USA and several European countries. A relatively new weapon in the fight against severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These include colistin, currently regarded as the last line of antimicrobial therapy against multi-drug resistant microorganisms. Areas covered: Here, the authors provide an overview of the current research on AMPs...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346030/antimicrobial-activity-of-eugenol-and-essential-oils-containing-eugenol-a-mechanistic-viewpoint
#19
Anna Marchese, Ramona Barbieri, Erika Coppo, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Morteza Izadi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Marjan Ajami
Eugenol is a hydroxyphenyl propene, naturally occurring in the essential oils of several plants belonging to the Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Myristicaceae families. It is one of the major constituents of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae) oil and is largely used in both foods and cosmetics as a flavoring agent. A large body of recent scientific evidence supports claims from traditional medicine that eugenol exerts beneficial effects on human health. These effects are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
November 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275372/non-disulfide-bridge-peptide-5-5-from-the-scorpion-hadrurus-gertschi-inhibits-the-growth-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-subsp-massiliense
#20
Monalisa M Trentini, Rogério C das Neves, Bruno de Paula Oliveira Santos, Roosevelt A DaSilva, Adolfo C Barros de Souza, Márcia R Mortari, Elisabeth F Schwartz, André Kipnis, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis
Multi-drug resistant microorganisms have been a growing concern during the last decades due to their contribution in mortality rates worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that display potent microbicidal activity against a wide range of microorganisms. AMPs generally have a rapid mode of action that reduces the risk of resistance developing among pathogens. In this study, an AMP derived from scorpion venom, NDBP-5.5, was evaluated against Mycobacterium abscessus subsp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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