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Multi drug resistance microorganism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892739/efflux-as-a-mechanism-of-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-in-clinical-relevant-microorganisms-the-role-of-efflux-inhibitors
#1
Clarissa Willers, Johannes Frederik Wentzel, Lissinda Hester du Plessis, Chrisna Gouws, Josias Hendrik Hamman
Microbial resistance against antibiotics is a serious threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases. Several mechanisms exist through which microorganisms can develop resistance against antimicrobial drugs, of which the over-expression of genes to produce efflux pumps is a major concern. Several efflux transporters have been identified in microorganisms, which infer resistance against specific antibiotics and even multi-drug resistance. Areas covered: This paper focuses on microbial resistance against antibiotics by means of the mechanism of efflux and gives a critical overview of studies conducted to overcome this problem by combining efflux pump inhibitors with antibiotics...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873243/antibiotics-precious-goods-in-changing-times
#2
Peter Sass
Antibiotics represent a first line of defense of diverse microorganisms, which produce and use antibiotics to counteract natural enemies or competitors for nutritional resources in their nearby environment. For antimicrobial activity, nature has invented a great variety of mechanisms of antibiotic action that involve the perturbation of essential bacterial structures or biosynthesis pathways of macromolecules such as the bacterial cell wall, DNA, RNA, or proteins, thereby threatening the specific microbial lifestyle and eventually even survival...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842536/antibacterial-and-cytotoxic-cytochalasins-from-the-endophytic-fungus-phomopsis-sp-harbored-in-garcinia-kola-heckel-nut
#3
Jean-Bosco Jouda, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou, Céline Djama Mbazoa, Clovis Douala-Meli, Prodipta Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Bag, Jean Wandji
BACKGROUND: The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria drastically reduced the efficacy of our antibiotic armory and consequently, increased the frequency of therapeutic failure. The search for bioactive constituents from endophytic fungi against MDR bacteria became a necessity for alternative and promising strategies, and for the development of novel therapeutic solutions. We report here the isolation and structure elucidation of antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from Phomopsis sp...
November 14, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799206/a-multi-center-study-of-method-dependent-epidemiological-cutoff-values-ecvs-for-resistance-detection-in-candida-spp-and-aspergillus-spp-to-amphotericin-b-and-echinocandins-for-the-etest-agar-diffusion-method
#4
A Espinel-Ingroff, M Arendrup, E Cantón, S Cordoba, E Dannaoui, J García-Rodríguez, G M Gonzalez, N P Govender, E Martin-Mazuelos, C Lass-Flörl, M Lackner, M J Linares Sicilia, M A Rodriguez-Iglesias, T Pelaez, R K Shields, G Garcia-Effron, J Guinea, M Sanguinetti, J Turnidge
Method-dependent Etest epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) are not available for susceptibility testing of either Candida or Aspergillus species with amphotericin B or echinocandins. In addition, reference caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. are unreliable. Candida and Aspergillus species wild-type (WT) Etest MIC distributions (microorganisms in a species-drug combination with no detectable phenotypic resistance) were established for 4,341 Candida albicans, 113 C. dubliniensis, 1,683 C. glabrata species complex (SC), 709 C...
October 31, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771149/esbl-producing-gram-negative-organisms-in-the-healthcare-environment-as-a-source-of-genetic-material-for-resistance-in-human-infections
#5
M Muzslay, G Moore, N Alhussaini, A P R Wilson
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the healthcare setting and in the community despite established infection control guidelines indicates that these microorganisms may possess survival strategies that allow them to persist in the environment. AIMS: To determine the extent and variation in endemic ESBL-carrying species in different ward environments, and to investigate the potential for cephalosporin resistance to be transferred from environmental isolates to human pathogens...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757265/antibacterial-synergy-between-rosmarinic-acid-and-antibiotics-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Sanmuga Priya Ekambaram, Senthamil Selvan Perumal, Ajay Balakrishnan, Nathiya Marappan, Sabari Srinivasan Gajendran, Vinodhini Viswanathan
AIM/BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants have ability to resist microorganisms by synthesizing secondary metabolites such as phenols. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenylpropanoid widely distributed in plants and well known as therapeutic and cosmetic agent. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is resistant to all kinds of β-lactams, threatens even most potent antibiotics. To improve the efficiency of antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria and to reduce the antibiotic dose, the antibacterial activity and the synergistic effect of RA with standard antibiotics against S...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737336/synergistic-activity-of-doped-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-with-antibiotics-ciprofloxacin-ampicillin-fluconazole-and-amphotericin-b-against-pathogenic-microorganisms
#7
Neha Sharma, Savita Jandaik, Sanjeev Kumar
Combination therapy of antibiotics and nanoparticles can be used against multi drug resistant microorganisms. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported to show antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activities of doped ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were studied against fungi, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using the standard microdilution method. The interaction between the nanoparticle and the antibiotic was estimated by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index) of the combination through checkerboard assay...
2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642751/identification-and-characterization-of-cefotaxime-resistant-bacteria-in-beef-cattle
#8
Raies A Mir, Thomas A Weppelmann, Judith A Johnson, Douglas Archer, J Glenn Morris, KwangCheol Casey Jeong
Third-generation cephalosporins are an important class of antibiotics that are widely used in treatment of serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. In this study, we report the isolation of bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime from cattle with no previous cefotaxime antibiotic exposure. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria was examined by a combination of culture based and molecular typing methods in beef cattle (n = 1341) from 8 herds located in North Central Florida...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608308/-epidemiology-of-multi-drug-resistant-gramnegative-bacilli
#9
REVIEW
P Ruiz-Garbajosa, R Cantón
Current antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacilli is particularly worrisome due to development of resistance to all available antimicrobial agents. This situation dramatically limits therapeutic options. The microorganisms acquire a multiresistance phenotype as a consequence of different complex processes in which the antimicrobials acts as selective driver of resistance. Dissemination of multiresistant bacteria is driven by the expansion of the high-risk clones. These clones can be selected in the presence of antimicrobials allowing their persistence over time...
September 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592491/analyzing-pmra-and-pmrb-genes-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-resistant-to-colistin-in-shahid-rajai-shiraz-iran-hospital-by-pcr-first-report-in-iran
#10
Shahriar Sepahvand, Monir Doudi, Mohammad Ali Davarpanah, Abbas Bahador, Mehranoosh Ahmadi
Acinetobacter baumanni is known as a worldwide emerging nosocomial infections and it is classified as one of the six dangerous microorganisms by Diseases Society of America. Multi drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii have been reported in recent decades, which may be a result of the high use of antimicrobial agents. Colistin is the last form of treatment against this organism. The presence of pmrA and pmrB genes in A. baumannii causes the resistance of this organism against Colistin. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 samples of A...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574764/plasma-adenosine-deaminase-enzyme-reduces-with-treatment-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-nigerian-patients-indication-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-monitoring
#11
O Ige, V F Edem, O G Arinola
Tuberculosis(TB)-specific host biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response have been identified as priorities for TB research. Macrophage and T cell lymphocytes play vital roles in Mycobacterium tuberculosis immune response and their associated biomarkers could form good candidates for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. The enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) is produced mainly by monocytes and macrophages and increase in biological fluids in the course of infection with microorganisms infecting macrophages...
2016: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540447/beta-lactamase-encoded-genes-blatem-and-blactx-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-species-isolated-from-medical-devices-of-intensive-care-units-in-tehran-hospitals
#12
Sara Khalilzadegan, Mojtaba Sade, Hussein Godarzi, Gita Eslami, Masoumeh Hallajzade, Fatemeh Fallah, Davood Yadegarnia
BACKGROUND: Excessive consumption of antimicrobial materials in hospitals is considered as the main encoder leading to the emergence, development and acquisition of new bacterial resistance to beta-lactamase. OBJECTIVES: Owing to the lack of proper information regarding the mechanism of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics and responsible genes in the country, the current study aimed to consider the resistance or sensitivity of the Acinetobacter baumannii multi drug resistant (MDR) isolates facing 2% glutaraldehyde...
May 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536294/identification-of-novel-genomic-islands-in-liverpool-epidemic-strain-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-using-segmentation-and-clustering
#13
Mehul Jani, Kalai Mathee, Rajeev K Azad
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in a myriad of infections and a leading pathogen responsible for mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Horizontal transfers of genes among the microorganisms living within CF patients have led to highly virulent and multi-drug resistant strains such as the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa, namely the LESB58 strain that has the propensity to acquire virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Often these genes are acquired in large clusters, referred to as "genomic islands (GIs)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534136/essential-oil-from-origanum-vulgare-completely-inhibits-the-growth-of-multidrug-resistant-cystic-fibrosis-pathogens
#14
Giovanna Pesavento, Valentina Maggini, Isabel Maida, Antonella Lo Nostro, Carmela Calonico, Chiara Sassoli, Elena Perrin, Marco Fondi, Alessio Mengoni, Carolina Chiellini, Alfredo Vannacci, Eugenia Gallo, Luigi Gori, Patrizia Bogani, Anna Rita Bilia, Silvia Campana, Novella Ravenni, Daniela Dolce, Fabio Firenzuoli, Renato Fani
Essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. Particularly interesting is the possible use of EOs to treat multidrug-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. We tested the essential oil (EO) from Origanum vulgare for in vitro antimicrobial activity, against three of the major human opportunistic pathogens responsible for respiratory infections in CF patients; these are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529997/prevalence-and-resistance-patterns-of-canine-uropathogens-in-regard-to-concurrent-diseases
#15
Maja Brložnik, Karmen Šterk, Irena Zdovc
Predisposing factors for different types of urinary tract infections (UTI) were evaluated and prevalence of causative agents and their resistance were identified. A prospective epidemiologic study (2007 to 2012) included 191 dogs with signs of urinary tract disease. Anamnestic data were collected and clinical examination, abdominal ultrasonography, urinalysis and aerobic bacteriologic urine culture were performed in all dogs. Other diagnostic procedures were conducted when indicated. UTI was more common in neutered female dogs, older dogs and dogs with concurrent diseases...
July 2016: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496419/clinical-and-microbiological-evaluation-of-removable-prosthetic-restorations-in-patients-treated-with-an-organ-transplant
#16
K Majchrzak, E Mierzwinska-Nastalska, A Chmura, A Kwiatkowski, L Paczek, G Mlynarczyk, K Szymanek-Majchrzak
BACKGROUND: Removable dentures improve function and aesthetics of masticatory organ. Their proper scheme of use and hygiene procedures have an impact on biofilm formation. Microorganisms in biofilm are often resistant to many antibiotics and may pose a potential threat to patients treated with organ transplant. The study provided for evaluation of dental prostheses hygiene standards with reference to staphylococcal microflora in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: The study involved 62 patients with removable prostheses...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449536/bio-fabricated-silver-nanoparticles-preferentially-targets-gram-positive-depending-on-cell-surface-charge
#17
Debasis Mandal, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Balaram Das, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Totan Ghosh, Debasis Das, Somenath Roy
Recently bio-inspired experimental processes for synthesis of nanoparticles are receiving significant attention in nanobiotechnology. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been used very frequently in recent times to the wounds, burns and bacterial infections caused by drug-resistant microorganisms. Though, the antibacterial effects of Ag NPs on some multi drug-resistant bacteria specially against Gram positive bacteria has been established, but further investigation is needed to elicit its effectiveness against Gram negatives and to identify the probable mechanism of action...
July 21, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411324/antimicrobial-peptides-as-anti-biofilm-agents-in-medical-implants
#18
Susana Sánchez-Gómez, Guillermo Martínez-de-Tejada
Biofilm-associated infections constitute a daunting threat to human health, since these pathologies increase patient mortality and morbidity, resulting in prolonged hospitalization periods and heavy economic losses. Moreover, these infections contribute to the increasing emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in hospitals and in the community. Although biofilm-associated microorganisms can proliferate in healthy tissue, abiotic surfaces like those of medical implants greatly increase the likelihood of biofilm formation in the host...
July 13, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355939/nanoparticles-alternatives-against-drug-resistant-pathogenic-microbes
#19
REVIEW
Gudepalya Renukaiah Rudramurthy, Mallappa Kumara Swamy, Uma Rani Sinniah, Ali Ghasemzadeh
Antimicrobial substances may be synthetic, semisynthetic, or of natural origin (i.e., from plants and animals). Antimicrobials are considered "miracle drugs" and can determine if an infected patient/animal recovers or dies. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, which is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare practitioners and is a significant global threat. The major concern with the development of antimicrobial resistance is the spread of resistant organisms...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236394/risk-factors-for-infection-with-colistin-resistant-gram-negative-microorganisms-a-multicenter-study
#20
Gul R Yilmaz, Murat Dizbay, Tumer Guven, Husnu Pullukcu, Meltem Tasbakan, Ozlem Tunccan Guzel, Yasemin T Tekce, Mehmet Ozden, Ozge Turhan, Rahmet Guner, Yasemin Cag, Fatma Bozkurt, Fatma Yilmaz Karadag, Elif Doyuk Kartal, Gokhan Gozel, Cemal Bulut, Sebnem Erdinc, Siran Keske, Ziya Cibali Acikgoz, Mehmet A Tasyaran
BACKGROUND: Knowing risk factors for colistin resistance is important since colistin is the only remaining choice for the treatment of infections caused by multi-drug resistant microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate risk factors associated with infection by colistin-resistant microorganisms. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary healthcare centers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An e-mail including the title and purpose of the study was sent to 1500 infec...
May 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
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