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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453244/white-matter-change-with-apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#1
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441012/a-modified-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-test-predicts-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-better-than-executive-function-tests
#2
Matthias L Schroeter, Sarah Pawelke, Sandrine Bisenius, Jana Kynast, Katharina Schuemberg, Maryna Polyakova, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Adrian Danek, Klaus Fassbender, Holger Jahn, Frank Jessen, Johannes Kornhuber, Martin Lauer, Johannes Prudlo, Anja Schneider, Ingo Uttner, Angelika Thöne-Otto, Markus Otto, Janine Diehl-Schmid
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by deep alterations in behavior and personality. Although revised diagnostic criteria agree for executive dysfunction as most characteristic, impairments in social cognition are also suggested. The study aimed at identifying those neuropsychological and behavioral parameters best discriminating between bvFTD and healthy controls. Eighty six patients were diagnosed with possible or probable bvFTD according to Rascovsky et al. (2011) and compared with 43 healthy age-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429985/posterior-associative-and-cingulate-cortex-involvement-of-brain-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-in-semantic-dementia-with-probable-alzheimer-disease-pathology-a-case-report
#3
Yumi Takano, Keiko Kunitoki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Totsune, Hideo Shimomura, Manabu Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND Semantic dementia (SD) is a type of primary progressive aphasia with prominent language dysfunction, mostly within the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Although there is an overlap in clinical manifestations of SD attributable to FTLD and neuropathologically proven Alzheimer disease (AD), clinical diagnostic clues are not readily available. We present a characteristic finding based on a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based regional cerebral blood flow study and its statistical imaging analysis for a rare case of SD with AD-like pathology...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408763/multiple-pharmacological-activities-of-caesalpinia-crista-against-aluminium-induced-neurodegeneration-in-rats-relevance-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Sunil K Ravi, Balenahalli Narasingappa Ramesh, Ravi Mundugaru, Bruno Vincent
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and mainly affects cognitive function of the aged populations. Aluminium, a neurotoxic metal, has been suggested as a contributing factor of AD. Caesalpinia crista is a medicinal plant known for its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of methanolic extracts of C. crista (MECC) on aluminium-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Co-administration with MECC significantly and dose dependently ameliorated the aluminium-dependent cognitive impairment, AChE hyperactivity and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and in the frontal cortex of rat brain...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404783/neuropathology-and-biochemistry-of-early-onset-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-caused-by-presenilin-1-missense-mutation-thr116asn
#5
Stanislav Sutovsky, Tomas Smolek, Peter Turcani, Robert Petrovic, Petra Brandoburova, Santosh Jadhav, Petr Novak, Johannes Attems, Norbert Zilka
The majority (~ 55%) of early onset familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) is caused by mutations in the presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1). Here, we describe a family with early onset FAD with a missense mutation in the PSEN1 gene (Thr116Asn). Five family members developed dementia in the third decade of life. One subject underwent autopsy. The onset of clinical symptoms was at the age of 37 years and the disease progressed rapidly. The clinical picture was characterised by progressive memory impairment, amnestic aphasia, and gait disturbances...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400666/deep-brain-stimulation-of-frontal-lobe-networks-to-treat-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Douglas W Scharre, Emily Weichart, Dylan Nielson, Jun Zhang, Punit Agrawal, Per B Sederberg, Michael V Knopp, Ali R Rezai
The study objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) at the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) region to specifically modulate frontal lobe behavioral and cognitive networks as a novel treatment approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. This is a non-randomized phase I prospective open label interventional trial of three subjects with matched comparison groups. AD participants given DBS for at least 18 months at the VC/VS target were compared on the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), our primary outcome clinical measure, to matched groups without DBS from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394332/beyond-the-face-how-context-modulates-emotion-processing-in-frontotemporal-dementia-subtypes
#7
Fiona Kumfor, Agustin Ibañez, Rosalind Hutchings, Jessica L Hazelton, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
The importance of assessing social cognition to characterize dementia syndromes is increasingly recognized, with lower social cognition capacity associated with reduced functional independence and greater carer burden. Emotion recognition is impaired in both behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia, yet the social and behavioural changes observed in these syndromes in everyday situations varies. To date, most studies have investigated isolated, context-free stimuli indexing recognition of facial emotions only...
January 31, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387532/fdg-pet-and-csf-biomarker-accuracy-in-prediction-of-conversion-to-different-dementias-in-a-large-multicentre-mci-cohort
#8
Silvia Paola Caminiti, Tommaso Ballarini, Arianna Sala, Chiara Cerami, Luca Presotto, Roberto Santangelo, Federico Fallanca, Emilia Giovanna Vanoli, Luigi Gianolli, Sandro Iannaccone, Giuseppe Magnani, Daniela Perani
Background/aims: In this multicentre study in clinical settings, we assessed the accuracy of optimized procedures for FDG-PET brain metabolism and CSF classifications in predicting or excluding the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and non-AD dementias. Methods: We included 80 MCI subjects with neurological and neuropsychological assessments, FDG-PET scan and CSF measures at entry, all with clinical follow-up. FDG-PET data were analysed with a validated voxel-based SPM method...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383614/comparison-of-odor-identification-among-amnestic-and-non-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-subjective-cognitive-decline-and-early-alzheimer-s-dementia
#9
Sung-Jin Park, Jee-Eun Lee, Kwang-Soo Lee, Joong-Seok Kim
Olfactory impairment might be an important clinical marker and predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we aimed to compare the degree of olfactory identification impairment in each mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtype, subjective memory impairment, and early AD dementia and assessed the relationship between olfactory identification and cognitive performance. We consecutively included 50 patients with amnestic MCI, 28 patients with non-amnestic MCI, 20 patients with mild AD, and 17 patients with subjective memory impairment (SMI)...
January 30, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372111/positively-worded-subscale-score-of-the-perceived-stress-scale-is-associated-with-cognitive-domain-function
#10
Julie M Jiang, Elizabeth K Seng, Molly E Zimmerman, Mimi Kim, Richard B Lipton
Objectives: To examine the cross-sectional associations of the separate subscales of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and tests measuring cognitive domains in older adults. Methods: 897 adults over the age of 70 free of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and dementia and enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study made up the study sample. The PSS-14 was used to measure stress. Three cognitive domains (language, episodic memory, and frontal-executive) had previously been found using principle component analysis...
July 2017: Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357795/tolfenamic-acid-a-modifier-of-the-tau-protein-and-its-role-in-cognition-and-tauopathy
#11
J K Chang, A Leso, G M Subaiea, A Lahouel, A Masoud, F Mushtaq, R Deeb, A Eid, M Dash, S W Bihaqi, N H Zawia
OBJECTIVE: Tangles are deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, which are found in multiple neurodegenerative disorders that are referred to as tauopathies, of which Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common. Tauopathies are clinically characterized by dementia and share in common cortical lesions composed of aggregates of the protein tau. METHODS: In this study, we explored the therapeutic potential of tolfenamic acid (TA), in modifying disease processes in a transgenic animal model that carries the human tau gene (hTau)...
January 18, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357384/regional-and-subtype-dependent-mirna-signatures-in-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-are-accompanied-by-alterations-in-mirna-silencing-machinery-and-biogenesis
#12
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Eulàlia Martí, Eirini Kanata, Dimitra Dafou, Daniela Díaz-Lucena, Ana Vivancos, Orr Shomroni, Saima Zafar, Matthias Schmitz, Uwe Michel, Natalia Fernández-Borges, Olivier Andréoletti, José Antonio Del Río, Juana Díez, Andre Fischer, Stefan Bonn, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Juan Maria Torres, Isidre Ferrer, Inga Zerr
Increasing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are contributing factors to neurodegeneration. Alterations in miRNA signatures have been reported in several neurodegenerative dementias, but data in prion diseases are restricted to ex vivo and animal models. The present study identified significant miRNA expression pattern alterations in the frontal cortex and cerebellum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. These changes display a highly regional and disease subtype-dependent regulation that correlates with brain pathology...
January 22, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356163/alterations-in-spontaneous-delta-and-gamma-activity-might-provide-clues-to-detect-changes-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-administration
#13
Enis Hidisoglu, Deniz Kantar-Gok, Hakan Er, Alev Duygu Acun, Piraye Yargicoglu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia and has an increasing incidence. The neuropathogenesis of AD is suggested to be a result of the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain. To date, Aβ-induced cognitive and neurophysiologic impairments have not been illuminated sufficiently. Therefore, we aimed to examine how spontaneous brain activities of rats changed by injection of increasing Aβ doses into the brain hemispheres, and whether these changes could be used as a new biomarker for the early diagnosis of the AD...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355911/the-brain-health-assessment-for-detecting-and-diagnosing-neurocognitive-disorders
#14
Katherine L Possin, Tacie Moskowitz, Sabrina J Erlhoff, Kirsten M Rogers, Erica T Johnson, Natasha Z R Steele, Joseph J Higgins, Jordan Stiver, Andrea G Alioto, Sarah T Farias, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Brief cognitive screens lack the sensitivity to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or support differential diagnoses. The objective of this study was to validate the 10-minute, tablet-based University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Brain Health Assessment (BHA) to overcome these limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: UCSF Memory and Aging Center. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults (N = 347) (neurologically healthy controls (n = 185), and individuals diagnosed with MCI (n = 99), dementia (n = 42), and as normal with concerns (n = 21))...
January 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354218/evolution-of-short-cognitive-test-performance-in-stroke-patients-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-vascular-dementia-baseline-evaluation-and-follow-up
#15
Nilton Custodio, Rosa Montesinos, David Lira, Eder Herrera-Perez, Yadira Bardales, Lucia Valeriano-Lorenzo
There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with vascular dementia (VD). Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation), and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE), and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS)...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332047/sally-anne-test-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#16
Shintaro Takenoshita, Seishi Terada, Osamu Yokota, Yumiko Kutoku, Yosuke Wakutani, Makoto Nakashima, Yohko Maki, Hideyuki Hattori, Norihito Yamada
Social cognition has recently been recognized as one of the essential cognitive domains. Some reports suggested that patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) presented significant theory of mind deficits even in the mild condition. However, most previous studies included only small numbers of patients with ADD. The present study administered the first-order false belief (Sally-Anne) test to 116 consecutive patients with ADD from the outpatient units of the Memory Clinic and compared the characteristics of the two groups with correct and incorrect answers on the test...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328926/dna-damage-associated-oligodendrocyte-degeneration-precedes-amyloid-pathology-and-contributes-to-alzheimer-s-and-dementia
#17
Kai-Hei Tse, Aifang Cheng, Fulin Ma, Karl Herrup
INTRODUCTION: In looking for novel non-amyloid-based etiologies for Alzheimer's disease, we explore the hypothesis that age-related myelin loss is an attractive explanation for age-associated cognitive decline and dementia. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of data in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database accompanied by quantitative histopathology of myelin and oligodendrocytes (OLs) in frontal cortices of 24 clinically characterized individuals...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318507/mid-term-prognosis-of-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-with-high-proliferative-potential-really-an-aggressive-variant
#18
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Hidefumi Jokura, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
Pituitary adenomas with high proliferation rate and rapid growth are well known, but the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and treatment algorithm remain unclear. The clinical characteristics and mid-term prognosis of patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas with high proliferative potential were retrospectively investigated. This study identified 53 patients with Ki-67 labeling index of > 3% among 845 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (6.3%) initially treated by surgery. Prophylactic treatment was not applied for patients with residual tumor, but salvage treatment was performed if tumor progression was identified within the follow-up period...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314772/the-contribution-of-executive-control-to-semantic-cognition-convergent-evidence-from-semantic-aphasia-and-executive-dysfunction
#19
Hannah E Thompson, Azizah Almaghyuli, Krist A Noonan, Ohr Barak, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies
Semantic cognition, as described by the controlled semantic cognition (CSC) framework (Rogers et al., , Neuropsychologia, 76, 220), involves two key components: activation of coherent, generalizable concepts within a heteromodal 'hub' in combination with modality-specific features (spokes), and a constraining mechanism that manipulates and gates this knowledge to generate time- and task-appropriate behaviour. Executive-semantic goal representations, largely supported by executive regions such as frontal and parietal cortex, are thought to allow the generation of non-dominant aspects of knowledge when these are appropriate for the task or context...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313802/augmenting-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-the-act-study-design-and-methods-of-a-phase-iii-tdcs-and-cognitive-training-trial
#20
Adam J Woods, Ronald Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Gene E Alexander, Sara J Czaja, Samuel Wu
BACKGROUND: Adults over age 65 represent the fastest growing population in the US. Decline in cognitive abilities is a hallmark of advanced age and is associated with loss of independence and dementia risk. There is a pressing need to develop effective interventions for slowing or reversing the cognitive aging process. While certain forms of cognitive training have shown promise in this area, effects only sometimes transfer to neuropsychological tests within or outside the trained domain...
December 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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