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Iliada K Lappa, Dimosthenis Kizis, Efstathios Z Panagou
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors, namely temperature and water activity, on genes involved in the regulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) production over time. For this purpose, the previously characterized toxigenic Aspergilluscarbonarius Ac29 isolate from Greek vineyards and the A. carbonarius ITEM 5010 reference strain were subjected to combined temperature and water activity (aw) treatments to study OTA production and relative gene expression. The fungal isolates were grown on a synthetic grape juice liquid medium (SGM) under different temperature (20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C) and aw (0...
September 22, 2017: Toxins
Giulia Chitarrini, Evelyn Soini, Samantha Riccadonna, Pietro Franceschi, Luca Zulini, Domenico Masuero, Antonella Vecchione, Marco Stefanini, Gabriele Di Gaspero, Fulvio Mattivi, Urska Vrhovsek
Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) is one of the most destructive diseases of the cultivated species Vitis vinifera. The use of resistant varieties, originally derived from backcrosses of North American Vitis spp., is a promising solution to reduce disease damage in the vineyards. To shed light on the type and the timing of pathogen-triggered resistance, this work aimed at discovering biomarkers for the defense response in the resistant variety Bianca, using leaf discs after inoculation with a suspension of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Leila Caramanico, Laura Rustioni, Gabriella De Lorenzis
Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions...
September 9, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Barbara Thuerig, Emily E James, Hans-Jakob Schärer, Moses K Langat, Dulcie A Mulholland, Jonas Treutwein, Ina Kleeberg, Mathias Ludwig, Praveen Jayarajah, Oscar Giovannini, Emilia Markellou, Lucius Tamm
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts might provide sustainable alternatives to copper fungicides, which are still widely used despite their unfavourable ecotoxicological profile. Larch bark extract and its constituents, larixyl acetate and larixol, have been shown to be effective against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) under semi-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce the gap between innovation and the registration of a marketable product, namely to develop scalable extraction processes and to evaluate and optimize performance of larch extracts under different conditions...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
Stefan Mandic-Rajcevic, Federico M Rubino, Eugenio Ariano, Danilo Cottica, Sara Neri, Claudio Colosio
Grapevine is a vulnerable crop to several fungal diseases often requiring the use of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides, such as mancozeb. This fungicide has been reported to have goitrogenic, endocrine disrupting, and possibly immunotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure in two scenarios of mancozeb application and analyse the main determinants of exposure in order to better understand their mechanism of influence. Environmental monitoring was performed using a modified Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "patch" methodology and by hand-wash collection, while mancozeb's metabolite, ethylenethiourea (ETU), was measured in 24-h preexposure and postexposure urine samples...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Valerio Mezzasalma, Anna Sandionigi, Ilaria Bruni, Antonia Bruno, Gianni Lovicu, Maurizio Casiraghi, Massimo Labra
Grape berries harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the vineyard environment, many of which are recognized for their role in the must fermentation process shaping wine quality. To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries and musts of Cannonau. This is the most important cultivar-wine of Sardinia (Italy) where most vineyards are cultivated without phytochemical treatments...
2017: PloS One
Toshiko Miura, Roland Sánchez, Luis E Castañeda, Karina Godoy, Olga Barbosa
While there are substantial studies suggesting that characteristics of wine are related to regional microbial community composition (microbial terroir), there has been little discussion about what factors affect variation in regional microbial community composition. In this study, we compared the microbial community composition of leaves and berries of a grape variety (Carmenere) from six different Chilean vineyards within 35 km of each other. In order to determine relationships between spatial proximity and microbial compositional dissimilarity, we sequenced amplicons of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for fungi and 16S rRNA gene for bacteria...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
L Hossard, S Guimier, F Vinatier, J M Barbier, S Delmotte, M Fontaine, J B Rivoal
Cixiid planthoppers are considered of major economic importance, as they can transmit phytoplasmas responsible for many plant diseases. While thorougly studied in vineyards, the epidemiology of stolbur phytoplasma, transmitted by Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret, was rarely investigated on minor crops as lavender, where it leads to 'yellow decline' disease and large economic losses. The objective of this paper is to understand the effect of the local landscape characteristics on the presence and density of H. obsoletus in the 'Plateau de Valensole', southern France...
September 11, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Bruna Dachery, Flávio Fonseca Veras, Lucas Dal Magro, Vitor Manfroi, Juliane Elisa Welke
The goals of this study were (i) to verify the effect of steam extraction used in juice production and the stages of vinification on the ochratoxin A (OTA) levels found in grapes naturally contaminated, and (ii) evaluate the risk of exposure to this toxin when the daily consumption of juice and wine is followed to prevent cardiovascular disease. OTA-producing fungi were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Itálico and Concord grapes harvested from the same vineyard and intended to produce red wine, white wine and juice, respectively...
September 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Taísa Ceratti Treptow, Carine Gláucia Comarella, Fernanda Wouters Franco, Eliseu Rodrigues, Fabrício Domingues, Vivian Caetano Bochi, Cláudia Kaehler Sautter
Thermal pest control (TPC) is a technology that applies heated air in the vineyard to reduce pests. However, it can also alter grape anthocyanin synthesis in answer to temperature stress. The aim of this work was to determine the impact of TPC in 'Tannat' grape vineyards on wine quality. The major makers of quality considered in this study were the wine anthocyanin characterization by HPLC-PDA-MS(n), beverage's sensory evaluation by descriptive analysis, and color parameters by instrumental analysis. A total of three experiments were performed in different harvesting years...
October 2017: Food Research International
Trudy Jansen, Justin Wallace Hoff, Neil Jolly, Willem Heber van Zyl
Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from vineyards in the Western Cape, South Africa were evaluated for ethanol production in industrial conditions associated with the production of second-generation biofuels. The strains displayed high phenotypic diversity including the ability to grow at 45 °C and in the presence of 20% (v/v) ethanol, strain YI13. Strains HR4 and YI30 were inhibitor-tolerant under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions, respectively. Spore-to-spore hybridization generated progeny that displayed heterosis, including increased ethanol productivity and improved growth in the presence of a synthetic inhibitor cocktail...
September 8, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Alessia Viel, Jean-Luc Legras, Chiara Nadai, Milena Carlot, Angiolella Lombardi, Manna Crespan, Daniele Migliaro, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
In recent years the interest for natural fermentations has been re-evaluated in terms of increasing the wine terroir and managing more sustainable winemaking practices. Therefore, the level of yeast genetic variability and the abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae native populations in vineyard are becoming more and more crucial at both ecological and technological level. Among the factors that can influence the strain diversity, the commercial starter release that accidentally occur in the environment around the winery, has to be considered...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
José M Rey Benayas, Jorge Meltzer, Daniel de Las Heras-Bravo, Luis Cayuela
Regulation of agricultural pests managing their natural enemies represents an alternative to chemical pesticides. We assessed the potential of insectivorous birds as pest regulators in woody crops located in central Spain. A total of 417 nest boxes installed in five field study sites (one vineyard, two fruit orchards, and two olive groves) were monitored for use and breeding of insectivorous birds and other species for four consecutive years (2013-2016). At all field sites except the two olive groves, where birds never occupied the nest boxes, predation experiments were conducted with Greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) sentinel caterpillars, and food consumption by birds was estimated...
2017: PloS One
P C Carmichael, N Siyoum, L Chidamba, L Korsten
AIMS: To determine fungal communities that characterise table grapes during berry development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two agro-ecologically different table grape commercial farms (site A and B) were used in this study. Samples were collected at full bloom, pea size and mature stages, from three positions (inside centre, eastern and western peripheral-ends) per site. Total DNA extraction, Illumina sequencing and analysis of 18 pooled samples for fungal diversity targeting ITS1-2 generated a total of 2035933 high quality sequences...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Wilson José Fernandes Lemos Junior, Alessia Viel, Barbara Bovo, Milena Carlot, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
AIMS: In this work fermentation performances of seven vineyard strains, together with the industrial strain EC1118, have been investigated at three differing yeast assimilable nitrogen concentrations (300 mg N l(-1) , 150 mg N l(-1) and 70 mg N l(-1) ) in synthetic musts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Most of the strains showed a dramatic decrease of the fermentation at 70 mg N l(-1) but no significant differences in CO2 production were found when fermentations at 300 mg N l(-1) and 150 mg N l(-1) were compared...
September 1, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Giorgia Novello, Elisa Gamalero, Elisa Bona, Lara Boatti, Flavio Mignone, Nadia Massa, Patrizia Cesaro, Guido Lingua, Graziella Berta
Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jorge E Spangenberg, Maria Vogiatzaki, Vivian Zufferey
This paper describes a novel approach to reassess the water status in vineyards based on compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of wine volatile organic compounds (δ(13)CVOC/VPDB) and bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and the C/N molar ratios of the wine solid residues (δ(13)CSR/VPDB, δ(15)NSR/Air-N2). These analyses link gas chromatography/combustion and elemental analysis to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS, EA/IRMS). Field-grown cultivars of Pinot Noir grapevines were exposed during six growing seasons (2009-2014) to controlled soil water availability, while maintaining identical the other environmental variables and agricultural techniques...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Fanny Vogelweith, Yannick Moret, Denis Thiéry, Lionel Delbac, Jérôme Moreau
Immune function is a key determinant of an organism's fitness, and natural insect populations are highly variable for this trait, mainly due to environmental heterogeneity and pathogen diversity. We previously reported a positive correlation between infection prevalence by parasitoids and host immunity in natural populations of the vineyard pest Lobesia botrana. Here, we tested whether this correlation reflects a plastic adjustment of host immunity in response to the local presence of parasites. To this end, we measured immunity of non-parasitized L...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
P Pérez-Rodríguez, D Soto-Gómez, M Paradelo, J E López-Periago
The presence of agricultural pesticides in the environment and their effects on ecosystems are major concerns addressed in a significant number of articles. However, limited information is available on the pesticide concentrations released from crops. This study reports losses of new-generation fungicides by foliar wash-off from vineyards and their potential impact on the concentrations of their main active substances (AS) in surface waters. Two experimental plots devoted to vineyards were treated with various combinations of commercial new-generation fungicide formulations...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Camille Carles, Ghislaine Bouvier, Yolande Esquirol, Clément Piel, Lucile Migault, Camille Pouchieu, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Pierre Lebailly, Isabelle Baldi
The effect of pesticides on human health is still controversial, particularly as regards long-term health effects like cancer. The literature does suggest, however, that they could be involved in the occurrence of brain tumors, although the results concerning residential exposure are scarce. Our objective was to investigate the association between residential proximity to agricultural pesticides and brain tumors among adults in France by using a geographical information system. CERENAT is a population-based case-control study carried out in France in 2004-2006...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Research
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