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Daniela Lopes Paim Pinto, Lucio Brancadoro, Silvia Dal Santo, Gabriella De Lorenzis, Mario Pezzotti, Blake C Meyers, Mario E Pè, Erica Mica
Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Katja Knauer
BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis of surface water conducted in European countries indicates that pesticides are often detected in surface waters. This asks regulatory authorities to consider these monitoring data while re-evaluating pesticide approval and setting appropriate risk mitigation measures. During the years 2005-2012, the cantons in Switzerland performed 345,000 pesticide measurements in surface waters. Overall, 203 approved pesticides were examined. For 60 of these substances, regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) were published, which were determined from ecotoxicological data in accordance with international test methods within the framework of the authorization procedure...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Massimiliano Alessandrini, Federica Gaiotti, Nicola Belfiore, Fabiola Matarese, Claudio D'Onofrio, Diego Tomasi
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors have been acknowledged as greatly influencing grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has been scarcely debated in literature, to date. In this study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). RESULTS: The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest one (200 m a...
October 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Thomas F Boudreau, Gregory M Peck, Sean F O'Keefe, Amanda C Stewart
BACKGROUND: Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation, but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. This study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S(0) ), (known to result in increased H2 S in wine), fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples)...
October 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Velimir Gayevskiy, Soon Lee, Matthew R Goddard
Humans have acted as vectors for species and expanded their ranges since at least the dawn of agriculture. While relatively well characterized for macrofauna and macroflora, the extent and dynamics of human-aided microbial dispersal is poorly described. We studied the role which humans have played in manipulating the distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the world's most important microbes, using whole genome sequencing. We include 52 strains representative of the diversity in New Zealand to the global set of genomes for this species...
October 15, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Margarida Rocheta, João L Coito, Miguel J N Ramos, Luísa Carvalho, Jörg D Becker, Pablo Carbonell-Bejerano, Sara Amâncio
BACKGROUND: Predicted climate changes announce an increase of extreme environmental conditions including drought and excessive heat and light in classical viticultural regions. Thus, understanding how grapevine responds to these conditions and how different genotypes can adapt, is crucial for informed decisions on accurate viticultural actions. Global transcriptome analyses are useful for this purpose as the response to these abiotic stresses involves the interplay of complex and diverse cascades of physiological, cellular and molecular events...
October 12, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Teik Min Chong, Wai-Fong Yin, Jian-Woon Chen, Samuel Mondy, Catherine Grandclément, Denis Faure, Yves Dessaux, Kok-Gan Chan
Trace metals are required in many cellular processes in bacteria but also induce toxic effects to cells when present in excess. As such, various forms of adaptive responses towards extracellular trace metal ions are essential for the survival and fitness of bacteria in their environment. A soil Pseudomonas putida, strain S13.1.2 has been isolated from French vineyard soil samples, and shown to confer resistance to copper ions. Further investigation revealed a high capacity to tolerate elevated concentrations of various heavy metals including nickel, cobalt, cadmium, zinc and arsenic...
December 2016: AMB Express
Eva P Pérez-Álvarez, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Enrique García-Escudero, José María Martínez-Vidaurre
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen affects the grapevine growth and also the yeast metabolism, which influence directly on the fermentation kinetic and on the formation of different volatile compounds. Throughout grapevine cycle, soil nitrogen availability and grape nitrogen composition can vary as a consequence of different factors. Nitrogen foliar applications can contribute to enhance the grapevine nitrogen status and to minimize the problem of leaching that the traditional N-soil applications can provoke...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Marco Napoli, Anna Dalla Marta, Camillo A Zanchi, Simone Orlandini
Worldwide, glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in controlling the growth of annual and perennial weeds. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the environmental risk resulting from the use of this molecule in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of the study was to determine the transport of glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), through runoff and transported sediment from a vineyard under two different soil management systems: harrowed inter-row (HR) and permanent grass covered inter-row (GR)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Cecile Levasseur-Garcia, Hugo Malaurie, Nathalie Mailhac
In most vineyards worldwide, agents of grapevine trunk diseases represent a real threat for viticulture and are responsible for significant economic loss to the wine industry. The conventional microbiological isolation technique used to diagnose this disease is tedious and frequently leads to false negatives. Thus, a dire need exists for an alternative method to detect this disease. One possible way involves infrared spectroscopy, which is a rapid, nondestructive analytical tool that is commonly used for quality control of feed stuffs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Carlotta Malagoli, Sofia Costanzini, Julia E Heck, Marcella Malavolti, Gianfranco De Girolamo, Paola Oleari, Giovanni Palazzi, Sergio Teggi, Marco Vinceti
BACKGROUND: Exposure to pesticides has been suggested as a risk factor for childhood leukemia, but definitive evidence on this relation and the specific pesticides involved is still not clear. OBJECTIVE: We carried out a population-based case-control study in a Northern Italy community to assess the possible relation between passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of acute childhood leukemia. METHODS: We assessed passive pesticide exposure of 111 childhood leukemia cases and 444 matched controls by determining density and type of agricultural land use within a 100-m radius buffer around children's homes...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Rana Haidar, Jean Roudet, Olivier Bonnard, Marie Cécile Dufour, Marie France Corio-Costet, Mathieu Fert, Thomas Gautier, Alain Deschamps, Marc Fermaud
The antagonistic activity of 46 bacterial strains isolated from Bordeaux vineyards were evaluated against Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, a major grapevine pathogen involved in Esca. The reduction of the necrosis length of stem cuttings ranged between 31.4% and 38.7% for the 8 most efficient strains. Two in planta trials allowed the selection of the two best strains, Bacillus pumilus (S32) and Paenibacillus sp. (S19). Their efficacy was not dependent on application method; co-inoculation, prevention in the wood and soil inoculation were tested...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Ana I Pardo-Garcia, Kerry L Wilkinson, Julie A Culbert, Natoiya D R Lloyd, Gonzalo L Alonso, M Rosario Salinas
Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Marwan Katurji, Peyman Zawar-Reza
We apply the principles of atmospheric surface layer dynamics within a vineyard canopy to demonstrate the use of forward-looking infrared cameras measuring surface brightness temperature (spectrum bandwidth of 7.5 to 14 μm) at a relatively high temporal rate of 10 s. The temporal surface brightness signal over a few hours of the stable nighttime boundary layer, intermittently interrupted by periods of turbulent heat flux surges, was shown to be related to the observed meteorological measurements by an in situ eddy-covariance system, and reflected the above-canopy wind variability...
2016: Sensors
Luciana Galetto, Dimitrios E Miliordos, Mattia Pegoraro, Dario Sacco, Flavio Veratti, Cristina Marzachì, Domenico Bosco
Flavescence dorée (FD) is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP) load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christian Coelho, Franck Bagala, Régis D Gougeon, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
Capillary electrophoresis appeared to be a powerful and reliable technique to analyze the diversity of wine compounds. Wine presents a great variety of natural chemicals coming from the grape berry extraction and the fermentation processes. The first and more abundant after water, ethanol has been quantified in wines via capillary electrophoresis. Other families like organic acids, neutral and acid sugars, polyphenols, amines, thiols, vitamins, and soluble proteins are electrophoretically separated from the complex matrix...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rodrigo Alonso, Federico J Berli, Ariel Fontana, Patricia Piccoli, Rubén Bottini
High-altitude vineyards receive elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) levels so producing high quality berries for winemaking because of induction in the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Water deficit (D) after veraison, is a commonly used tool to regulate berry polyphenols concentration in red wine cultivars. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in the acclimation to environmental factors/signals (including UV-B and D). The aim of the present study was to evaluate independent and interactive effects of high-altitude solar UV-B, moderate water deficit and ABA applications on Vitis vinifera cv...
September 13, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Massimo Prosdocimi, Maria Burguet, Simone Di Prima, Giulia Sofia, Enric Terol, Jesús Rodrigo Comino, Artemi Cerdà, Paolo Tarolli
Soil water erosion is a serious problem, especially in agricultural lands. Among these, vineyards deserve attention, because they constitute for the Mediterranean areas a type of land use affected by high soil losses. A significant problem related to the study of soil water erosion in these areas consists in the lack of a standardized procedure of collecting data and reporting results, mainly due to a variability among the measurement methods applied. Given this issue and the seriousness of soil water erosion in Mediterranean vineyards, this works aims to quantify the soil losses caused by simulated rainstorms, and compare them with each other depending on two different methodologies: (i) rainfall simulation and (ii) surface elevation change-based, relying on high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) derived from a photogrammetric technique (Structure-from-Motion or SfM)...
September 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jeffrey D Palumbo, Teresa L O'Keeffe, Matthew W Fidelibus
Identification of populations of Aspergillus section Nigri species in environmental samples using traditional methods is laborious and impractical for large numbers of samples. We developed species-specific primers and probes for quantitative droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to improve sample throughput and simultaneously detect multiple species in each sample. The ddPCR method was used to distinguish A. niger, A. welwitschiae, A. tubingensis and A. carbonarius in mixed samples of total DNA. Relative abundance of each species measured by ddPCR agreed with input ratios of template DNAs...
September 7, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
L Lamastra, M Balderacchi, A Di Guardo, M Monchiero, M Trevisan
The wine industry is definitely committed in sustainability: the stakeholders' interest for the topic is constantly growing and a wide number of sustainability programs have been launched in recent years. Most of these programs are focusing on the environmental aspects as environmental sustainability indicators, greenhouse gases emissions and the use of Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Among the environmental indicators the carbon and the water footprint are often used. These indicators, while being useful to assess the sustainability performance of the winegrowing farms, do not take into account important aspects related to the agronomic management of the vineyard...
September 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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