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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255334/from-berries-to-blocks-carbon-stock-quantification-of-a-california-vineyard
#1
Jorge Andres Morandé, Christine M Stockert, Garrett C Liles, John N Williams, David R Smart, Joshua H Viers
BACKGROUND: Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we used destructive sampling to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a vineyard in California's northern San Joaquin Valley...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254017/aroma-compounds-and-characteristics-of-noble-rot-wines-of-chardonnay-grapes-artificially-botrytized-in-the-vineyard
#2
Xing-Jie Wang, Yong-Sheng Tao, Yun Wu, Rong-Yan An, Zhuo-Ya Yue
Aroma characteristics and their impact volatile components of noble-rot wines elaborated from artificial botrytized Chardonnay grapes, obtained by spraying Botrytis cinerea suspension in Yuquan vineyard, Ningxia, China, were explored in this work. Dry white wine made from normal-harvested grapes and sweet wine produced from delay-harvested grapes were compared. Wine aromas were analysed by trained sensory panelists, and aroma compounds were determined by SPME-GC-MS. Results indicated that esters, fatty acids, thiols, lactones, volatile phenols and 2-nonanone increased markedly in noble-rot wines...
July 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252636/the-exome-clinic-and-the-role-of-medical-genetics-expertise-in-the-interpretation-of-exome-sequencing-results
#3
Dustin Baldridge, Jennifer Heeley, Marisa Vineyard, Linda Manwaring, Tomi L Toler, Emily Fassi, Elise Fiala, Sarah Brown, Charles W Goss, Marcia Willing, Dorothy K Grange, Beth A Kozel, Marwan Shinawi
PURPOSE: Evaluation of the clinician's role in the optimal interpretation of clinical exome sequencing (ES) results. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of the first 155 patients who underwent clinical ES in our Exome Clinic and direct interaction with the ordering geneticist to evaluate the process of interpretation of results. RESULTS: The most common primary indication was neurodevelopmental problems (~66%), followed by multiple congenital anomalies (~10%)...
March 2, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245619/vinesens-an-eco-smart-decision-support-viticulture-system
#4
Josman P Pérez-Expósito, Tiago M Fernández-Caramés, Paula Fraga-Lamas, Luis Castedo
This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew...
February 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242219/high-frequency-monitoring-of-pesticides-in-runoff-water-to-improve-understanding-of-their-transport-and-environmental-impacts
#5
Marie Lefrancq, Alain Jadas-Hécart, Isabelle La Jeunesse, David Landry, Sylvain Payraudeau
Rainfall-induced peaks in pesticide concentrations can occur rapidly. Low frequency sampling may therefore largely underestimate maximum pesticide concentrations and fluxes. Detailed storm-based sampling of pesticide concentrations in runoff water to better predict pesticide sources, transport pathways and toxicity within the headwater catchments is lacking. High frequency monitoring (2min) of seven pesticides (Dimetomorph, Fluopicolide, Glyphosate, Iprovalicarb, Tebuconazole, Tetraconazole and Triadimenol) and one degradation product (AMPA) were assessed for 20 runoff events from 2009 to 2012 at the outlet of a vineyard catchment in the Layon catchment in France...
February 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238575/impacts-of-climate-and-land-use-changes-on-the-water-quality-of-a-small-mediterranean-catchment-with-intensive-viticulture
#6
D Serpa, J P Nunes, J J Keizer, N Abrantes
Studies that address the potential effects of climate and land use changes on surface water quality are scarce in the Mediterranean region. In the present work, the impacts of climate and land use changes on nutrient and copper exports from a humid Mediterranean catchment (São Lourenço) were evaluated using the SWAT model. SWAT reproduced reasonably well total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (TP) and copper (Cu) exports in São Lourenço, providing an adequate baseline scenario as well as a suitable model parameterization for assessing the impacts of climate and land use changes under the A1B and B1 emission scenarios for the end of the 21st century (2071-2100)...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235889/accumulation-of-micrornas-differentially-modulated-by-drought-is-affected-by-grafting-in-grapevine
#7
Chiara Pagliarani, Marco Vitali, Manuela Ferrero, Nicola Vitulo, Marco Incarbone, Claudio Lovisolo, Giorgio Valle, Andrea Schubert
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is routinely grafted and rootstocks inducing drought tolerance represent a source for adapting vineyards to climate change in temperate areas. Our goal was to investigate drought stress effects on miRNA abundance in a drought-resistant grapevine rootstock, M4 (Vitis vinifera X Vitis berlandieri), compared with a commercial cultivar, Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), by using their auto- and reciprocal grafts. RNA extracted from roots and leaves of droughted and irrigated plants of different graft combinations was used to prepare cDNA libraries for small RNA sequencing, and to analyse miRNAs by Real Time PCR (RT-qPCR)...
February 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231406/fungal-adaptation-to-contemporary-fungicide-applications-the-case-of-botrytis-cinerea-populations-from-champagne-vineyards-france
#8
A-S Walker, V Ravigne, A Rieux, S Ali, F Carpentier, E Fournier
In addition to being one of the most acute problems impeding chemical control of fungal diseases, the evolution of fungicide resistance is an emblematic case of local adaptation to spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable selection pressures. Here we dissected the adaptation of Botrytis cinerea (the causal agent of grey mould) populations on grapes to several fungicides. We carried out a two-year survey (four collection dates) on three treated/untreated pairs of plots from vineyards in Champagne (France), and monitored the frequency of four resistant phenotypes that are unambiguously associated to four distinct genotypes...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218463/closed-reference-metatranscriptomics-enables-in-planta-profiling-of-putative-virulence-activities-in-the-grapevine-trunk-disease-complex
#9
Abraham Morales-Cruz, Gabrielle Allenbeck, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Vanessa E Ashworth, Daniel P Lawrence, Renaud Travadon, Rhonda J Smith, Kendra Baumgartner, Philippe E Rolshausen, Dario Cantu
Grapevines, like other perennial crops, are affected by so-called 'trunk diseases', which damage the trunk and other woody tissues. Mature grapevines typically contract more than one trunk disease and often multiple grapevine trunk pathogens (GTPs) are recovered from infected tissues. The co-existence of different GTP species in complex and dynamic microbial communities complicates the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease development especially under vineyard conditions. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a community-level transcriptomics (i...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203242/sunlight-modulates-fruit-metabolic-profile-and-shapes-the-spatial-pattern-of-compound-accumulation-within-the-grape-cluster
#10
Noam Reshef, Natasha Walbaum, Nurit Agam, Aaron Fait
Vineyards are characterized by their large spatial variability of solar irradiance (SI) and temperature, known to effectively modulate grape metabolism. To explore the role of sunlight in shaping fruit composition and cluster uniformity, we studied the spatial pattern of incoming irradiance, fruit temperature and metabolic profile within individual grape clusters under three levels of sunlight exposure. The experiment was conducted in a vineyard of Cabernet Sauvignon cv. located in the Negev Highlands, Israel, where excess SI and midday temperatures are known to degrade grape quality...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196322/ecosystem-services-mapping-for-sustainable-agricultural-water-management-in-california-s-central-valley
#11
Edward Matios, Jennifer Burney
Accurate information on agricultural water needs and withdrawals at appropriate spatial and temporal scales remains a key limitation to joint water and land management decision-making. We use InVEST ecosystem service mapping to estimate water yield and water consumption as functions of land use in Fresno County, a key farming region in California's Central Valley. Our calculations show that in recent years (2010-2015), the total annual water yield for the county has varied dramatically from ∼0.97 to 5.37 km(3) (all ±17%; 1 MAF ≈ 1...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185034/agricultural-activities-and-the-incidence-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-general-french-population
#12
Sofiane Kab, Johan Spinosi, Laura Chaperon, Aline Dugravot, Archana Singh-Manoux, Frédéric Moisan, Alexis Elbaz
Most studies on pesticides and Parkinson's disease (PD) focused on occupational exposure in farmers. Whether non-occupational exposure is associated with PD has been little explored. We investigated the association between agricultural characteristics and PD incidence in a French nationwide ecologic study. We hypothesized that persons living in regions with agricultural activities involving more intensive pesticide use would be at higher risk. We identified incident PD cases from French National Health Insurance databases (2010-2012)...
February 9, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169033/combining-habitat-requirements-of-endemic-bird-species-and-other-ecosystem-services-may-synergistically-enhance-conservation-efforts
#13
Mattia Brambilla, Luca Ilahiane, Giacomo Assandri, Silvia Ronchi, Giuseppe Bogliani
Biodiversity conservation and the optimisation of other ecosystem service delivery as a contribution to human well-being are often tackled as mutually alternative targets. Modern agriculture is a great challenge for the fulfilment of both. Here, we explore the potential benefits of integrating biodiversity conservation and the preservation of wider ecosystem services, considering the conservation of an endemic species (Moltoni's warbler Sylvia subalpina; Aves: Sylvidae) and soil erosion control (a final ecosystem service) in intensive vineyards in Italy...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168929/preventative-disease-management-and-grower-decision-making-a-case-study-of-california-winegrape-growers
#14
Vicken Hillis, Mark Lubell, Jonathan Kaplan, Kendra Baumgartner
Preventative disease management is challenging to farmers because it requires paying immediate costs in the hopes of returning uncertain future benefits. Understanding farmer decision making about prevention has the potential to reduce disease incidence and minimize the need for more costly post-infection practices. For example, the grapevine trunk-disease complex (Esca, Botryosphaeria dieback, Eutypa dieback, Phomopsis dieback) significantly impacts vineyard productivity and longevity. Given the chronic nature of the infections and inability to eradicate the fungal pathogens, the preventative practices of delayed pruning, applications of pruning-wound protectants, and double pruning (a...
February 7, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156050/evaluation-of-a-decision-support-strategy-for-the-control-of-powdery-mildew-erysiphe-necator-schw-burr-in-grapevine-in-the-central-region-of-chile
#15
Héctor Valdés-Gómez, Miguel Araya-Alman, Carolina Pañitrur-De la Fuente, Nicolás Verdugo-Vásquez, Mauricio Lolas, César Acevedo-Opazo, Christian Gary, Agnès Calonnec
BACKGROUND: The primary strategy to control powdery mildew in Chilean vineyards involves periodic fungicide spraying, which may lead to many environmental and human health risks. This study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness and economic feasibility of a novel Decision Support Strategy (DSS) to limit the number of treatments against this pathogen. An experiment was conducted between the 2010 and 2013 seasons in two irrigated vine fields, one containing a cultivar of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and another of Chardonnay (CH)...
February 3, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146570/temporal-and-spatial-scales-matter-circannual-habitat-selection-by-bird-communities-in-vineyards
#16
Claire Guyot, Raphaël Arlettaz, Pius Korner, Alain Jacot
Vineyards are likely to be regionally important for wildlife, but we lack biodiversity studies in this agroecosystem which is undergoing a rapid management revolution. As vine cultivation is restricted to arid and warm climatic regions, biodiversity-friendly management would promote species typical of southern biomes. Vineyards are often intensively cultivated, mostly surrounded by few natural features and offering a fairly mineral appearance with little ground vegetation cover. Ground vegetation cover and composition may further strongly vary with respect to season, influencing patterns of habitat selection by ecological communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146133/exploring-the-effects-of-geographical-origin-on-the-chemical-composition-and-quality-grading-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-chardonnay-grapes
#17
Joanna M Gambetta, Daniel Cozzolino, Susan E P Bastian, David W Jeffery
The relationship between berry chemical composition, region of origin and quality grade was investigated for Chardonnay grapes sourced from vineyards located in seven South Australian Geographical Indications (GI). Measurements of basic chemical parameters, amino acids, elements, and free and bound volatiles were conducted for grapes collected during 2015 and 2016. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was used to determine the sets of data that best discriminated each GI and quality grade. Important components for the discrimination of grapes based on GI were 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol and C6 compounds, as well as Cu, Zn, and Mg, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH...
January 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133743/non-destructive-assessment-of-grapevine-water-status-in-the-field-using-a-portable-nir-spectrophotometer
#18
Javier Tardaguila, Juan Fernández-Novales, Salvador Gutiérrez, Maria Paz Diago
BACKGROUND: Until now, the majority of methods employed to assess grapevine water status have been destructive, time-intensive, costly and provide information of a limited number of samples, thus the ability of revealing within-field water status variability is reduced. The goal of this work was to evaluate the capability of non-invasive, portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy acquired in the field, to assess the grapevine water status in diverse varieties, grown under different environmental conditions, in a fast and reliable way...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131937/inland-navigation-pah-inventories-in-soil-and-vegetation-after-eu-fuel-regulation-2009-30-ec
#19
Melanie Bläsing, Wulf Amelung, Lorenz Schwark, Eva Lehndorff
In January 2011, fuel quality in inland water vessels was changed by EU regulation 2009/30/EC, aiming at improving air quality along waterways. We hypothesized that the implementation of this regulation both lowered the total deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and changed their composition in river valleys. We analyzed parent-, alkylated- and thio-PAHs in soil and vine leaves, at two waterways (Rhine and Moselle, Germany), as well as in one ship-free reference area (Ahr, Germany). Samples were taken annually (2010-2013) in transects perpendicular to the rivers...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130570/a-bayesian-estimation-approach-for-the-mortality-in-a-stage-structured-demographic-model
#20
E Lanzarone, S Pasquali, G Gilioli, E Marchesini
Control interventions in sustainable pest management schemes are set according to the phenology and the population abundance of the pests. This information can be obtained using suitable mathematical models that describe the population dynamics based on individual life history responses to environmental conditions and resource availability. These responses are described by development, fecundity and survival rate functions, which can be estimated from laboratory experiments. If experimental data are not available, data on field population dynamics can be used for their estimation...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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