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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533770/from-vineyard-soil-to-wine-fermentation-microbiome-approximations-to-explain-the-terroir-concept
#1
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Iratxe Zarraonaindia, Matthew Perisin, Antonio Palacios, Alberto Acedo
Wine originally emerged as a serendipitous mix of chemistry and biology, where microorganisms played a decisive role. From these ancient fermentations to the current monitored industrial processes, winegrowers and winemakers have been continuously changing their practices according to scientific knowledge and advances. A new enology direction is emerging and aiming to blend the complexity of spontaneous fermentations with industrial safety of monitored fermentations. In this context, wines with distinctive autochthonous peculiarities have a great acceptance among consumers, causing important economic returns...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526983/low-source-sink-ratio-reduces-reserve-starch-in-grapevine-woody-canes-and-modulates-sugar-transport-and-metabolism-at-transcriptional-and-enzyme-activity-levels
#2
Angélica Silva, Henrique Noronha, Zhanwu Dai, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation...
May 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511108/wine-yeasts-identification-by-maldi-tof-ms-optimization-of-the-preanalytical-steps-and-development-of-an-extensible-open-source-platform-for-processing-and-analysis-of-an-in-house-ms-database
#3
Cristina Gutiérrez, M Ángeles Gómez-Flechoso, Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Nour Kayali, Luis Polo, Antonio Santos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important yeast species for the production of wine and other beverages. In addition, nowadays, researchers and winemakers are aware of the influence of non-Saccharomyces in wine aroma complexity. Due to the high microbial diversity associated to several agro-food processes, such as winemaking, developing fast and accurate methods for microbial identification is demanded. In this context, MALDI-TOF MS mass fingerprint provides reliable tool for fast biotyping and classification of microorganisms...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504136/fabrication-of-sustained-release-ca-pu-coaxial-electrospun-fiber-membranes-for-plant-grafting-application
#4
Zhongfu Guo, Guosheng Tang, Yonghong Zhou, Liu Shuwu, Haoqing Hou, Zhenyu Chen, Jinhui Chen, Chunhong Hu, Fei Wang, Stefaan C De Smedt, Ranhua Xiong, Chaobo Huang
Plant grafting is a well-known activity in orchards, greenhouses and vineyards gardens. However, low survival rate still limits the promotion of grafting and breeding of improved varieties. We report on polymeric fibers, obtained through coaxial electrospun, as carriers for the sustained release of drugs to heal wounds in plants. The CA-PU co-electrospun fibers show a rather uniform diameter, a smooth and hydrophilic surface. As long as 10days of sustained drugs release meets with the physiological requirement of plant grafting...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499227/organic-carbon-pools-and-soil-biological-fertility-are-affected-by-land-use-intensity-in-mediterranean-ecosystems-of-sardinia-italy
#5
Rosa Francaviglia, Gianluca Renzi, Luigi Ledda, Anna Benedetti
Soil quality is mainly studied from the chemical and physical point of view, whereas soil biochemical and microbiological parameters are relatively more scarcely explored to assess the effect of management practices. This study aimed to evaluate soil organic carbon (SOC) and its pools; soil microbial activity parameters; and the Biological Fertility Index (BFI), in six land uses characteristics of the Mediterranean basin in north-eastern Sardinia. These land uses differed in management intensity and consisted of: tilled vineyard (TV), no tilled grassed vineyard (GV), former vineyards (FV), hay crop and pasture (HC and PA), cork oak forest (CO)...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496453/grapevine-grafting-scion-transcript-profiling-and-defense-related-metabolites-induced-by-rootstocks
#6
Walter Chitarra, Irene Perrone, Carla G Avanzato, Andrea Minio, Paolo Boccacci, Deborah Santini, Giovanna Gilardi, Ilenia Siciliano, Maria L Gullino, Massimo Delledonne, Franco Mannini, Giorgio Gambino
Rootstocks are among the main factors that influence grape development as well as fruit and wine composition. In this work, rootstock/scion interactions were studied using transcriptomic and metabolic approaches on leaves of the "Gaglioppo" variety, grafted onto 13 different rootstocks growing in the same vineyard. The whole leaf transcriptome of "Gaglioppo" grafted onto five selected rootstocks showed high variability in gene expression. In particular, significant modulation of transcripts linked to primary and secondary metabolism was observed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466415/tannat-grape-composition-responses-to-spatial-variability-of-temperature-in-an-uruguay-s-coastal-wine-region
#7
Mercedes Fourment, Milka Ferrer, Gustavo González-Neves, Gérard Barbeau, Valérie Bonnardot, Hervé Quénol
Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall)...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464603/impact-of-bottle-aging-on-smoke-tainted-wines-from-different-grape-cultivars
#8
Renata Ristic, Lieke van der Hulst, Dimitra L Capone, Kerry L Wilkinson
Smoke taint is the term given to the objectionable smoky, medicinal, and ashy characters that can be exhibited in wines following vineyard exposure to bushfire smoke. This study sought to investigate the stability of smoke taint by determining changes in the composition and sensory properties of wines following 5 to 6 years of bottle aging. Small increases in guaiacol and 4-methylguaiacol (of up to 6 μg/L) were observed after bottle aging of smoke-affected red and white wines, while syringol increased by as much as 29 μg/L...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462032/the-emerging-contribution-of-social-wasps-to-grape-rot-disease-ecology
#9
Anne A Madden, Sean D Boyden, Jonathan-Andrew N Soriano, Tyler B Corey, Jonathan W Leff, Noah Fierer, Philip T Starks
Grape sour (bunch) rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424672/isolation-and-identification-of-the-indigenous-yeast-population-during-spontaneous-fermentation-of-isabella-vitis-labrusca-l-grape-must
#10
María L Raymond Eder, Cristina Reynoso, Santiago C Lauret, Alberto L Rosa
Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413849/from-berries-to-blocks-carbon-stock-quantification-of-a-california-vineyard
#11
Jorge Andres Morandé, Christine M Stockert, Garrett C Liles, John N Williams, David R Smart, Joshua H Viers
BACKGROUND: Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we used destructive sampling to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a vineyard in California's northern San Joaquin Valley...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411734/hri-usability-evaluation-of-interaction-modes-for-a-teleoperated-agricultural-robotic-sprayer
#12
George Adamides, Christos Katsanos, Yisrael Parmet, Georgios Christou, Michalis Xenos, Thanasis Hadzilacos, Yael Edan
Teleoperation of an agricultural robotic system requires effective and efficient human-robot interaction. This paper investigates the usability of different interaction modes for agricultural robot teleoperation. Specifically, we examined the overall influence of two types of output devices (PC screen, head mounted display), two types of peripheral vision support mechanisms (single view, multiple views), and two types of control input devices (PC keyboard, PS3 gamepad) on observed and perceived usability of a teleoperated agricultural sprayer...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407948/sensory-and-chemical-drivers-of-wine-minerality-aroma-an-application-to-chablis-wines
#13
Heber Rodrigues, María-Pilar Sáenz-Navajas, Ernesto Franco-Luesma, Dominique Valentin, Purificación Fernández-Zurbano, Vicente Ferreira, Arancha De La Fuente Blanco, Jordi Ballester
The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of vineyard position on the minerality of wines and to establish relationships between minerality scores, sensory descriptors and chemical composition. Sensory analyses included minerality rating and free description performed by wine professionals under two conditions: orthonasal olfaction alone and global tasting. Chemical characterization included analysis of major and minor volatile compounds, volatile sulphur compounds, mercaptans, metals, anions and cations...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407475/fungal-endophytes-of-wild-and-hybrid-vitis-leaves-and-their-potential-for-vineyard-biocontrol
#14
Gavin Kernaghan, Michael Mayerhofer, Amanda Griffin
Plants are colonized by diverse assemblages of fungal endophytes that have potential as biocontrol agents for a variety of crops, including grapevine. Although the diversity of symbionts can be very high in wild plants, the fungal endophytes of wild Vitis plants have not yet been investigated. We surveyed the fungal endophytes of six wild populations of Vitis riparia, as well as a cold tolerant, hybrid grapevine in five vineyards (one certified organic), using 454 pyrosequencing. We detected between 43 and 235 OTUs per sample, with the highest richness and diversity in the wild, the lowest in conventional vineyards, and intermediate levels in the organic vineyard...
April 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405407/invasive-drosophila-suzukii-facilitates-drosophila-melanogaster-infestation-and-sour-rot-outbreaks-in-the-vineyards
#15
A Rombaut, R Guilhot, A Xuéreb, L Benoit, M P Chapuis, P Gibert, S Fellous
How do invasive pests affect interactions between members of pre-existing agrosystems? The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii is suspected to be involved in the aetiology of sour rot, a grapevine disease that otherwise develops following Drosophila melanogaster infestation of wounded berries. We combined field observations with laboratory assays to disentangle the relative roles of both Drosophila in disease development. We observed the emergence of numerous D. suzukii, but no D. melanogaster flies, from bunches that started showing mild sour rot symptoms days after field collection...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402188/effects-of-a-worksite-supervised-adapted-physical-activity-program-on-trunk-muscle-endurance-flexibility-and-pain-sensitivity-among-vineyard-workers
#16
Romain Balaguie, Pascal Madeleine, Kévin Rose-Dulcina, Nicolas Vuillerme
OBJECTIVES: In viticulture, the prevalence of low back pain is particularly high among vineyard workers exposed to sustained and awkward postures. One promising setting for low back pain prevention resides in the implementation of workplace physical activity. METHODS: This non-randomized pilot study aims at evaluating the effects of a worksite supervised adapted physical activity program among seventeen vineyard-workers volunteered to enter either an intervention group (n=10) or a control group (n=7)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392444/spatiotemporal-spread-of-grapevine-red-blotch-associated-virus-in-a-california-vineyard
#17
Elizabeth J Cieniewicz, Sarah J Pethybridge, Adrienne Gorny, Laurence V Madden, Heather McLane, Keith L Perry, Marc Fuchs
Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), the causative agent of red blotch disease, is a member of the genus Grablovirus, in the family Geminiviridae and the first known geminivirus of Vitis spp. Limited information is available on the epidemiology of red blotch disease. A 2-hectare Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet franc' vineyard in Napa County, California, USA was selected for monitoring GRBaV spread over a three-year period (2014-2016) based on an initially low disease incidence and an aggregation of symptomatic vines at the edge of the vineyard proximal to a wooded riparian area...
April 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384277/trunk-kinematics-and-low-back-pain-during-pruning-among-vineyard-workers-a-field-study-at-the-chateau-larose-trintaudon
#18
Romain Balaguier, Pascal Madeleine, Kévin Rose-Dulcina, Nicolas Vuillerme
The prevalence of low back disorders is dramatically high in viticulture. Field measurements that objectively quantify work exposure can provide information on the relationship between the adopted trunk postures and low back pain. The purposes of the present study were three-fold (1) to carry out a kinematics analysis of vineyard-workers' pruning activity by extracting the duration of bending and rotation of the trunk, (2) to question separately the relationship between the duration of forward bending or trunk rotation with low back pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity and (3) to question the relationship between the combined duration of forward bending and trunk rotation on low back pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383689/efficacy-and-mode-of-action-of-kaolin-in-the-control-of-empoasca-vitis-and-zygina-rhamni-hemiptera-cicadellidae-in-vineyards
#19
Federico Tacoli, Francesco Pavan, Elena Cargnus, Elisabetta Tilatti, Alberto Pozzebon, Pietro Zandigiacomo
During 2015, the influence of kaolin applications and bunch-zone leaf removal on the grapevine leafhoppers, Empoasca vitis (Göthe) and Zygina rhamni Ferrari, and their egg parasitoids (Anagrus spp.) was tested in four vineyards of northeastern Italy. The mode of action of kaolin on E. vitis nymphs was also investigated in the laboratory. In the treated plots, kaolin was applied at a rate of 2% w/v on two occasions separated by 5-6 d. In two vineyards, it was applied either on the whole canopy or the bunch zone at the beginning of the E...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382231/metagenomic-analysis-exploring-taxonomic-and-functional-diversity-of-soil-microbial-communities-in-chilean-vineyards-and-surrounding-native-forests
#20
Luis E Castañeda, Olga Barbosa
Mediterranean biomes are biodiversity hotspots, and vineyards are important components of the Mediterranean landscape. Over the last few decades, the amount of land occupied by vineyards has augmented rapidly, thereby increasing threats to Mediterranean ecosystems. Land use change and agricultural management have important effects on soil biodiversity, because they change the physical and chemical properties of soil. These changes may also have consequences on wine production considering that soil is a key component of terroir...
2017: PeerJ
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