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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799720/its-fungal-barcoding-primers-vs-18s-amf-specific-primers-reveal-similar-amf-based-diversity-patterns-in-roots-and-soils-of-three-mountain-vineyards
#1
A Berruti, A Desirò, S Visentin, O Zecca, P Bonfante
ITS primers commonly used to describe soil fungi are flawed for AMF although it is unknown the extent to which they distort the interpretation of community patterns. Here we focus on how the use of a specific ITS2 fungal barcoding primer pair biased for AMF changes the interpretation of AMF community patterns from three mountain vineyards compared to a novel AMF-specific approach on the 18S. We found that although discrepancies were present in the taxonomic composition of the two resulting datasets, the estimation of diversity patterns among AMF communities was similar and resulted in both primer systems being able to correctly assess the community-structuring effect of location, compartment (root vs...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798185/whole-genome-sequence-of-starmerella-bacillaris-pas13-a-nonconventional-enological-yeast-with-antifungal-activity
#2
Wilson José Fernandes Lemos Junior, Laura Treu, Vinícius da Silva Duarte, Milena Carlot, Chiara Nadai, Stefano Campanaro, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
Starmerella bacillaris is a fermentative yeast commonly found in vineyards. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of S. bacillaris PAS13, a nonconventional enological yeast with a potential role as a biocontrol agent. This gene sequence will provide insights into the genetic basis of yeast activity against gray mold disease (Botrytis cinerea).
August 10, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795772/the-potential-of-the-spectral-water-balance-index-wabi-for-crop-irrigation-scheduling
#3
Tal Rapaport, Uri Hochberg, Amnon Cochavi, Arnon Karnieli, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Hyperspectral sensing can detect slight changes in plant physiology, and may offer a faster and nondestructive alternative for water status monitoring. This premise was tested in the current study using a narrow-band 'water balance index' (WABI), which is based on independent changes in leaf water content (1500 nm) and the efficiency of the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) photo-protective mechanism (531 nm). The hydraulic, photo-protective and spectral behaviors of five important crops - grapevine, corn, tomato, pea and sunflower - were evaluated under water deficit conditions in order to associate the differences in stress physiology with WABI suitability...
August 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769887/sequential-inoculation-of-native-non-saccharomyces-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-for-wine-making
#4
Beatriz Padilla, Laura Zulian, Àngela Ferreres, Rosa Pastor, Braulio Esteve-Zarzoso, Gemma Beltran, Albert Mas
The use of non-Saccharomyces yeast for wine making is becoming a common trend in many innovative wineries. The application is normally aimed at increasing aromas, glycerol, reducing acidity, and other improvements. This manuscript focuses on the reproduction of the native microbiota from the vineyard in the inoculum. Thus, native selected yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Starmerella bacillaris species and three different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were inoculated sequentially, or only S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753919/as-v-sorption-desorption-on-different-waste-materials-and-soil-samples
#5
Ana Quintáns-Fondo, David Fernández-Calviño, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María J Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
Aiming to investigate the efficacy of different materials as bio-sorbents for the purification of As-polluted waters, batch-type experiments were employed to study As(V) sorption and desorption on oak ash, pine bark, hemp waste, mussel shell, pyritic material, and soil samples, as a function of the As(V) concentration added. Pyritic material and oak ash showed high sorption (90% and >87%) and low desorption (<2% and <7%). Alternatively, hemp waste showed low retention (16% sorption and 100% desorption of the amount previously sorbed), fine shell and pine bark sorbed <3% and desorbed 100%, the vineyard soil sample sorbed 8% and released 85%, and the forest soil sample sorbed 32% and desorbed 38%...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750789/acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-with-hemoptysis-in-a-dog-exposed-to-copper-sulfate-powder
#6
Elisabetta Giudice, Chiara Crinò, Paola Lanzafame, Fabio Viganò, Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro
A 2-year-old male mongrel dog was presented because of the onset of dry cough. About 16 hours before, the dog had been exposed to the pesticide that the owner was spraying in the vineyard. Approximately 3 hours later an acute respiratory failure, with a rapid evolution, began. Hemoptysis and regenerative normocytic normochromic anemia arose within hours, and a pulmonary hemorrhage was diagnosed. Pulmonary hemorrhage fast led to pneumonia, as evidenced by the serial CXR findings and the developing of leukocytosis...
March 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750227/seasonal-distribution-of-herbicide-and-insecticide-residues-in-the-water-resources-of-the-vineyard-region-of-la-rioja-spain
#7
Eliseo Herrero-Hernández, M Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz, Eva Pose-Juan, Sara Sánchez-González, M Soledad Andrades, Maria J Sánchez-Martín
Pesticides are needed to maintain high production in the vineyard area of La Rioja (Spain), and monitoring their spatial distribution is a priority for preserving the quality of natural resources. Accordingly, the purpose of this work was to conduct a study to evaluate the presence and seasonal distribution of herbicide and insecticide residues in ground and surface waters in this region. The monitoring network comprised 12 surface waters and 78 groundwaters, covering the three subareas (63,593ha) into which the vineyard region is divided...
July 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735228/the-role-of-nitrogen-uptake-on-the-competition-ability-of-three-vineyard-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#8
Chiara Vendramini, Gemma Beltran, Chiara Nadai, Alessio Giacomini, Albert Mas, Viviana Corich
Three vineyard strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, P301.4, P304.4 and P254.12, were assayed in comparison with a commercial industrial strain, QA23. The aim was to understand if nitrogen availability could influence strain competition ability during must fermentation. Pairwise-strain fermentations and co-fermentations with the simultaneous presence of the four strains were performed in synthetic musts at two nitrogen levels: control nitrogen condition (CNC) that assured the suitable assimilable nitrogen amount required by the yeast strains to complete the fermentation and low nitrogen condition (LNC) where nitrogen is present at very low level...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735211/runoff-initiation-soil-detachment-and-connectivity-are-enhanced-as-a-consequence-of-vineyards-plantations
#9
A Cerdà, S D Keesstra, J Rodrigo-Comino, A Novara, P Pereira, E Brevik, A Giménez-Morera, M Fernández-Raga, M Pulido, S di Prima, A Jordán
Rainfall-induced soil erosion is a major threat, especially in agricultural soils. In the Mediterranean belt, vineyards are affected by high soil loss rates, leading to land degradation. Plantation of new vines is carried out after deep ploughing, use of heavy machinery, wheel traffic, and trampling. Those works result in soil physical properties changes and contribute to enhanced runoff rates and increased soil erosion rates. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of the plantation of vineyards on soil hydrological and erosional response under low frequency - high magnitude rainfall events, the ones that under the Mediterranean climatic conditions trigger extreme soil erosion rates...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734201/modification-of-chemical-properties-cu-fractionation-and-enzymatic-activities-in-an-acid-vineyard-soil-amended-with-winery-wastes-a-field-study
#10
Isabel Rodríguez-Salgado, Paula Pérez-Rodríguez, Antía Gómez-Armesto, Montserrat Díaz-Raviña, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, David Fernández-Calviño
The effects of adding two winery wastes, perlite waste (PW) and bentonite waste (BW), to an acid vineyard soil were assessed using some chemical and biological soil properties in a field study that lasted 18 months. The addition of PW (up to 81 Mg ha(-1)) had neither significant nor permanent effects on soil characteristics such as the pH, organic matter content or nutrient concentrations, the amounts of copper or zinc, or the electrical conductivity. Moreover, no persistent negative effects were found on the enzymatic activities after PW application...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717999/macro-and-microclimate-conditions-may-alter-grapevine-deacclimation-variation-in-thermal-amplitude-in-two-contrasting-wine-regions-from-north-and-south-america
#11
Francisco Gonzalez Antivilo, Rosalía Cristina Paz, Markus Keller, Roberto Borgo, Jorge Tognetti, Fidel Roig Juñent
Low temperature is a limiting factor that affects vineyard distribution globally. The level of cold hardiness acquired during the dormant season by Vitis sp. is crucial for winter survival. Most research published on this topic has been generated beyond 40° N latitude, where daily mean temperatures may attain injurious levels during the dormant season resulting in significant damage to vines and buds. Symptoms of cold injury have been identified in Mendoza (32-35° S latitude), a Southern Hemisphere wine region characterized by a high thermal amplitude, and warm winds during the dormant season...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702038/neofusicoccum-parvum-colonization-of-the-grapevine-woody-stem-triggers-asynchronous-host-responses-at-the-site-of-infection-and-in-the-leaves
#12
Mélanie Massonnet, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Erin R A Galarneau, Shiho Miki, Daniel P Lawrence, Qiang Sun, Christopher M Wallis, Kendra Baumgartner, Dario Cantu
Grapevine trunk diseases cause important economic losses in vineyards worldwide. Neofusicoccum parvum, one of the most aggressive causal agents of the trunk disease Botryosphaeria dieback, colonizes cells and tissues of the grapevine wood, leading to the formation of an internal canker. Symptoms then extend to distal shoots, with wilting of leaves and bud mortality. Our aim was to characterize the transcriptional dynamics of grapevine genes in the woody stem and in the leaves during Neofusicoccum parvum colonization...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688348/characterization-of-iron-deficiency-symptoms-in-grapevine-vitis-spp-leaves-by-reflectance-spectroscopy
#13
Laura Rustioni, Daniele Grossi, Lucio Brancadoro, Osvaldo Failla
The work aims at the description of the iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine leaves by reflectance spectroscopy at the plant and leaf levels. 5 genotypes of Vitis spp. were selected and grown in hydroponic conditions with and without iron supply. 450 spectra were collected among basal, young and apical leaves, as well as veins and interveinal areas. Iron deficiency produced significant and characteristic modifications in the pigment accumulation, proportion and distribution in plants. Basal leaves resulted to have higher concentrations of photosynthetic pigments in stressed plants with respect to the control, probably due to compensation effects...
June 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686140/an-analysis-of-the-complete-genome-sequence-and-subgenomic-rnas-reveals-unique-features-of-the-ampelovirus-grapevine-leafroll-associated-virus-1
#14
Bhanu Priya Donda, Sridhar Jarugula, Rayapati A Naidu
Despite being the first closterovirus documented in grapevines (Vitis sp.), the molecular biology of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1, genus Ampelovirus, family Closteroviridae) is still in its infancy. In this study, the complete genome sequence of two GLRaV-1 isolates was determined to be 18,731 (isolate WA-CH) and 18,946 (isolate WA-PN) nucleotides (nt). The genome of WA-CH and WA-PN isolates encodes nine putative open reading frames (ORFs) and the arrangement of these ORFs in both isolates was similar to that of Australian and Canadian isolates...
September 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672864/vicarious-calibration-of-suas-microbolometer-temperature-imagery-for-estimation-of-radiometric-land-surface-temperature
#15
Alfonso Torres-Rua
In recent years, the availability of lightweight microbolometer thermal cameras compatible with small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) has allowed their use in diverse scientific and management activities that require sub-meter pixel resolution. Nevertheless, as with sensors already used in temperature remote sensing (e.g., Landsat satellites), a radiance atmospheric correction is necessary to estimate land surface temperature. This is because atmospheric conditions at any sUAS flight elevation will have an adverse impact on the image accuracy, derived calculations, and study replicability using the microbolometer technology...
June 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667801/a-study-of-selected-factors-affecting-efficacy-of-compost-tea-against-several-fungal-pathogens-of-potato
#16
W K Mengesha, W M Gill, S M Powell, K J Evans, K M Barry
AIM: To investigate selected factors of two nonaerated compost teas (NCT) and mechanisms that influence the restriction of several fungal potato pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two NCTs, made from either commercial compost, (CCT) or vineyard compost (VCT), were tested for their ability to suppress potato pathogens. The VCT was more suppressive than CCT to mycelial growth of Alternaria solani and Rhizoctonia solani isolate 299, but not for R. solani isolate 422. Metagenomic studies of microbial diversity revealed that the CCT had higher fungal and bacterial diversity and richness than the VCT...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655216/phenotypic-and-genomic-survey-on-organic-acid-utilization-profile-of-pseudomonas-mendocina-strain-s5-2-a-vineyard-soil-isolate
#17
Teik Min Chong, Jian-Woon Chen, Wah-Seng See-Too, Choo-Yee Yu, Geik-Yong Ang, Yan Lue Lim, Wai-Fong Yin, Catherine Grandclément, Denis Faure, Yves Dessaux, Kok-Gan Chan
Root exudates are chemical compounds that are released from living plant roots and provide significant energy, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources for microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere. The exudates shape the microflora associated with the plant, as well as influences the plant health and productivity. Therefore, a better understanding of the trophic link that is established between the plant and the associated bacteria is necessary. In this study, a comprehensive survey on the utilization of grapevine and rootstock related organic acids were conducted on a vineyard soil isolate which is Pseudomonas mendocina strain S5...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652263/ripening-transcriptomic-program-in-red-and-white-grapevine-varieties-correlates-with-berry-skin-anthocyanin-accumulation
#18
Mélanie Massonnet, Marianna Fasoli, Giovanni Battista Tornielli, Mario Altieri, Marco Sandri, Paola Zuccolotto, Paola Paci, Massimo Gardiman, Sara Zenoni, Mario Pezzotti
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berry development involves a succession of physiological and biochemical changes reflecting the transcriptional modulation of thousands of genes. Although recent studies have investigated the dynamic transcriptome during berry development, most have focused on a single grapevine variety, so there is a lack of comparative data representing different cultivars. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide transcriptional analysis of 120 RNA samples corresponding to 10 Italian grapevine varieties collected at four growth stages...
August 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651557/amphibian-and-reptile-road-kills-on-tertiary-roads-in-relation-to-landscape-structure-using-a-citizen-science-approach-with-open-access-land-cover-data
#19
Florian Heigl, Kathrin Horvath, Gregor Laaha, Johann G Zaller
BACKGROUND: Amphibians and reptiles are among the most endangered vertebrate species worldwide. However, little is known how they are affected by road-kills on tertiary roads and whether the surrounding landscape structure can explain road-kill patterns. The aim of our study was to examine the applicability of open-access remote sensing data for a large-scale citizen science approach to describe spatial patterns of road-killed amphibians and reptiles on tertiary roads. Using a citizen science app we monitored road-kills of amphibians and reptiles along 97...
June 26, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648287/biodiversity-and-ochratoxin-a-profile-of-aspergillus-section-nigri-populations-isolated-from-wine-grapes-in-cyprus-vineyards
#20
Iakovos S Pantelides, Efi Aristeidou, Maria Lazari, Maria-Dimitra Tsolakidou, Dimitris Tsaltas, Maria Christofidou, Demetris Kafouris, Eftychia Christou, Nicolas Ioannou
The objective of this study was to evaluate the biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri populations from Cyprus vineyards by morphological, toxigenic and phylogenetic analysis. Aspergillus section Nigri populations were isolated from grapes of the varieties 'Maratheftiko' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' originating from six growing regions of Cyprus during 2010 and 2011 years. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus section Nigri from grape samples was 43.3% and a total of 284 isolates were selected for further analyses based on the macroscopic characteristics of black aspergilli...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
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