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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933578/inhibitory-activity-of-beauveria-bassiana-and-trichoderma-spp-on-the-insect-pests-xylotrechus-arvicola-coleoptera-cerambycidae-and-acanthoscelides-obtectus-coleoptera-chrisomelidae-bruchinae
#1
Álvaro Rodríguez-González, Sara Mayo, Óscar González-López, Bonifacio Reinoso, Santiago Gutierrez, Pedro Antonio Casquero
Xylotrechus arvicola is an important pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the main Iberian wine-producing regions, and Acanthoscelides obtectus causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Under laboratory conditions with a spray tower, the susceptibility of the immature stages of X. arvicola and A. obtectus against the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and four strains of Trichoderma spp. was evaluated. Both insect pests T. harzianum and B. bassiana showed a good inhibitory activity, accumulating an inhibition on the eggs of values above 85 and 82%, respectively...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924549/identification-of-ochratoxin-a-producing-black-aspergilli-from-grapes-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assays
#2
Michelangelo Storari, Giovanni A L Broggini
The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows the rapid and specific amplification of target DNA under isothermal conditions without a prior DNA purification step. Moreover, successful amplifications can be directly evaluated through a color change of the reaction solutions. Here, we describe two LAMP assays for the detection of ochratoxin-A producing black aspergilli isolated from grapes. The two assays can detect DNA of OTA-producing black aspergilli following a very simple sample preparation and have the potential to significantly speed up the routine monitoring of these toxigenic molds in vineyards...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923589/comparative-detection-of-a-large-population-of-grapevine-viruses-by-taqman-%C3%A2-rt-qpcr-and-elisa
#3
Sébastien Bruisson, Sylvain Lebel, Bernard Walter, Laurent Prevotat, Sam Seddas, Paul Schellenbaum
Grapevine (Vitis spp) can be infected by numerous viruses that are often widespread and of great economic importance. Reliable detection methods are necessary for sanitary selection which is the only way to partly control grapevine virus diseases. Biological indexing and ELISA are currently the standard methods for screening propagation material, and PCR-methods are becoming increasingly popular. Due to the diversity of virus isolates, it is essential to verify that the tests allow the detection of the largest possible virus populations...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902788/fertilization-of-grapevine-based-on-gene-expression
#4
Cheng Zhang, Haifeng Jia, Jingjue Zeng, Tariq Perraiz, Zhenqiang Xie, Xudong Zhu, Chen Wang
The application of genetic information in agricultural production is an important issue, which is highly worthy of attention. Gene expression data can accurately reflect the growth and metabolic status of plants, with which we can predict and monitor the nutritional requirements of plants and then derive accurate fertilization strategies. In this study, to verify the feasibility and workability of gene information-based fertilization strategies and to figure out the specific nutritional requirements of grapevine ( L...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898049/mecs-vine-%C3%A2-a-new-proximal-sensor-for-segmented-mapping-of-vigor-and-yield-parameters-on-vineyard-rows
#5
Matteo Gatti, Paolo Dosso, Marco Maurino, Maria Clara Merli, Fabio Bernizzoni, Facundo José Pirez, Bonfiglio Platè, Gian Carlo Bertuzzi, Stefano Poni
Ground-based proximal sensing of vineyard features is gaining interest due to its ability to serve in even quite small plots with the advantage of being conducted concurrently with normal vineyard practices (i.e., spraying, pruning or soil tilling) with no dependence upon weather conditions, external services or law-imposed limitations. The purpose of the present work was to test performance of the new terrestrial multi-sensor MECS-VINE(®) in terms of reliability and degree of correlation with several canopy growth and yield parameters in the grapevine...
November 27, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898028/estimating-leaf-area-index-lai-in-vineyards-using-the-pocketlai-smart-app
#6
Francesca Orlando, Ermes Movedi, Davide Coduto, Simone Parisi, Lucio Brancadoro, Valentina Pagani, Tommaso Guarneri, Roberto Confalonieri
Estimating leaf area index (LAI) of Vitis vinifera using indirect methods involves some critical issues, related to its discontinuous and non-homogeneous canopy. This study evaluates the smart app PocketLAI and hemispherical photography in vineyards against destructive LAI measurements. Data were collected during six surveys in an experimental site characterized by a high level of heterogeneity among plants, allowing us to explore a wide range of LAI values. During the last survey, the possibility to combine remote sensing data and in-situ PocketLAI estimates (smart scouting) was evaluated...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895648/grape-ripening-is-regulated-by-deficit-irrigation-elevated-temperatures-according-to-cluster-position-in-the-canopy
#7
Olfa Zarrouk, Cecilia Brunetti, Ricardo Egipto, Carla Pinheiro, Tânia Genebra, Antonella Gori, Carlos M Lopes, Massimiliano Tattini, M Manuela Chaves
The impact of water deficit on berry quality has been extensively investigated during the last decades. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of knowledge on the performance of varieties exposed to a combination of high temperatures/water stress during the growing season and under vineyard conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of two irrigation regimes, sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 30% ETc) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, 15% ETc) and of two cluster positions within the canopy (east- and west-exposed sides) on berry ripening in red Aragonez (Tempranillo) grapevines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891761/agro-ecological-management-of-a-soil-dwelling-orthopteran-pest-in-vineyards
#8
Jerry Asalma Nboyine, Stephane Boyer, David J Saville, Stephen David Wratten
The efficacy of different combinations of under-vine and inter-row treatments for managing a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest, weta (Hemiandrus sp.), in vineyards was investigated over two seasons. This insect damages vine buds, thus reducing subsequent grape yield. The under-vine treatments comprised pea straw mulch, mussel shells, tick beans (Vicia faba Linn. var minor (Fab)), plastic sleeves on vine trunks (treated control) and control (no intervention), while inter-rows contained either the existing vegetation or tick beans...
November 28, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890088/fungal-endophytic-communities-associated-to-the-phyllosphere-of-grapevine-cultivars-under-different-types-of-management
#9
Carla Marisa Reis Varanda, Mônica Oliveira, Patrick Materatski, Miguel Landum, Maria Ivone Esteves Clara, Maria do Rosário Félix
Fungal endophytes present in different asymptomatic grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera L.) located in different vineyards within Alentejo, a highly important viticulture region in Portugal, were identified in this study. Sampled grapevine plants included the three most representative cultivars in the region, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Aragonez, growing under two different modes of management, conventional and biological. Sixteen fungal taxa were identified through sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885782/field-evaluation-of-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone-and-ethanol-as-attractants-for-the-cerambycid-beetle-pest-of-vineyards-xylotrechus-arvicola
#10
Álvaro Rodríguez-González, Esteban Sánchez-Maíllo, Horacio J Peláez, Manuel González-Núñez, David R Hall, Pedro A Casquero
BACKGROUND: The beetle Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest of vineyards in the Iberian Peninsula. In previous work, the male beetles, but not females, were shown to produce (R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, and female beetles were attracted to this compound in a laboratory bioassay. In this study, release rates of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone from different dispensers were measured in the laboratory and the attractiveness of these to X. arvicola adults determined in trapping tests in three traditional wine-growing regions in Spain...
November 25, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875995/high-throughput-gene-expression-quantification-of-grapevine-defense-responses-in-the-field-using-microfluidic-dynamic-arrays
#11
Marie-Cécile Dufour, Noël Magnin, Bernard Dumas, Sophie Vergnes, Marie-France Corio-Costet
BACKGROUND: The fight against grapevine diseases due to biotrophic pathogens usually requires the massive use of chemical fungicides with harmful environmental effects. An alternative strategy could be the use of compounds able to stimulate plant immune responses which significantly limit the development of pathogens in laboratory conditions. However, the efficiency of this strategy in natura is still insufficient to be included in pest management programs. To understand and to improve the mode of action of plant defense stimulators in the field, it is essential to develop reliable tools that describe the resistance status of the plant upon treatment...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871147/shared-and-host-specific-microbiome-diversity-and-functioning-of-grapevine-and-accompanying-weed-plants
#12
Abdul Samad, Friederike Trognitz, Stéphane Compant, Livio Antonielli, Angela Sessitsch
Weeds and crop plants select their microbiota from the same pool of soil microorganisms, however, the ecology of weed microbiomes is poorly understood. We analyzed the microbiomes associated with roots and rhizospheres of grapevine and four weed species (Lamium amplexicaule L., Veronica arvensis L., Lepidium draba L. and Stellaria media L.) growing in proximity in the same vineyard using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We also isolated and characterized 500 rhizobacteria and root endophytes from L. draba and grapevine...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871123/a-focus-on-quality-and-safety-traits-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-isolated-from-uva-di-troia-grape-variety
#13
Leonardo Petruzzi, Antonio Bevilacqua, Maria Rosaria Corbo, Barbara Speranza, Vittorio Capozzi, Milena Sinigaglia
The aim of this work was to study Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from vineyards of the autochthonous grape variety "Uva di Troia" located in different geographical areas of Apulian region (Southern Italy). Four hundred isolates were studied in relation to H2 S production, β-glucosidase activity, and pigments adsorption from grape skin. Thus, 81 isolates were selected, identified through the amplification of the interdelta region, and grouped in 19 biotypes (from I to XIX). The enological performances were assessed to determine the content of residual sugars, ethanol, glycerol, and volatile acidity, after a microfermentation in Uva di Troia must for each isolate...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833817/foliar-fungal-communities-strongly-differ-between-habitat-patches-in-a-landscape-mosaic
#14
Thomas Fort, Cécile Robin, Xavier Capdevielle, Laurent Delière, Corinne Vacher
BACKGROUND: Dispersal events between habitat patches in a landscape mosaic can structure ecological communities and influence the functioning of agrosystems. Here we investigated whether short-distance dispersal events between vineyard and forest patches shape foliar fungal communities. We hypothesized that these communities homogenize between habitats over the course of the growing season, particularly along habitat edges, because of aerial dispersal of spores. METHODS: We monitored the richness and composition of foliar and airborne fungal communities over the season, along transects perpendicular to edges between vineyard and forest patches, using Illumina sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) region...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825476/development-of-microsatellite-markers-for-lachancea-thermotolerans-typing-and-population-structure-of-wine-associated-isolates
#15
Georgios Banilas, Georgios Sgouros, Aspasia Nisiotou
Lachancea (Kluyveromyces) thermotolerans is an important member of the grape/wine yeast community with great technological potential for the wine industry. Although several molecular marker techniques have been developed for typing different yeast species, no one has been designed so far for L. thermotolerans. Here we present a simple and efficient method based on a multilocus SSR analysis for molecular typing and genetic diversity assessment of L. thermotolerans isolates. Following whole genome screening, five polymorphic microsatellite markers were selected and tested on a panel of grape isolates from different vineyards of two geographically separated viticultural zones, Nemea and Peza, in Greece...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822690/as-v-cr-vi-retention-on-un-amended-and-waste-amended-soil-samples-competitive-experiments
#16
Ivana M Rivas-Pérez, Manuel Conde-Cid, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María J Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
Focusing on simultaneous arsenic and chromium pollution, we used batch-type experiments to study As(V)/Cr (VI) competitive sorption on soil samples, pyritic material, mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark and hemp waste, as well as on binary mixtures (50 % mussel shell and 50 % another material-oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste), and on forest and vineyard soil samples and pyritic material amended with 48 t ha(-1) of mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste. Equal As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations (0 to 6 mmol L(-1)) were added to the individual materials, binary mixtures, and 48 t ha(-1) amended materials...
November 7, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819541/spatial-and-temporal-pattern-analyses-of-esca-grapevine-disease-in-vineyards-in-france
#17
S Li, F Bonneu, J Chadoeuf, D Picart, A Gégout-Petit, L Guérin-Dubrana
To assess the capacity of esca to spread within vineyards of the Bordeaux region, over 8 years of annual records, containing between 1,200 and 2,300 contiguous Cabernet Sauvignon vines from 15 mature vineyards, were used for spatial statistical analyses. A group of nonparametric tests, based on join count statistics and on permutation methods, was developed to characterize the spatial structure of esca-symptomatic vines in terms of spread in any direction or within-row only. Among vineyards, a large range of spatial patterns, from random to strongly structured, associated with various prevalence rates that increased over time were observed...
November 7, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819200/development-and-validation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-glassy-winged-sharpshooter-homalodisca-vitripennis-hemiptera-cicadellidae
#18
D W Waite, D Li, M D'Souza, D Gunawardana
The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is an invasive pest organism, which is found throughout Central America and has recently invaded a few countries in the Pacific Islands. As a carrier of the highly virulent plant pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, it is of great economic significance to horticulture and is estimated to cost Californian vineyards over US$100 million per year in control and losses. New Zealand is currently free from this pest, but its recent spread through the Pacific has raised concerns of it establishing in New Zealand, potentially as a result of introduction through human travel...
November 7, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817923/impact-of-a-pesticide-cocktail-fenhexamid-folpel-deltamethrin-on-the-abundance-of-glomeromycota-in-two-agricultural-soils
#19
Facundo Rivera-Becerril, Diederik van Tuinen, Odile Chatagnier, Nadine Rouard, Jérémie Béguet, Catherine Kuszala, Guy Soulas, Vivienne Gianinazzi-Pearson, Fabrice Martin-Laurent
Pesticide contamination of the environment can result from agricultural practices. Persistence of pesticide residues is a threat to the soil biota including plant roots and beneficial microorganisms, which support an important number of soil ecosystem services. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are key symbiotic microorganisms contributing to plant nutrition. In the present study, we assessed whether AMF could indicate eventual side effects of pesticides when directly applied to field soils. We evaluated the ecotoxicological impact of a cocktail of three commonly used agricultural pesticides (fenhexamid, folpel, deltamethrin) on the abundance and composition of the AMF community in vineyard (Montagne de Saint-Emilion) and arable (Martincourt) soils subjected to different agricultural practices...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813152/yeasts-found-in-vineyards-and-wineries
#20
Cristian Varela, Anthony R Borneman
Wine is a complex beverage, comprising thousands of metabolites that are produced through the action of a plethora of yeasts and bacteria during fermentation of grape must. These microbial communities originate in the vineyard and the winery and reflect the influence of several factors including grape variety, geographical location, climate, vineyard spraying, technological practices, processing stage and season (pre-harvest, harvest, post-harvest). Vineyard and winery microbial communities have the potential to participate during fermentation and influence wine flavour and aroma...
November 3, 2016: Yeast
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