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Francesco Pavan, Giorgio Stefanelli, Alberto Villani, Elena Cargnus
Grapevine cultivar can affect susceptibility to Lobesia botrana and Eupoecilia ambiguella with important implications on control strategies. A four-year study was carried out in north-eastern Italy on 10 cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère, Chardonnay, Merlot, Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso, Rhine Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Terrano, Tocai Friulano and Verduzzo Friulano) grown in the same vineyard to assess whether the cultivar affects second-generation population levels of the two vine moths and L. botrana larval age composition...
January 19, 2018: Insects
Fernando Vanegas, Dmitry Bratanov, Kevin Powell, John Weiss, Felipe Gonzalez
Recent advances in remote sensed imagery and geospatial image processing using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have enabled the rapid and ongoing development of monitoring tools for crop management and the detection/surveillance of insect pests. This paper describes a (UAV) remote sensing-based methodology to increase the efficiency of existing surveillance practices (human inspectors and insect traps) for detecting pest infestations (e.g., grape phylloxera in vineyards). The methodology uses a UAV integrated with advanced digital hyperspectral, multispectral, and RGB sensors...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
Xuefei Wang, Dean A Glawe, Elizabeth K Kramer, David M Weller, Patricia Ann Okubara
Native yeasts are of increasing interest to researchers, grape growers, and vintners because of their potential for biocontrol activity, and their contributions to the aroma, flavor and mouthfeel qualities of wines. To assess biocontrol activity, we tested 11 yeasts from Washington vineyards, representing isolates of Candida saitoana, Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus, for ability to colonize 'Thompson Seedless' grape berries, inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and suppress disease symptoms on isolated berries...
January 15, 2018: Phytopathology
Kent M Daane, Charles Vincent, Rufus Isaacs, Claudio Ioriatti
Viticulture has experienced dramatic global growth in acreage and value. As the international exchange of goods has increased, so too has the market demand for sustainably produced products. Both elements redefine the entomological challenges posed to viticulture and have stimulated significant advances in arthropod pest control programs. Vineyard managers on all continents are increasingly combating invasive species, resulting in the adoption of novel insecticides, semiochemicals, and molecular tools to support sustainable viticulture...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Houston Wilson, Jessica S Wong, Robbin W Thorp, Albie F Miles, Kent M Daane, Miguel A Altieri
Agricultural expansion and intensification negatively affect pollinator populations and has led to reductions in pollination services across multiple cropping systems. As a result, growers and researchers have utilized the restoration of local and landscape habitat diversity to support pollinators, and wild bees in particular. Although a majority of studies to date have focussed on effects in pollinator-dependent crops such as almond, tomato, sunflower, and watermelon, supporting wild bees in self-pollinated crops, such as grapes, can contribute to broader conservation goals as well as provide other indirect benefits to growers...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Ramona Marasco, Eleonora Rolli, Marco Fusi, Grégoire Michoud, Daniele Daffonchio
BACKGROUND: The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit...
January 3, 2018: Microbiome
Katharina M Keiblinger, Martin Schneider, Markus Gorfer, Melanie Paumann, Evi Deltedesco, Harald Berger, Lisa Jöchlinger, Axel Mentler, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Gerhard Soja, Franz Zehetner
Copper (Cu)-based fungicides have been used in viticulture to prevent downy mildew since the end of the 19th century, and are still used today to reduce fungal diseases. Consequently, Cu has built up in many vineyard soils, and it is still unclear how this affects soil functioning. The present study aimed to assess the short and medium-term effects of Cu contamination on the soil fungal community. Two contrasting agricultural soils, an acidic sandy loam and an alkaline silt loam, were used for an eco-toxicological greenhouse pot experiment...
January 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ester Holcman, Paulo Cesar Sentelhas, Marco Antônio Fonseca Conceição, Hilton Thadeu Zarate Couto
The use of plastic cover in vineyards minimizes effects of adverse weather conditions. The northwest of São Paulo State is one of the largest grape producing regions in Brazil; however, few studies investigate the effects of different plastic covers on vineyards in this region. This study compared the effect of black shading screen (BSS) and braided polypropylene film (BPF) on BRS Morena vineyard microclimate, grown on an overhead trellis system in the northwestern São Paulo. The experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2012-2014)...
December 30, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Federico Tacoli, Nicola Mori, Alberto Pozzebon, Elena Cargnus, Sarah Da Vià, Pietro Zandigiacomo, Carlo Duso, Francesco Pavan
The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the vector of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis', the causal agent of Flavescence dorée (FD) a key disease for European viticulture. In organic vineyards, the control of S. titanus relies mostly on the use of pyrethrins that have suboptimal efficacy. During 2016, three field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of kaolin, orange oil, insecticidal soap and spinosad against S. titanus nymphs, in comparison with pyrethrins. The activity of kaolin was evaluated also in the laboratory...
December 16, 2017: Insects
Badra Bouamama-Gzara, Ilhem Selmi, Samir Chebil, Imene Melki, Ahmed Mliki, Abdelwahed Ghorbel, Angela Carra, Francesco Carimi, Naima Mahfoudhi
Prospecting of local grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) and Grapevine virus A (GVA), were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Pierluigi Reveglia, Tamara Cinelli, Alessio Cimmino, Marco Masi, Antonio Evidente
A strain of Fusarium oxysporum was isolated from grapevine showing heavy decline disease in a vineyard of Veneto region in Italy. The fungus showed to produce phytotoxic metabolites when grown in liquid culture. The main metabolite was identified as fusaric acid produced for the first time as a phytotoxin by a strain of F. oxysporom isolated from diseased grapevine plants. Its quantification in the fungus cultures filtrates was accomplished by HPLC. When tested on tobacco by leaf-puncture assay fusaric acid at 0...
December 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
Jacob Buchholz, Pascal Querner, Daniel Paredes, Thomas Bauer, Peter Strauss, Muriel Guernion, Jennifer Scimia, Daniel Cluzeau, Françoise Burel, Sophie Kratschmer, Silvia Winter, Martin Potthoff, Johann G Zaller
Tillage is known for its adverse effects on soil biota, at least in arable agroecosystems. However, in vineyards effects might differ as tillage is often performed during dry periods or only in every other inter-row allowing species to re-colonise disturbed areas. We examined the response of earthworms (lumbricids), springtails (collembola) and litter decomposition to periodically mechanically disturbed (PMD) and permanently green covered (PGC) vineyard inter-rows and assessed whether site effects are altered by the surrounding landscape...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Abdul Samad, Livio Antonielli, Angela Sessitsch, Stéphane Compant, Friederike Trognitz
Microbes produce a variety of secondary metabolites to be explored for herbicidal activities. We investigated an endophyte Pseudomonas viridiflava CDRTc14, which impacted growth of its host Lepidium draba L., to better understand the possible genetic determinants for herbicidal and host-interaction traits. Inoculation tests with a variety of target plants revealed that CDRTc14 shows plant-specific effects ranging from beneficial to negative. Its herbicidal effect appeared to be dose-dependent and resembled phenotypically the germination arrest factor of Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Agata Novara, Antonino Pisciotta, Mario Minacapilli, Antonino Maltese, Fulvio Capodici, Artemi Cerdà, Luciano Gristina
Soil erosion processes in vineyards, beyond surface runoff and sediment transport, have a strong effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) loss and redistribution along the slope. Variation in SOC across the landscape can determine differences in soil fertility and vine vigor. The goal of this research was to analyze the interactions among vines vigor, sediment delivery and SOC in a sloping vineyard located in Sicily. Six pedons were studied along the slope by digging 6 pits up to 60cm depth. Soil was sampled every 10cm and SOC, water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were analyzed...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
C Grangeteau, V David, H Alexandre, M Guilloux-Benatier, S Rousseaux
Although differences in yeast biodiversity have often been found between vineyards subjected to organic protection or conventional protection, little is known about the effect of copper and sulfur fungicides (the only fungicides allowed in organic farming) on yeast populations. The sensitivity to copper and sulfur of 158 yeast isolates of seven different species (Aureobasidium pullulans, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia sp., Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Starmerella bacillaris) was evaluated...
November 29, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Javier Portu, José Ignacio Fernández-Fernández, Rocío Gil-Muñoz
Nitrogen plays a key role in the fermentation and secondary metabolites formation. The aim was to study the influence of vine nitrogen applications on grape amino acid composition. Nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo and Monastrell grapevines were phenylalanine and urea, during two seasons. Results showed that the application of these compounds had little effect on grape amino acid composition, regardless of variety and vintage. This could be due to the fact that vineyards did not present nitrogenous requirements...
December 2017: Food Research International
L-T Dinis, S Bernardo, A Luzio, G Pinto, M Meijón, M Pintó-Marijuan, A Cotado, C Correia, J Moutinho-Pereira
The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven to be an effective short-term climate change mitigation strategy for Mediterranean vineyards. In this work, we address the hypothesis that kaolin could improve both the hormonal dynamics and physiological responses of grapevines growing in Douro Region, northern Portugal. For this purpose, the leaf water potential, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were monitored, as well as the abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) quantification and immunolocalization were assessed...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Andrés García-Díaz, María José Marqués, Blanca Sastre, Ramón Bienes
Mediterranean vineyards are usually managed with continuous tillage to maintain bare soils leading to low organic matter stocks and soil degradation. Vineyards are part of the Mediterranean culture, their management can be sustainable. We propose the setup of two types of groundcovers with the aim to assess their potential influence to improve soil properties. A field trial was performed to compare the effects of a seeded (Brachypodium distachyon) and spontaneous groundcovers, on a set of soil parameters, in comparison with the traditional tillage in four vineyards located in the center of Spain...
November 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hania Al-Saddik, Jean-Claude Simon, Frederic Cointault
Spectral measurements are employed in many precision agriculture applications, due to their ability to monitor the vegetation's health state. Spectral vegetation indices are one of the main techniques currently used in remote sensing activities, since they are related to biophysical and biochemical crop variables. Moreover, they have been evaluated in some studies as potentially beneficial for detecting or differentiating crop diseases. Flavescence Dorée (FD) is an infectious, incurable disease of the grapevine that can produce severe yield losses and, hence, compromise the stability of the vineyards...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
Ryosuke Kita, Sandeep Venkataram, Yiqi Zhou, Hunter B Fraser
Genetic variants affecting gene-expression levels are a major source of phenotypic variation. The approximate locations of these variants can be mapped as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs); however, a major limitation of eQTLs is their low resolution, which precludes investigation of the causal variants and their molecular mechanisms. Here we report RNA-seq and full genome sequences for 85 diverse isolates of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae-including wild, domesticated, and human clinical strains-which allowed us to perform eQTL mapping with 50-fold higher resolution than previously possible...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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