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Ann R Peden
BACKGROUND: Dr. Hildegard Peplau, considered to be our first modern Nurse theorist and the Mother of Psychiatric Nursing, was a prolific writer, engaging in correspondence with colleagues and students who sought her professional and theoretical expertise. Through these letters, she influenced psychiatric nursing while maintaining a broad international network of professional colleagues. OBJECTIVES: An analysis of letters, written between 1990 and 1998, provides insights into Peplau's last decade of professional life and a model of how to support the next generation of nurse scholars...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Marco Tasin, Sebastian Larsson Herrera, Alan L Knight, Wilson Barros-Parada, Eduardo Fuentes Contreras, Ilaria Pertot
Semiochemicals released by plant-microbe associations are used by herbivorous insects to access and evaluate food resources and oviposition sites. Adult insects may utilize microbial-derived nutrients to prolong their lifespan, promote egg development, and offer a high nutritional substrate to their offspring. Here, we examined the behavioral role of semiochemicals from grape-microbe interactions on oviposition and field attraction of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). The volatile constituents released by grape inoculated with yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Pitt...
March 10, 2018: Microbial Ecology
S Mykolenko, V Liedienov, M Kharytonov, N Makieieva, T Kuliush, I Queralt, E Marguí, M Hidalgo, G Pardini, M Gispert
The work was conducted to establish contamination from improper disposal of hazardous wastes containing lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) into nearby soils. Besides other elements in the affected area, the biological role of Sb, its behaviour in the pedosphere and uptake by plants and the food chain was considered. Wastes contained 139532 ± 9601 mg kg-1 (≈14%) Pb and 3645 ± 194 mg kg-1 (≈0.4%) Sb respectively and variability was extremely high at a decimetre scale. Dramatically high concentrations were also found for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sn and Zn...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Paulo A A Ferreira, Carina Marchezan, Carlos A Ceretta, Camila P Tarouco, Cledimar R Lourenzi, Leandro S Silva, Hilda H Soriani, Fernando T Nicoloso, Stefano Cesco, Tanja Mimmo, Gustavo Brunetto
Soil contamination with copper (Cu)-based agrochemicals used in vineyards for pest control is a growing problem. In this context, the application of soil amendment to limit Cu toxicity, especially for young plants after the replanting of vineyards, has been a concern for winemakers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how different amendments can contribute to the decrease in Cu availability in areas vocated to viticulture. Furthermore, the aim was to evaluate to the effect of Cu on the biochemical and physiological changes in the development of the young vine plants, both at the shoot and the root level...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Oussama Mghirbi, Jean-Paul Bord, Philippe Le Grusse, Elisabeth Mandart, Jacques Fabre
Faced with health, environmental, and socio-economic issues related to the heavy use of pesticides, diffuse phytosanitary pollution becomes a major concern shared by all the field actors. These actors, namely the farmers and territorial managers, have expressed the need to implement decision support tools for the territorial management of diffuse pollution resulting from the plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet these steadily increasing requests, a cartographic analysis approach was implemented based on GIS which allows the spatialization of the diffuse pollution impacts related to plant protection practices on the Etang de l'Or catchment area in the South of France...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Adrián Spisso, Ernesto Verni, Keaton Nahan, Luis Martinez, Julio Landero, Pablo Pacheco
Mercury (Hg) is a major environmental pollutant that can be disposed to the environment by human activities, reaching crops like vineyards during irrigation with contaminated waters. A 2-year study was performed to monitor Hg variations during reproductive and vegetative stages of vines after Hg supplementation. Variations were focused on total Hg concentration, the molecular weight of Hg fractions and Hg-proteins associations in roots, stems and leaves. Total Hg concentrations increased during reproductive stages and decreased during vegetative stages...
March 5, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Marco Lombardini, Alberto Meriggi, Alberto Fozzi
Crop damage by wildlife is a frequent source of human-wildlife conflict. Understanding which factors increase the risk of damage is crucial to the development of effective management strategies. The aims of this study were to provide a general description of agricultural damage caused by wild boar Sus scrofa meridionalis over a 7-year period in North-eastern Sardinia (Mediterranean Italy), and to formulate a predictive model of damage risk. We recorded a total of 221 cases of wild boar damage, with economic losses amounting to 483,982 Euros...
October 2017: Current Zoology
Mark S Sisterson, Donal P Dwyer, Sean Y Uchima
Pierce's disease of grapevine and almond leaf scorch disease are both caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. In the Central Valley of California, Draeculacephala minerva Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is the most common vector of X. fastidiosa. As alfalfa fields and pastures are considered source habitats for D. minerva, it is recommended that almond orchards and vineyards should be distanced from alfalfa and pastures. Here, risk of alfalfa and pastures serving as sources of D. minerva was compared to the potential benefit of alfalfa and pastures serving as sources of generalist natural enemies belonging to the families Chrysopidae and Coccinellidae...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Idan Shapira, Tamar Keasar, Ally R Harari, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Miriam Kishinevsky, Hadass Steinitz, Carmit Sofer-Arad, Maor Tomer, Almog Avraham, Rakefet Sharon
BACKGROUND: Mating disruption (MD) employs high doses of a pest's synthetic sex pheromone in agricultural plots, to interfere with its reproduction. MD is assumed to have few behavioral effects on non-target arthropods, because sex pheromones are highly species-specific and non-toxic. Nevertheless, some natural enemies use their host's sex pheromones as foraging cues, and thus may be attracted to MD plots. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared parasitoid and spider assemblages in paired plots in five Israeli vineyards during 2015...
February 28, 2018: Pest Management Science
Songchao Chen, Manuel P Martin, Nicolas P A Saby, Christian Walter, Denis A Angers, Dominique Arrouays
Although soils have a high potential to offset CO2 emissions through its conversion into soil organic carbon (SOC) with long turnover time, it is widely accepted that there is an upper limit of soil stable C storage, which is referred to SOC saturation. In this study we estimate SOC saturation in French topsoil (0-30cm) and subsoil (30-50cm), using the Hassink equation and calculate the additional SOC sequestration potential (SOCsp ) by the difference between SOC saturation and fine fraction C on an unbiased sampling set of sites covering whole mainland France...
February 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rocío Escribano-Viana, Javier Portu, Patrocinio Garijo, Ana Rosa Gutiérrez, Pilar Santamaría, Isabel López-Alfaro, Rosa López, Lucía González-Arenzana
BACKGROUND: This research was aimed to study the influence on grape and wine quality and on the fermentation processes of the application of a preventive biological treatment against Botrytis cinerea in Tempranillo Rioja grapevines. For this purpose, a biofungicide containing Bacillus subtilis QST713 was applied twice to the vineyard. RESULTS: Results were compared with non-treated samples from the same vineyard and with samples treated with a chemical fungicide composed of fenhexamid...
February 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Rocío Escribano-Viana, Isabel López-Alfaro, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Ana R Gutiérrez, Lucía González-Arenzana
This study was aimed to measure the impact of the application of a bio-fungicide against Botrytis cinerea on the microbiota involved in the alcoholic fermentation (AF) of Tempranillo Rioja wines. For this purpose, a bio-fungicide composed of the biological control bacterium Bacillus subtilis QST713 was applied to the vineyard. The microbial diversity was analyzed from grape biofilm to wine. Impact on microbial diversity was measured employing indexes assessed with the software PAST 3.10 P.D. Results were compared to non-treated samples and to samples treated with a chemical fungicide mainly composed by fenhexamid...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maria P Diago, Juan Fernández-Novales, Salvador Gutiérrez, Miguel Marañón, Javier Tardaguila
Assessing water status and optimizing irrigation is of utmost importance in most winegrowing countries, as the grapevine vegetative growth, yield, and grape quality can be impaired under certain water stress situations. Conventional plant-based methods for water status monitoring are either destructive or time and labor demanding, therefore unsuited to detect the spatial variation of moisten content within a vineyard plot. In this context, this work aims at the development and comprehensive validation of a novel, non-destructive methodology to assess the vineyard water status distribution using on-the-go, contactless, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nerea Jiménez-Moreno, José Antonio Moler, Henar Urmeneta, Julián Suberviola-Ripa, Félix Cibriain-Sabalza, Luis M Gandía, Carmen Ancín-Azpilicueta
Stomata in leaves regulate gas interchange and transpiration in the grapevine and through these pores both the penetration of aqueous solutions with nutrients as well as the excretion of products take place. The aim of this work was to study the influence of spraying the vineyard with toasted and untoasted oak extracts on the volatile composition and on the organoleptic quality of wine made from Garnacha grapes. The results were compared with a Garnacha control wine obtained with grapes sprayed with distilled water...
March 2018: Food Research International
Lauren I Josephs, Austin T Humphries
Human use and degradation of coastal ecosystems is at an all-time high. Thus, a current challenge for environmental management and research is moving beyond ecological definitions of success and integrating socioeconomic factors. Projects and studies with this aim, however, have focused primarily on monetary valuations of ecosystem functions, overlooking the behaviors and psycho-social motivations of environmental management. Using a nature-based salt marsh restoration project on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, we assess the role of human attitudes and preferences in evaluating social success for ecosystem management...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
G Gutiérrez-Gamboa, T Garde-Cerdán, M Carrasco-Quiroz, E P Pérez-Álvarez, A M Martínez-Gil, M Del Alamo-Sanza, Y Moreno-Simunovic
BACKGROUND: Carignan noir is one of the minor and ancient varieties from the Chilean wine scenario, which has had a resurgence due to its rediscovered oenological potential when cultivated under the conditions of the interior dryland area. Under these growing conditions Carignan noir wines stand out as fruit driven and fresh when compared to those coming from other growing areas. On the other hand, it is well known that wine aroma composition depends mainly on variety, viticultural management, and winemaking...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zhixiang Zhang, Xiyun Cui, Jihong Jiang, Hong Xiao, Hongqing Wang, Qi Wu, Nuredin Habili, Shifang Li
Three of the five well-known viroids infecting grapevine belong to the genus Apscaviroid. Grapevine latent viroid (GLVd) is a novel grapevine viroid. Although GLVd has the typical sequence motifs of the genus Apscaviroid, it is still an unassigned viroid. In this study, a sensitive, convenient, and rapid one-step RT-qPCR method using hydrolysis probes for the detection of GLVd was developed. Survey and bioassays were also performed for this viroid. Using this method in the survey of GLVd, a low infection rate of 2/226 in a grapevine germplasm resource nursery and a demonstration vineyard in China was determined...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Jonathan S O'Hearn, Douglas B Walsh
The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn; Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the primary vector of Grapevine Leafroll associated Viruses (GLRaVs) in Washington State vineyards. Rearing laboratory colonies of grape mealybug has proven difficult. Several host plants were tested to determine their suitability for use as an alternate host plants for laboratory colonies of grape mealybug. Of the plants tested, colonies of grape mealybug were successful on pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cv 'Connecticut field') leaves and vines...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ee Lin Tek, Joanna F Sundstrom, Jennie M Gardner, Stephen G Oliver, Vladimir Jiranek
Commercially available active dried wine yeasts are regularly used by winemakers worldwide to achieve reliable fermentations and obtain quality wine. This practice has led to increased evidence of traces of commercial wine yeast in the vineyard, winery and uninoculated musts. The mechanism(s) that enables commercial wine yeast to persist in the winery environment and the influence to native microbial communities on this persistence is poorly understood. This study has investigated the ability of commercial wine yeasts to form biofilms and adhere to plastic...
January 31, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Salvador Gutiérrez, María P Diago, Juan Fernández-Novales, Javier Tardaguila
The high impact of irrigation in crop quality and yield in grapevine makes the development of plant water status monitoring systems an essential issue in the context of sustainable viticulture. This study presents an on-the-go approach for the estimation of vineyard water status using thermal imaging and machine learning. The experiments were conducted during seven different weeks from July to September in season 2016. A thermal camera was embedded on an all-terrain vehicle moving at 5 km/h to take on-the-go thermal images of the vineyard canopy at 1...
2018: PloS One
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