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Giovanni Agati, Kamel Soudani, Lorenza Tuccio, Elisa Fierini, Naima Ben Ghozlen, El Mostafa Fadaili, Annalisa Romani, Zoran G Cerovic
We analyzed the potential of non-destructive optical sensing of grape skin anthocyanins for selective harvesting in precision viticulture. We measured anthocyanins by a hand-held fluorescence optical sensor on a 7-ha Sangiovese vineyard plot in central Italy. Optical indices obtained by the sensor were calibrated for the transformation in units of anthocyanins per berry mass, i.e. mg g-1 berry fresh weight. A full protocol for optimal data filtration, interpolation and homogenous zones delineation based on a very large number of optical measurements was proposed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ksenija Lopandic, Hakim Tafer, Katja Sterflinger
Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces kudriavzevii interspecies hybrid yeasts have frequently been isolated from alcoholic fermentation environments. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii HA1836 strain isolated from grapes from an Austrian vineyard.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
Vítor Gabriel Ambrosini, Daniel José Rosa, George Wellington Bastos de Melo, Jovani Zalamena, Cesar Cella, Daniela Guimarães Simão, Leandro Souza da Silva, Henrique Pessoa Dos Santos, Moreno Toselli, Tadeu Luis Tiecher, Gustavo Brunetto
High copper (Cu) soil contents, due to the continuous vineyard application of Cu fungicides throughout the years, may impair the growth of the shoot and modify the structure of the root system. The current study aimed to investigate the threshold levels of available Cu in the soil causing toxicity effects in young grapevine plants of 'Red Niagara' cultivated in clay soils. Grapevine plantlets were cultivated in pots containing vineyard devoted soils with increasing contents of available Cu (25, 80, 100 and 165 mg kg-1 ), for 53 days...
May 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Allison S Quan, Michael B Eisen
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is preferentially found on fermenting fruits. The yeasts that dominate the microbial communities of these substrates are the primary food source for developing D. melanogaster larvae, and adult flies manifest a strong olfactory system-mediated attraction for the volatile compounds produced by these yeasts during fermentation. Although most work on this interaction has focused on the standard laboratory yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a wide variety of other yeasts naturally ferment fallen fruit...
2018: PloS One
Regina Krachler, Rudolf Krachler, Fadime Gülce, Bernhard K Keppler, Gabriele Wallner
The goal of the present investigation was to measure 234 U/238 U activity ratios in pore waters of Lake Neusiedl, Austria, in order to learn more about uranium in groundwaters of the Lake Neusiedl/Seewinkel region. Pore waters of waterlogged sediments (at 1m depth) in the littoral zone of Lake Neusiedl were analyzed. The pore water samples were collected in the National Park Lake Neusiedl/Seewinkel from pristine sites that were not influenced by neighboring fertilized fields or vineyards. Uranium isotopes were extracted from 1...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Aurora Romar-Gasalla, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María J Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
Batch experiments were used to test P sorbent potential of soil samples, pyritic and granitic materials, mussel shell, mussel shell ash, sawdust, and slate waste fines for different pH and incubation times. Maximum P sorption varied in a wide range of pH: < 4 for pyritic material, 4-6 for forest soil, > 5 for slate fines, > 6 for shell ash, and pH 6-8 for mussel shell. P sorption was rapid (< 24 h) for forest soil, shell ash, pyritic material, and fine shell. On the opposite side, it was clearly slower for vineyard soil, granitic material, slate fines, pine sawdust, and coarse shell, with increased P sorption even 1 month later...
May 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jana Jaklová Dytrtová, Michal Straka, Kateřina Bělonožníková, Michal Jakl, Helena Ryšlavá
Resveratrol is antioxidant naturally occurring in wine grapes. It is thought to have a preventive biological activity against number of diseases. However, it has been recently shown that in the presence of metal ions, such as Cu2+ , resveratrol forms oxidative radicals. Cu2+ is usually present in wine due to former usage of bluestone in vineyards. Fungicide tebuconazole has substituted bluestone and is presently one of the most widely used agrochemicals in wine industry; wine thus may contain traces of tebuconazole...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Silvia L Toffolatti, Giuseppe Russo, Paola Campia, Piero A Bianco, Paolo Borsa, Mauro Coatti, Stefano Ff Torriani, Helge Sierotzki
BACKGROUND: Despite anti-resistance strategies are recommended to reduce the selection pressure towards insensitive strains, no information is available on the fungal population dynamics following their criteria in real field conditions. In this study the effect on Plasmopara viticola population of two identical spray programs, differing only for including or not the Carboxylic Acid Amide (CAA) mandipropamid in mixture and alternation with an anti-resistance partner, was compared in terms of downy mildew control efficacy and mandipropamid sensitivity in two commercial vineyards for four seasons...
May 10, 2018: Pest Management Science
Justyna Płotka-Wasylka, Vasil Simeonov, Jacek Namieśnik
A survey of biogenic amine (BA) profiles in opened wine bottles has been established to monitor the level of biogenic amines (BAs) in opened bottles against time and other conditions. Bottles of red and white wine were submitted to different temperatures, stopper type (screw cap, cork), and use of vacuum devices. A total of six wines made from a variety of grapes were obtained from vineyards from regions across Poland. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DLLME-GC-MS) procedure for BAs determination was validated and applied for wine sample analysis...
May 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Antonio G Cordente, Mark Solomon, Alex Schulkin, I Leigh Francis, Alice Barker, Anthony R Borneman, Christopher D Curtin
It is well established that the choice of yeast used to perform wine fermentation significantly influences the sensory attributes of wines; different yeast species and strains impart different profiles of esters, volatile fatty acids, higher alcohols, and volatile sulphur compounds. Indeed, choice of yeast remains one of the simplest means by which winemakers can modulate the sensory characteristics of wine. Consequently, there are more than 100 commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains available, mostly derived by isolation from vineyards and successful fermentations...
May 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Doreen Dawn M Cole, Linda D Boyd, Jared Vineyard, Lori J Giblin-Scanlon
Purpose: Increasing childhood obesity rates present a significant threat to public health. The purpose of this study was to explore dental hygienists' (DH) beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, current practices, and barriers for assessing and educating patients about childhood obesity. Methods: A random sample of DHs (n=13,357) was selected and emailed a link to the validated survey. Of the 1046 respondents who accessed the survey, 919 completed the survey for a completion rate of 89%. Results: A majority of the respondents understood the risk of chronic disease and obesity (99%), role sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) play as added sugar content in the diet (76%), and the amount of SSBs consumed by youth (91%)...
April 2018: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
Bao Jiang, Zhen-Wen Zhang
Due to its appropriate climate characteristics, the Loess Plateau region is considered to be one of the biggest optimal regions for producing high-quality mountain wine in China. However, the complex landform conditions of vineyards are conducive to the formation of mountainous microclimates, which ultimately influence the wine quality. This study aimed to elucidate the influences of three terrain conditions of the Loess Plateau region on the aroma compounds of Cabernet Franc wines by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
May 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Valentina Rojas, Héctor Jiménez, Rubén Palma-Millanao, Angélica González-González, Juan Machuca, Ricardo Godoy, Ricardo Ceballos, Ana Mutis, Herbert Venthur
The grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, is considered a harmful pest for vineyards in Chile as well as in North America and Europe. Currently, monitoring and control methods of L. botrana are based on its main sex pheromone component, being effective for low population densities. In order to improve control methods, antennal olfactory proteins in moths, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) have been studied as promising targets for the discovery of new potent semiochemicals, which have not been reported for L...
April 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Monica L Cooper, Matthew P Daugherty, Daniel R Jeske, Rodrigo P P Almeida, Kent M Daane
Studies of spatiotemporal dynamics are central to efforts to characterize the epidemiology of infectious disease, such as mechanism of pathogen spread and pathogen or vector sources in the landscape, and are critical to the development of effective disease management programs. To that end, we conducted a multi-year study of 20 vineyard blocks in coastal northern California to relate the dynamics of a mealybug vector, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), to incidence of grapevine leafroll disease (GLD)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sarah Morran, Marcelo L Moretti, Caio A Brunharo, Albert J Fischer, Bradley D Hanson
BACKGROUND: In California specialty cropping systems such as vineyards and orchards, Echinochloa colona is present as a summer annual weed. It is able to germinate throughout the growing season whenever favorable conditions are present, and management relies heavily on glyphosate applications. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) E. colona biotypes are present in the state, but the levels of resistance observed suggest that there may be differences in mechanisms of resistance among populations. RESULTS: E...
May 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
Rosina Cabrera, Damian López-Peña, Ali Asaff, Martín Esqueda, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto
Grapes are widely produced in northwestern Mexico, generating many wood trimmings (vineyard prunings) that have no further local use. This makes vineyard prunings a very attractive alternative for the cultivation of white-rot medicinal mushrooms such as Lentinus edodes. This type of wood can also offer a model for the evaluation of oxidative enzyme production during the fermentation process. We tested the effect of wood from vineyard prunings on the vegetative growth of and production of ligninolytic enzymes in L...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Cristiano Ballabio, Panos Panagos, Emanuele Lugato, Jen-How Huang, Alberto Orgiazzi, Arwyn Jones, Oihane Fernández-Ugalde, Pasquale Borrelli, Luca Montanarella
Copper (Cu) distribution in soil is influenced by climatic, geological and pedological factors. Apart from geological sources and industrial pollution, other anthropogenic sources, related to the agricultural activity, may increase copper levels in soils, especially in permanent crops such as olive groves and vineyards. This study uses 21,682 soil samples from the LUCAS topsoil survey to investigate copper distribution in the soils of 25 European Union (EU) Member States. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) were used to investigate the factors driving copper distribution in EU soils...
April 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Maggie D Triska, Kevin S Powell, Cassandra Collins, Inca Pearce, Michael Renton
BACKGROUND: Surveillance strategies are often standardized and completed on grid patterns to detect pest incursions quickly; however, it may be possible to improve surveillance through more targeted surveillance that accounts for landscape heterogeneity, dispersal and the habitat requirements of the invading organism. We simulated pest spread at a local-scale, using grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch)) as a case study, and assessed the influence of incorporating spatial heterogeneity into surveillance strategies compared to current, standard surveillance strategies...
April 29, 2018: Pest Management Science
João Drumonde-Neves, Ricardo Franco-Duarte, Eugénia Vieira, Inês Mendes, Teresa Lima, Dorit Schuller, Célia Pais
Aiming to elucidate the roles that ecology and geography play in shaping the differentiation of fermentative grape-associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations, several locations on six islands of the Azores Archipelago were surveyed. A total of 249 strains were isolated from spontaneous fermentations of grape samples from several varieties of two distinct grapevine species (Vitis vinifera L. and Vitis labrusca L.), in vineyards that are under regular cultivation or in abandoned vineyards. Strains were genetically analyzed using a set of nine microsatellite loci, and also phenotypically characterized using relevant physiological/biotechnological tests...
September 2018: Food Microbiology
Elodie Choque, Christophe Klopp, Sophie Valiere, José Raynal, Florence Mathieu
BACKGROUND: Black Aspergilli represent one of the most important fungal resources of primary and secondary metabolites for biotechnological industry. Having several black Aspergilli sequenced genomes should allow targeting the production of certain metabolites with bioactive properties. RESULTS: In this study, we report the draft genome of a black Aspergilli, A. tubingensis G131, isolated from a French Mediterranean vineyard. This 35 Mb genome includes 10,994 predicted genes...
March 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
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