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María L Raymond Eder, Cristina Reynoso, Santiago C Lauret, Alberto L Rosa
Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jorge Andres Morandé, Christine M Stockert, Garrett C Liles, John N Williams, David R Smart, Joshua H Viers
BACKGROUND: Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we used destructive sampling to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a vineyard in California's northern San Joaquin Valley...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
George Adamides, Christos Katsanos, Yisrael Parmet, Georgios Christou, Michalis Xenos, Thanasis Hadzilacos, Yael Edan
Teleoperation of an agricultural robotic system requires effective and efficient human-robot interaction. This paper investigates the usability of different interaction modes for agricultural robot teleoperation. Specifically, we examined the overall influence of two types of output devices (PC screen, head mounted display), two types of peripheral vision support mechanisms (single view, multiple views), and two types of control input devices (PC keyboard, PS3 gamepad) on observed and perceived usability of a teleoperated agricultural sprayer...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Heber Rodrigues, María-Pilar Sáenz-Navajas, Ernesto Franco-Luesma, Dominique Valentin, Purificación Fernández-Zurbano, Vicente Ferreira, Arancha De La Fuente Blanco, Jordi Ballester
The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of vineyard position on the minerality of wines and to establish relationships between minerality scores, sensory descriptors and chemical composition. Sensory analyses included minerality rating and free description performed by wine professionals under two conditions: orthonasal olfaction alone and global tasting. Chemical characterization included analysis of major and minor volatile compounds, volatile sulphur compounds, mercaptans, metals, anions and cations...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Gavin Kernaghan, Michael Mayerhofer, Amanda Griffin
Plants are colonized by diverse assemblages of fungal endophytes that have potential as biocontrol agents for a variety of crops, including grapevine. Although the diversity of symbionts can be very high in wild plants, the fungal endophytes of wild Vitis plants have not yet been investigated. We surveyed the fungal endophytes of six wild populations of Vitis riparia, as well as a cold tolerant, hybrid grapevine in five vineyards (one certified organic), using 454 pyrosequencing. We detected between 43 and 235 OTUs per sample, with the highest richness and diversity in the wild, the lowest in conventional vineyards, and intermediate levels in the organic vineyard...
April 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
A Rombaut, R Guilhot, A Xuéreb, L Benoit, M P Chapuis, P Gibert, S Fellous
How do invasive pests affect interactions between members of pre-existing agrosystems? The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii is suspected to be involved in the aetiology of sour rot, a grapevine disease that otherwise develops following Drosophila melanogaster infestation of wounded berries. We combined field observations with laboratory assays to disentangle the relative roles of both Drosophila in disease development. We observed the emergence of numerous D. suzukii, but no D. melanogaster flies, from bunches that started showing mild sour rot symptoms days after field collection...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Romain Balaguie, Pascal Madeleine, Kévin Rose-Dulcina, Nicolas Vuillerme
OBJECTIVES: In viticulture, the prevalence of low back pain is particularly high among vineyard workers exposed to sustained and awkward postures. One promising setting for low back pain prevention resides in the implementation of workplace physical activity. METHODS: This non-randomized pilot study aims at evaluating the effects of a worksite supervised adapted physical activity program among seventeen vineyard-workers volunteered to enter either an intervention group (n=10) or a control group (n=7)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
Elizabeth J Cieniewicz, Sarah J Pethybridge, Adrienne Gorny, Laurence V Madden, Heather McLane, Keith L Perry, Marc Fuchs
Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), the causative agent of red blotch disease, is a member of the genus Grablovirus, in the family Geminiviridae and the first known geminivirus of Vitis spp. Limited information is available on the epidemiology of red blotch disease. A 2-hectare Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet franc' vineyard in Napa County, California, USA was selected for monitoring GRBaV spread over a three-year period (2014-2016) based on an initially low disease incidence and an aggregation of symptomatic vines at the edge of the vineyard proximal to a wooded riparian area...
April 6, 2017: Virus Research
Romain Balaguier, Pascal Madeleine, Kévin Rose-Dulcina, Nicolas Vuillerme
The prevalence of low back disorders is dramatically high in viticulture. Field measurements that objectively quantify work exposure can provide information on the relationship between the adopted trunk postures and low back pain. The purposes of the present study were three-fold (1) to carry out a kinematics analysis of vineyard-workers' pruning activity by extracting the duration of bending and rotation of the trunk, (2) to question separately the relationship between the duration of forward bending or trunk rotation with low back pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity and (3) to question the relationship between the combined duration of forward bending and trunk rotation on low back pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity...
2017: PloS One
Federico Tacoli, Francesco Pavan, Elena Cargnus, Elisabetta Tilatti, Alberto Pozzebon, Pietro Zandigiacomo
During 2015, the influence of kaolin applications and bunch-zone leaf removal on the grapevine leafhoppers, Empoasca vitis (Göthe) and Zygina rhamni Ferrari, and their egg parasitoids (Anagrus spp.) was tested in four vineyards of northeastern Italy. The mode of action of kaolin on E. vitis nymphs was also investigated in the laboratory. In the treated plots, kaolin was applied at a rate of 2% w/v on two occasions separated by 5-6 d. In two vineyards, it was applied either on the whole canopy or the bunch zone at the beginning of the E...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Luis E Castañeda, Olga Barbosa
Mediterranean biomes are biodiversity hotspots, and vineyards are important components of the Mediterranean landscape. Over the last few decades, the amount of land occupied by vineyards has augmented rapidly, thereby increasing threats to Mediterranean ecosystems. Land use change and agricultural management have important effects on soil biodiversity, because they change the physical and chemical properties of soil. These changes may also have consequences on wine production considering that soil is a key component of terroir...
2017: PeerJ
Eva P Pérez-Álvarez, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Maria Cabrita, Enrique García-Escudero, Fernando Peregrina
BACKGROUND: Vineyard soil management can modify the nitrogen soil availability and therefore, grape amino acid content. These compounds are precursors of biogenic amines, which have negative effects to wine quality and human health. The objective was to study if the effect of conventional tillage and two cover crops (barley and clover) on grapevine nitrogen status, could be relate with wine biogenic amines. During four years, soil NO₃(-) -N, nitrogen content in leaf and wine biogenic amines concentration were determined...
April 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
F Kiaeian Moosavi, E Cargnus, F Pavan, P Zandigiacomo
The hypothesis that bunch-zone leaf removal reduces infestations of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by increasing egg and larval mortality owing to sunlight exposure was evaluated in the laboratory by subjecting different egg stages (white, red-eyes, and black-head) and newly hatched larvae to high temperatures. Based on temperatures recorded in a northern Italian vineyard on sun-exposed berries belonging to south-west facing bunches, eggs were subjected to constant temperatures of 40 °C and 37 °C for one or two periods of 3 or 6 h, and to 24-h temperature cycle with peak of 40 °C...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Julius Koettgen, Tobias Zacherle, Steffen Grieshammer, Manfred Martin
The rate of oxygen ion jumps in a solid oxide depends not only on the activation energy but also on the pre-exponential factor of diffusion. In order to allow a fully ab initio prediction of the oxygen ion conductivity in pure and samarium doped ceria, we calculated the attempt frequency for an oxygen ion jump from first principles combining DFT+U, the NEB method, phonon calculations and the transition state theory. Different definitions of the jump attempt frequency are presented. The equivalence of the Eyring and the Vineyard method is shown without restriction to the Gamma point...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Barbara Blanco-Ulate, Helene Hopfer, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Zirou Ye, Rosa M Rivero, Alfonso Albacete, Francisco Pérez-Alfocea, Renata Koyama, Michael M Anderson, Rhonda J Smith, Susan E Ebeler, Dario Cantu
Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a major threat to the wine industry in the USA. GRBaV infections (aka red blotch disease) compromise crop yield and berry chemical composition, affecting the flavor and aroma properties of must and wine. In this study, we combined genome-wide transcriptional profiling with targeted metabolite analyses and biochemical assays to characterize the impact of the disease on red-skinned berry ripening and metabolism. Using naturally infected berries collected from two vineyards, we were able to identify consistent berry responses to GRBaV across different environmental and cultural conditions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jorge Andres Morandé, Christine M Stockert, Garrett C Liles, John N Williams, David R Smart, Joshua H Viers
BACKGROUND: Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we used destructive sampling to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a vineyard in California's northern San Joaquin Valley...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
Xing-Jie Wang, Yong-Sheng Tao, Yun Wu, Rong-Yan An, Zhuo-Ya Yue
Aroma characteristics and their impact volatile components of noble-rot wines elaborated from artificial botrytized Chardonnay grapes, obtained by spraying Botrytis cinerea suspension in Yuquan vineyard, Ningxia, China, were explored in this work. Dry white wine made from normal-harvested grapes and sweet wine produced from delay-harvested grapes were compared. Wine aromas were analysed by trained sensory panelists, and aroma compounds were determined by SPME-GC-MS. Results indicated that esters, fatty acids, thiols, lactones, volatile phenols and 2-nonanone increased markedly in noble-rot wines...
July 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Dustin Baldridge, Jennifer Heeley, Marisa Vineyard, Linda Manwaring, Tomi L Toler, Emily Fassi, Elise Fiala, Sarah Brown, Charles W Goss, Marcia Willing, Dorothy K Grange, Beth A Kozel, Marwan Shinawi
PURPOSE: Evaluation of the clinician's role in the optimal interpretation of clinical exome sequencing (ES) results. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of the first 155 patients who underwent clinical ES in our Exome Clinic and direct interaction with the ordering geneticist to evaluate the process of interpretation of results. RESULTS: The most common primary indication was neurodevelopmental problems (~66%), followed by multiple congenital anomalies (~10%)...
March 2, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Josman P Pérez-Expósito, Tiago M Fernández-Caramés, Paula Fraga-Lamas, Luis Castedo
This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew...
February 25, 2017: Sensors
Marie Lefrancq, Alain Jadas-Hécart, Isabelle La Jeunesse, David Landry, Sylvain Payraudeau
Rainfall-induced peaks in pesticide concentrations can occur rapidly. Low frequency sampling may therefore largely underestimate maximum pesticide concentrations and fluxes. Detailed storm-based sampling of pesticide concentrations in runoff water to better predict pesticide sources, transport pathways and toxicity within the headwater catchments is lacking. High frequency monitoring (2min) of seven pesticides (Dimetomorph, Fluopicolide, Glyphosate, Iprovalicarb, Tebuconazole, Tetraconazole and Triadimenol) and one degradation product (AMPA) were assessed for 20 runoff events from 2009 to 2012 at the outlet of a vineyard catchment in the Layon catchment in France...
February 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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