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Vitor C Pacheco da Silva, Mehmet Bora Kaydan, Thibaut Malausa, Jean-François Germain, Ferran Palero, Marcos Botton
The Serra Gaúcha region is the most important temperate fruit-producing area in southern Brazil. Despite mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting several host plants in the region, there is a lack of information about the composition of species damaging different crops. A survey of mealybug species associated with commercial fruit crops (apple, persimmon, strawberry and grapes) was performed in Serra Gaúcha between 2013 and 2015, using both morphology and DNA analyses for species identification. The most abundant species were Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), found on all four host plant species, and Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), infesting persimmon, vines and weeds...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Riccardo Aversano, Boris Basile, Mauro Paolo Buonincontri, Francesca Carucci, Domenico Carputo, Luigi Frusciante, Gaetano Di Pasquale
Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy) is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a) the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b) a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties...
2017: PloS One
Fatima Meite, Pablo Alvarez-Zaldívar, Alexandre Crochet, Charline Wiegert, Sylvain Payraudeau, Gwenaël Imfeld
The combined influence of soil characteristics, pollutant aging and rainfall patterns on the export of pollutants from topsoils is poorly understood. We used laboratory experiments and parsimonious modeling to evaluate the impact of rainfall characteristics on the ponding and the leaching of a pollutant mixture from topsoils. The mixture included the fungicide metalaxyl, the herbicide S-metolachlor, as well as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Four rainfall patterns, which differed in their durations and intensities, were applied twice successively with a 7days interval on each soil type...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Javier Portu, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Teresa Garde-Cerdán
Vine foliar applications of phenylalanine (Phe) or methyl jasmonate (MeJ) could improve the synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, there are no reports focusing on the effects of elicitation supported by precursor feeding on must amino acid composition in grapevines. The aim of this research was to study the effect of the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) supported by phenylalanine (Phe) as a precursor feeding (MeJ+Phe) and its application individually on must amino acid composition. Results showed that foliar Phe and MeJ treatments decreased the concentration of most of the studied amino acids with respect to the control (p≤0...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
A Miranda-Fuentes, P Marucco, E J González-Sánchez, E Gil, M Grella, P Balsari
Pneumatic sprayers are widely used in vineyards due to their very fine droplet size, which makes the drift risk to become an important problem to be considered. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the spout diameter at the release point on the spray droplet size and uniformity achieved for different liquid flow rates (LFR) and air flow rates (AFR). A test bench was developed to simulate a real pneumatic sprayer under laboratory conditions, and it was empirically adjusted to match the air pressure conditions as closely as possible to real working conditions...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jérémy S P Froidevaux, Bastien Louboutin, Gareth Jones
The effectiveness of organic farming for promoting biodiversity has been widely documented, yet most studies have been undertaken in temperate agroecosystems with a focus on birds, insects and plants. Despite the Mediterranean basin being a biodiversity hotspot for conservation priorities, the potential benefits of organic farming for biodiversity there has received little attention. Here, we assessed the effect of farming system, landscape characteristics and habitat structure on biodiversity in Mediterranean vineyards using two taxa with different functional traits (in terms of mobility, dispersal ability and home range size): bats and arachnids...
November 1, 2017: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Christoph Hoffmann, Janine Köckerling, Sandra Biancu, Thomas Gramm, Gertraud Michl, Martin H Entling
Greencover crops are widely recommended to provide predators and parasitoids with floral resources for improved pest control. We studied parasitism and predation of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) eggs and pupae as well as predatory mite abundances in an experimental vineyard with either one or two sowings of greencover crops compared to spontaneous vegetation. The co-occurrence between greencover flowering time and parasitoid activity differed greatly between the two study years. Parasitism was much higher when flowering and parasitoid activity coincided...
November 3, 2017: Insects
Jorge Gago, Alisdair R Fernie, Zoran Nikoloski, Takayuki Tohge, Sebastiá Martorell, José Mariano Escalona, Miquel Ribas-Carbó, Jaume Flexas, Hipólito Medrano
Background: There is currently a high requirement for field phenotyping methodologies/technologies to determine quantitative traits related to crop yield and plant stress responses under field conditions. Methods: We employed an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a thermal camera as a high-throughput phenotyping platform to obtain canopy level data of the vines under three irrigation treatments. High-resolution imagery (< 2.5 cm/pixel) was employed to estimate the canopy conductance (gc ) via the leaf energy balance model...
2017: Plant Methods
Nancy Peña, Assumpció Antón, Andreas Kamilaris, Peter Fantke
Application of plant protection products (PPP) is a fundamental practice for viticulture. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a useful tool to assess the environmental performance of agricultural production, where including toxicity-related impacts for PPP use is still associated with methodological limitations, especially for inorganic (i.e. metal-based) pesticides. Downy mildew is one of the most severe diseases for vineyard production. For disease control, copper-based fungicides are the most effective and used PPP in both conventional and organic viticulture...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tomas Poblete, Samuel Ortega-Farías, Miguel Angel Moreno, Matthew Bardeen
Water stress, which affects yield and wine quality, is often evaluated using the midday stem water potential (Ψstem). However, this measurement is acquired on a per plant basis and does not account for the assessment of vine water status spatial variability. The use of multispectral cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is capable to capture the variability of vine water stress in a whole field scenario. It has been reported that conventional multispectral indices (CMI) that use information between 500-800 nm, do not accurately predict plant water status since they are not sensitive to water content...
October 30, 2017: Sensors
Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Eric C Brevik, Artemi Cerdà
Vineyards incur the highest soil and water losses among all Mediterranean agricultural fields. The state-of-the-art shows that soil erosion in vineyards has been primarily surveyed with topographical methods, soil erosion plots and rainfall simulations, but these techniques do not typically assess temporal changes in soil erosion. When vines are planted they are about 30cm high×1cm diameter without leaves, the root system varies from 2 to over 40cm depth, and sometimes the lack of care used during transplanting can result in a field with highly erodible bare soils...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jacobus J Hunter, Cornelis G Volschenk
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NE, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23 °Balling, 25 °B, 27 °B) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt). RESULTS: Soluble solids:Titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening...
October 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Peter Morrison-Whittle, Matthew R Goddard
Humans have been making wine for thousands of years and microorganisms play an integral part in this process as they not only drive fermentation, but also significantly influence the flavour, aroma, and quality of finished wines. Since fruits are ephemeral, they cannot comprise a permanent microbial habitat; thus, an age-old unanswered question concerns the origin of fruit and ferment associated microbes. Here we use next-generation sequencing approaches to examine and quantify the roles of native forests, vineyard soil, bark, and fruit habitats as sources of fungal diversity in ferments...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Caterina Rotolo, Rita M De Miccolis Angelini, Crescenza Dongiovanni, Stefania Pollastro, Giulio Fumarola, Michele Di Carolo, Donato Perrelli, Patrizia Natale, Francesco Faretra
BACKGROUND: The increasing interest on biological control agents (BCAs) and botanicals (BOTs) is due to the increasing awareness on environmental and human health risks associated to the usage of synthetic plant protection products. The BCAs Bacillus subtilis strain QST713, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 and Aureobasidium pullulans strains DSM14940 and DSM14941, and the BOTs Melaleuca alternifolia and terpenic extracts are proposed for the control of grey mould in vineyard. This study was aimed at evaluating their effectiveness in integrated crop management strategies and their outcomes in terms of management of fungicide resistance and residues...
October 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
E Stempien, M-L Goddard, Y Leva, M Bénard-Gellon, H Laloue, S Farine, F Kieffer-Mazet, C Tarnus, C Bertsch, J Chong
Grapevine trunk diseases (Eutypa dieback, esca and Botryosphaeria dieback) are caused by a complex of xylem-inhabiting fungi, which severely reduce yields in vineyards. Botryosphaeria dieback is associated with Botryosphaeriaceae. In order to develop effective strategies against Botryosphaeria dieback, we investigated the molecular basis of grapevine interactions with a virulent species, Neofusicoccum parvum, and a weak pathogen, Diplodia seriata. We investigated defenses induced by purified secreted fungal proteins within suspension cells of Vitis (Vitis rupestris and Vitis vinifera cv...
October 17, 2017: Protoplasma
Claudio D'Onofrio, Fabiola Matarese, Angela Cuzzola
Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was applied in a vineyard on leaves and grape clusters of cv Sangiovese to test its ability to stimulate the production of aromas and identify the main genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways switched on by the elicitor. MeJA application led to a delay in grape technological maturity and a significant increase in the concentration of several berry aroma classes (about twice the total aroma: from around 3 to 6μg/g of berry). Of these, monoterpenes showed the most significant increase...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Brenda V Canizo, Leticia B Escudero, María B Pérez, Roberto G Pellerano, Rodolfo G Wuilloud
The feasibility of the application of chemometric techniques associated with multi-element analysis for the classification of grape seeds according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated. Grape seed samples from different localities of Mendoza province (Argentina) were evaluated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of twenty-nine elements (Ag, As, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, La, Lu, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pr, Rb, Sm, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, Y, Zn and Zr)...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Andreja Vanzo, Lucija Janeš, Franc Požgan, Špela Velikonja Bolta, Paolo Sivilotti, Klemen Lisjak
Varietal thiol precursors in grapes are subject to metabolic changes during post-harvest treatments. Metabolic activity should therefore be limited after sampling to understand their biosynthesis in the berry and genetic regulation. In this study, berries were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after harvesting, transported in dry ice, stored briefly at -80 °C, cryo-milled and extracted without being thawed in cold methanol in a ratio of 1:4 (w/v). A UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of the thiol precursors 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol (G3MH), 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol (Cys3MH), 4-S-glutathionyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (G4MMP) and 4-S-cysteinyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (Cys4MMP), glutathione, oxidized glutathione and L-methionine in grapes was developed...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Roberto Pierro, Alessandro Passera, Alessandra Panattoni, Paola Casati, Andrea Luvisi, Domenico Rizzo, Piero Attilio Bianco, Fabio Quaglino, Alberto Materazzi
Bois Noir (BN) is the most widespread disease of the grapevine yellows complex in the Euro-Mediterranean area. BN is caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (BNp), transmitted from herbaceous plants to grapevine by polyphagous insect vectors. In this study, genetic diversity among BNp strains, their prevalence and possible association with grapevine symptom severity were investigated in a Sangiovese clone organic vineyard, in the Chianti Classico area (Tuscany). Field surveys over two years revealed a range of symptom severity on grapevine and an increase of BN incidence...
October 13, 2017: Phytopathology
Salvatore Pepi, Carmela Vaccaro
The terroir can be defined as interactive ecosystem that includes climate, geology, soil and grapevine, and it is used to explain the hierarchy of high quality of wine. In order to understand the terroir functions, it is necessary to analyse the interactions among the geology, soil and wine. To define a geochemical fingerprint, the relationship between geochemistry of vineyard soil and chemical composition of wine from Veneto Italian Region was studied. The vineyards tested belonged to four distinct wineries located in the Veneto alluvial plain, included in the Controlled Designation of Origin (DOC) area of Prosecco...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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