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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218463/closed-reference-metatranscriptomics-enables-in-planta-profiling-of-putative-virulence-activities-in-the-grapevine-trunk-disease-complex
#1
Abraham Morales-Cruz, Gabrielle Allenbeck, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Vanessa E Ashworth, Daniel P Lawrence, Renaud Travadon, Rhonda J Smith, Kendra Baumgartner, Philippe E Rolshausen, Dario Cantu
Grapevines, like other perennial crops, are affected by so-called 'trunk diseases', which damage the trunk and other woody tissues. Mature grapevines typically contract more than one trunk disease and often multiple grapevine trunk pathogens (GTPs) are recovered from infected tissues. The co-existence of different GTP species in complex and dynamic microbial communities complicates the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease development especially under vineyard conditions. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a community-level transcriptomics (i...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203242/sunlight-modulates-fruit-metabolic-profile-and-shapes-the-spatial-pattern-of-compound-accumulation-within-the-grape-cluster
#2
Noam Reshef, Natasha Walbaum, Nurit Agam, Aaron Fait
Vineyards are characterized by their large spatial variability of solar irradiance (SI) and temperature, known to effectively modulate grape metabolism. To explore the role of sunlight in shaping fruit composition and cluster uniformity, we studied the spatial pattern of incoming irradiance, fruit temperature and metabolic profile within individual grape clusters under three levels of sunlight exposure. The experiment was conducted in a vineyard of Cabernet Sauvignon cv. located in the Negev Highlands, Israel, where excess SI and midday temperatures are known to degrade grape quality...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196322/ecosystem-services-mapping-for-sustainable-agricultural-water-management-in-california-s-central-valley
#3
Edward Matios, Jennifer Anne Burney
Accurate information on agricultural water needs and withdrawals at appropriate spatial and temporal scales remains a key limitation to joint water and land management decision-making. We use InVEST ecosystem service mapping to estimate water yield and water consumption as functions of land use in Fresno County, a key farming region in California's Central Valley. Our calculations show that in recent years (2010-2015), total annual water yield for the county has varied dramatically from ~0.97 km(3) to 5.37 km(3) (all ± ~17%; 1 MAF ≈ 1...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185034/agricultural-activities-and-the-incidence-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-general-french-population
#4
Sofiane Kab, Johan Spinosi, Laura Chaperon, Aline Dugravot, Archana Singh-Manoux, Frédéric Moisan, Alexis Elbaz
Most studies on pesticides and Parkinson's disease (PD) focused on occupational exposure in farmers. Whether non-occupational exposure is associated with PD has been little explored. We investigated the association between agricultural characteristics and PD incidence in a French nationwide ecologic study. We hypothesized that persons living in regions with agricultural activities involving more intensive pesticide use would be at higher risk. We identified incident PD cases from French National Health Insurance databases (2010-2012)...
February 9, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169033/combining-habitat-requirements-of-endemic-bird-species-and-other-ecosystem-services-may-synergistically-enhance-conservation-efforts
#5
Mattia Brambilla, Luca Ilahiane, Giacomo Assandri, Silvia Ronchi, Giuseppe Bogliani
Biodiversity conservation and the optimisation of other ecosystem service delivery as a contribution to human well-being are often tackled as mutually alternative targets. Modern agriculture is a great challenge for the fulfilment of both. Here, we explore the potential benefits of integrating biodiversity conservation and the preservation of wider ecosystem services, considering the conservation of an endemic species (Moltoni's warbler Sylvia subalpina; Aves: Sylvidae) and soil erosion control (a final ecosystem service) in intensive vineyards in Italy...
February 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168929/preventative-disease-management-and-grower-decision-making-a-case-study-of-california-winegrape-growers
#6
Vicken Hillis, Mark Lubell, Jonathan Kaplan, Kendra Baumgartner
Preventative disease management is challenging to farmers because it requires paying immediate costs in the hopes of returning uncertain future benefits. Understanding farmer decision making about prevention has the potential to reduce disease incidence and minimize the need for more costly post-infection practices. For example, the grapevine trunk-disease complex (Esca, Botryosphaeria dieback, Eutypa dieback, Phomopsis dieback) significantly impacts vineyard productivity and longevity. Given the chronic nature of the infections and inability to eradicate the fungal pathogens, the preventative practices of delayed pruning, applications of pruning-wound protectants, and double pruning (a...
February 7, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156050/evaluation-of-a-decision-support-strategy-for-the-control-of-powdery-mildew-erysiphe-necator-schw-burr-in-grapevine-in-the-central-region-of-chile
#7
Héctor Valdés-Gómez, Miguel Araya-Alman, Carolina Pañitrur-De la Fuente, Nicolás Verdugo-Vásquez, Mauricio Lolas, César Acevedo-Opazo, Christian Gary, Agnès Calonnec
BACKGROUND: The primary strategy to control powdery mildew in Chilean vineyards involves periodic fungicide spraying, which may lead to many environmental and human health risks. This study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness and economic feasibility of a novel Decision Support Strategy (DSS) to limit the number of treatments against this pathogen. An experiment was conducted between the 2010 and 2013 seasons in two irrigated vine fields, one containing a cultivar of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and another of Chardonnay (CH)...
February 3, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146570/temporal-and-spatial-scales-matter-circannual-habitat-selection-by-bird-communities-in-vineyards
#8
Claire Guyot, Raphaël Arlettaz, Pius Korner, Alain Jacot
Vineyards are likely to be regionally important for wildlife, but we lack biodiversity studies in this agroecosystem which is undergoing a rapid management revolution. As vine cultivation is restricted to arid and warm climatic regions, biodiversity-friendly management would promote species typical of southern biomes. Vineyards are often intensively cultivated, mostly surrounded by few natural features and offering a fairly mineral appearance with little ground vegetation cover. Ground vegetation cover and composition may further strongly vary with respect to season, influencing patterns of habitat selection by ecological communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146133/exploring-the-effects-of-geographical-origin-on-the-chemical-composition-and-quality-grading-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-chardonnay-grapes
#9
Joanna M Gambetta, Daniel Cozzolino, Susan E P Bastian, David W Jeffery
The relationship between berry chemical composition, region of origin and quality grade was investigated for Chardonnay grapes sourced from vineyards located in seven South Australian Geographical Indications (GI). Measurements of basic chemical parameters, amino acids, elements, and free and bound volatiles were conducted for grapes collected during 2015 and 2016. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was used to determine the sets of data that best discriminated each GI and quality grade. Important components for the discrimination of grapes based on GI were 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol and C6 compounds, as well as Cu, Zn, and Mg, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH...
January 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133743/non-destructive-assessment-of-grapevine-water-status-in-the-field-using-a-portable-nir-spectrophotometer
#10
Javier Tardaguila, Juan Fernández-Novales, Salvador Gutiérrez, Maria Paz Diago
BACKGROUND: Until now, the majority of methods employed to assess grapevine water status are destructive, time-intensive, costly and provide information of limited number of samples, thus the ability of revealing within-field water status variability is reduced. The goal of this work was to evaluate the capability of non-invasive, portable NIR spectroscopy acquired in the field, to assess the grapevine water status in diverse varieties, grown under different environmental conditions, in a fast and reliable way...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131937/inland-navigation-pah-inventories-in-soil-and-vegetation-after-eu-fuel-regulation-2009-30-ec
#11
Melanie Bläsing, Wulf Amelung, Lorenz Schwark, Eva Lehndorff
In January 2011, fuel quality in inland water vessels was changed by EU regulation 2009/30/EC, aiming at improving air quality along waterways. We hypothesized that the implementation of this regulation both lowered the total deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and changed their composition in river valleys. We analyzed parent-, alkylated- and thio-PAHs in soil and vine leaves, at two waterways (Rhine and Moselle, Germany), as well as in one ship-free reference area (Ahr, Germany). Samples were taken annually (2010-2013) in transects perpendicular to the rivers...
January 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130570/a-bayesian-estimation-approach-for-the-mortality-in-a-stage-structured-demographic-model
#12
E Lanzarone, S Pasquali, G Gilioli, E Marchesini
Control interventions in sustainable pest management schemes are set according to the phenology and the population abundance of the pests. This information can be obtained using suitable mathematical models that describe the population dynamics based on individual life history responses to environmental conditions and resource availability. These responses are described by development, fecundity and survival rate functions, which can be estimated from laboratory experiments. If experimental data are not available, data on field population dynamics can be used for their estimation...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129905/urban-and-industrial-land-uses-have-a-higher-soil-biological-quality-than-expected-from-physicochemical-quality
#13
Sophie Joimel, Christophe Schwartz, Mickaël Hedde, Sayuri Kiyota, Paul Henning Krogh, Johanne Nahmani, Guénola Pérès, Alan Vergnes, Jérôme Cortet
Despite their importance both in soil functioning and as soil indicators, the response of microarthropods to various land uses is still unclear. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of land use on microarthropod diversity and determine whether a soil's biological quality follows the same physicochemical quality-based gradient from forest, agriculture-grassland, agriculture-arable land, vineyards, urban vegetable gardens to urban, industrial, traffic, mining and military areas. A database compiling the characteristics of 758 communities has been established...
January 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125736/population-structure-diversity-and-reproductive-mode-of-the-grape-phylloxera-daktulosphaira-vitifoliae-across-its-native-range
#14
Karl T Lund, Summaira Riaz, M Andrew Walker
Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, is a gall-forming insect that feeds on the leaves and roots of many Vitis species. The roots of the cultivated V. vinifera cultivars and hybrids are highly susceptible to grape phylloxera feeding damage. The native range of this insect covers most of North America, and it is particularly abundant in the eastern and central United States. Phylloxera was introduced from North America to almost all grape-growing regions across five of the temperate zone continents. It devastated vineyards in each of these regions causing large-scale disruptions to grape growers, wine makers and national economies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125217/functional-and-evolutionary-characterization-of-a-udp-xylose-synthase-gene-from-the-plant-pathogen-xylella-fastidiosa-involved-in-the-synthesis-of-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide
#15
Valquíria Campos Alencar, Daniela Leite Jabes, Fabiano Bezerra Menegidio, Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki, Lucas Rodrigo de Souza, Luciano Puzer, Maria Cecília Zorél Meneghetti, Marcelo Andrade Lima, Ivarne Luis Dos Santos Tersariol, Regina Costa de Oliveira, Luiz R Nunes
Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-infecting bacillus, responsible for many important crop diseases, such as Pierce's disease of vineyards, citrus variegated chlorosis, and coffee leaf scorch (CLS), among others. Recent genomic comparisons involving two CLS-related strains, belonging to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca, revealed that one of them carries a frameshift mutation that inactivates a gene encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, which may play important roles in determining structural variations in bacterial glycans and glycoconjugates...
January 26, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092750/assessing-common-birds-ecological-requirements-to-address-nature-conservation-in-permanent-crops-lessons-from-italian-vineyards
#16
Giacomo Assandri, Giuseppe Bogliani, Paolo Pedrini, Mattia Brambilla
Viticulture has contributed to shaping cultural landscapes in several regions across all continents. Recent farming intensification is causing landscape homogenization and biodiversity loss in several of those areas, but knowledge about the impacts on biodiversity in vineyards is still scarce. Simplified agro-ecosystems resulting from intensification host mainly generalist and common species, which still play a key role in the regulation of ecosystems and in the provision of ecosystem services. We assessed the abundance of 11 common bird species at 47 linear transects in a vineyard-dominated landscape in Trentino (NE Italy), in both spring and winter, and analysed abundance variation in relation to three independent groups of predictors: landscape, management, and topographic-climatic variables...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060498/1-8-cineole-in-french-red-wines-evidence-for-a-contribution-related-to-its-various-origins
#17
Xavier Poitou, Cécile Thibon, Philippe Darriet
The aromatic descriptor "green", reflecting grape unripeness in French red wines, is frequently associated with the levels of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines, particularly 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), which has bell pepper nuances. Nevertheless, not all green aromatic expressions in red wines correlate with 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazine concentrations. This study considered sensory and chemical approaches using Cabernet Sauvignon wines obtained from grapes harvested at one-month intervals during the 2014 and 2015 vintages to investigate other volatile odoriferous compounds...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040157/monitoring-the-mycobiota-during-greco-di-tufo-and-aglianico-wine-fermentation-by-18s-rrna-gene-sequencing
#18
Francesca De Filippis, Antonietta La Storia, Giuseppe Blaiotta
Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of grape must is a complex process, carried out by indigenous yeast populations arising from the vineyard or the winery environment and therefore representing an autochthonous microbial terroir of the production area. Microbial diversity at species and biotype level is extremely important in order to develop the composite and typical flavour profile of DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) wines. In this study, we monitored fungal populations involved in spontaneous fermentations of Aglianico and Greco di Tufo grape must by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 18S rRNA gene amplicons...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030929/risk-exposure-to-vibration-and-noise-in-the-use-of-agricultural-track-laying-tractors
#19
Mariangela Vallone, Filippa Bono, Elisabeth Quendler, Pierluigi Febo, Pietro Catania
Human exposure to mechanical vibration may represent a significant risk factor for exposed workers in the agricultural sector. Also, noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the evaluation of workers' health and safety. One of the major sources of discomfort for the workers operating a tractors is the noise to which they are exposed during work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of exposure to whole-body vibration for the operator driving track-laying tractors in vineyard orchard and the noise level...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027472/assessment-of-major-and-trace-element-bioavailability-in-vineyard-soil-applying-different-single-extraction-procedures-and-pseudo-total-digestion
#20
Tijana Milićević, Dubravka Relić, Sandra Škrivanj, Živoslav Tešić, Aleksandar Popović
A different single extraction procedures (CH3COOH, Na2EDTA, CaCl2, NH4NO3, deionized water), and pseudo-total digestion (aqua regia) were applied to determine major (Al, Fe, K, Mn, Na, P, S, and Si) and trace (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) element bioavailability in a topsoil from the experimental vineyard ("Radmilovac", Belgrade, Serbia). For the first time, the extraction with deionized water during 16 h was tested as an alternative method for isolating bioavailable major and trace elements from the soil...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
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