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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445900/central-and-peripheral-glucagon-reduces-hyperlipidemia-in-rats-and-hamsters
#1
Vishal Patel, Amit Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Hiren M Patel, Dheerendra Pandey, Dipam Patel, Kiran Shah, Rajesh Bahekar, Gaurang B Shah, Mukul R Jain
Increased lipid levels in blood contribute to increasing the risk of diabetic complications. Glucagon exerts lipid lowering effects in diabetic state. However, the mechanism behind the lipid reduction by glucagon independent of glucose homeostasis is not well understood. We assessed the actions of glucagon on lipid modulation in blood and markers in liver in hyperlipidemic hamsters and rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats and Golden Syrian hamsters on a hyperlipidemic diet for 2 weeks were administered a single dose of glucagon by subcutaneous (SC, 150 and 300 µg/kg) or intracerebroventricular (ICV, 15 and 30 µg/animal) route...
April 26, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445811/liraglutide-a-glp-1-receptor-agonist-inhibits-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-by-enhancing-amp-activated-protein-kinase-and-cell-cycle-regulation-and-delays-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#2
Teruo Jojima, Kohsuke Uchida, Kazumi Akimoto, Takanori Tomotsune, Kazunori Yanagi, Toshie Iijima, Kunihiro Suzuki, Kikuo Kasai, Yoshimasa Aso
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies have demonstrated that both native glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor agonists suppress the progression of atherosclerosis in animal models. METHODS: We investigated whether liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, could prevent the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE(-/-)) on a high-fat diet. We also examined the influence of liraglutide on angiotensin II-induced proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via enhancement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and regulation of cell cycle progression...
April 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444441/the-activity-of-the-rectal-gland-of-the-north-pacific-spiny-dogfish-squalus-suckleyi-is-glucose-dependent-and-stimulated-by-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#3
Courtney A Deck, W Gary Anderson, J Michael Conlon, Patrick J Walsh
Elasmobranchs possess a specialised organ, the rectal gland, which is responsible for excreting sodium chloride via the posterior intestine. Previous work has indicated that the gland may be activated by a number of hormones, some of which are likely related to the salt or volume loads associated with feeding. Furthermore, evidence exists for the gland being glucose dependent which is atypical for an elasmobranch tissue. In this study, the presence of sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLTs) in the rectal gland and their regulation by feeding were investigated...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443255/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Seungah Lee, Dong Yun Lee
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Patients with T2D suffer from various diabetes-related complications. Since there are many patients with T2D that cannot be controlled by previously developed drugs, it has been necessary to develop new drugs, one of which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) based therapy. GLP-1 has been shown to ameliorate diabetes-related conditions by augmenting pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion and having the low risk of causing hypoglycemia. Because of a very short half-life of GLP-1, many researches have been focused on the development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists with long half-lives such as exenatide and dulaglutide...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442582/lx2761-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-1-inhibitor-restricted-to-the-intestine-improves-glycemic-control-in-mice
#5
David R Powell, Melinda G Smith, Deon D Doree, Angela L Harris, Jennifer Greer, Christopher M DaCosta, Andrea Thompson, Sabrina Jeter-Jones, Wendy Xiong, Kenneth G Carson, Nicole C Goodwin, Bryce A Harrison, David B Rawlins, Eric D Strobel, Suma Gopinathan, Alan Wilson, Faika Mseeh, Brian Zambrowicz, Zhi-Ming Ding
LX2761 is a potent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 inhibitor restricted to the intestinal lumen after oral administration. Studies presented here evaluated the effect of orally administered LX2761 on glycemic control in preclinical models. In healthy mice and rats treated with LX2761, blood glucose excursions were lower and plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels higher after an oral glucose challenge; these decreased glucose excursions persisted even when the glucose challenge occurred 15 hours after LX2761 dosing in ad-lib-fed mice...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441725/sweet-taste-receptor-activation-in-the-gut-is-of-limited-importance-for-glucose-stimulated-glp-1-and-gip-secretion
#6
Monika Y Saltiel, Rune E Kuhre, Charlotte B Christiansen, Rasmus Eliasen, Kilian W Conde-Frieboes, Mette M Rosenkilde, Jens J Holst
Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin secretion from an isolated perfused rat small intestine and whether selective STR activation by artificial sweeteners stimulates secretion. Intra-luminal administration of the STR agonists, acesulfame K (3.85% w/v), but not sucralose (1...
April 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440889/a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-analog-liraglutide-improves-visceral-sensation-and-gut-permeability-in-rats
#7
Tsukasa Nozu, Saori Miyagishi, Shima Kumei, Rintaro Nozu, Kaoru Takakusaki, Toshikatsu Okumura
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, liraglutide, has been reported to block inflammatory somatic pain. We hypothesized that liraglutide attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and repeated water avoidance stress (WAS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity and tested the hypothesis in rats. METHODS: The threshold of the visceromotor response (VMR) induced by colonic balloon distention was measured to assess visceral sensation. Colonic permeability was determined in vivo by quantifying the absorbed Evans blue spectrophotometrically, which was instilled in the proximal colon for 15 min...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440760/hypothalamic-obesity-after-craniopharyngioma-surgery-treatment-with-a-long-acting-glucagon-like-peptide-1-derivated
#8
Inés Castro-Dufourny, Rodrigo Carrasco, José María Pascual
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440199/anti-hyperglycemic-agents-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-role-in-cardioprotection-during-the-last-decade
#9
Duygu Kocyigit, Kadri Murat Gurses, Muhammed Ulvi Yalcin, Lale Tokgozoglu
Type 2 diabetic patients are known to have a tendency to develop cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), and related unfavourable outcomes such as heart failure, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular events (eg. stroke), and related mortality. Long- term clinical trials have revealed contradictory findings regarding the relationship between glycemic control and CV benefits due to variations in the key characteristics of the study population. During the last decade, number of pharmacological agents used for glucose- lowering in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased owing to the introduction of dipeptidyl peptidase- IV (DPP- IV) inhibitors, glucagon- like peptide- 1 (GLP- 1) receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT- 2) inhibitors...
April 23, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439947/sirt1-hsf1-hsps-pathway-is-essential-for-exenatide-alleviated-lipid-induced-hepatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
Xiaobin Zheng, Fen Xu, Hua Liang, Huanyi Cao, Mengyin Cai, Wen Xu, Jianping Weng
Recent studies have indicated lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to be a major contributor to the progression of hepatic steatosis. Exenatide (Exendin-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, is known to improve hepatic steatosis with accumulating evidence. In this study, we investigated whether exenatide could alleviate lipid-induced hepatic ER stress through mammal sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and illustrated the detailed mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) were then treated with exenatide or normal saline by intraperitoneal injection for 4 weeks...
April 25, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439092/timeline-of-changes-in-appetite-during-weight-loss-with-a-ketogenic-diet
#11
S Nymo, S R Coutinho, J Jørgensen, J F Rehfeld, H Truby, B Kulseng, C Martins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (BMI: 37±4...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438778/the-dual-amylin-and-calcitonin-receptor-agonist-kbp-042-works-as-adjunct-to-metformin-on-fasting-hyperglycaemia-and-hba1c-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
Sara Toftegaard Hjuler, Sofie Gydesen, Kim Vietz Andreassen, Morten Asser Karsdal, Kim Henriksen
KBP-042 is a dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist which increases glucose tolerance and insulin action, and reduces body weight in rat models of obesity and pre-diabetes. The objective of the present study was to 1) Evaluate KBP-042 as a treatment of late stage type 2 diabetes in a rat model and 2) Assess the value of adding KBP-042 to the standard of care, metformin, in order to consider KBP-042 as a relevant drug for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Two studies were included: an intervention and a prevention study...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436760/diabetes-management-by-probiotics-current-knowledge-and-future-pespective
#13
Aziz Homayouni-Rad, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Leila Khalili, Leila Norouzi-Panahi, Zahra Kasaie, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed
Diabetes mellitus, a multifactorial disorder, is related to the intestinal microbiota via numerous molecular mechanisms. The vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes and its associated complications requires a natural and safe solution. There is a growing evidence of gut microbiota effi ciency in improving insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and metabolic complications in diabetic patients. Probiotics are defi ned as live microorganisms that, when ingested in adequate amounts, exert health benefi ts to the host...
April 24, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436589/short-chain-fatty-acids-augment-rat-duodenal-mucosal-barrier-function
#14
Wan Salman Wan Saudi, Markus Sjöblom
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by bacterial fermentation in the large intestine, particularly from diets containing fibres and carbohydrates. The small intestinal epithelium is exposed to SCFAs derived mainly from oral bacteria or food supplementation. Although luminal nutrients are important in regulation of intestinal functions the role of SCFAs in regulation of small intestinal mucosal barrier function and motility has not been fully described. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of acetate and propionate on duodenal mucosal barrier function and motility...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435972/-glp-1-gip-gcg-receptor-triagonist-improves-the-cognitive-behaviors-in-triple-transgenic-mice-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Juan-Juan Jiao, Christian Hölscher, Tian Li, Xue-Fan Dong, Xue-Song Qu, Yue Cao, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, which seriously affects human health but is still irreversible up to now. Recent studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for AD, and the drugs used for treatment of T2DM have shown some neuroprotective effects in the treatment of AD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/ glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/glucagon (Gcg) receptor Triagonist is a new monomeric polypeptide equally activating the GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptors, which is built on the basis of GLP-1/Gcg receptor coagonist core sequence, and incorporated with partial amino acids of GIP...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435305/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-a-systematic-review-of-comparative-effectiveness-research
#16
REVIEW
Philip A Levin, Hiep Nguyen, Eric T Wittbrodt, Seoyoung C Kim
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) act by increasing insulin secretion, decreasing glucagon secretion, slowing gastric emptying, and increasing satiety. OBJECTIVE: Published evidence directly comparing GLP-1RAs with other approved treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D) was systematically reviewed. METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE and Embase databases to identify papers comparing GLP-1RAs with other classes of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with T2D...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435224/investigation-of-triamterene-as-an-inhibitor-of-the-tgr5-receptor-identification-in-cells-and-animals
#17
Yingxiao Li, Kai Chun Cheng, Chiang-Shan Niu, Shih-Hsiang Lo, Juei-Tang Cheng, Ho-Shan Niu
BACKGROUND: G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, also known as TGR5) has been shown to participate in glucose homeostasis. In animal models, a TGR5 agonist increases incretin secretion to reduce hyperglycemia. Many agonists have been developed for clinical use. However, the effects of TGR5 blockade have not been studied extensively, with the exception of studies using TGR5 knockout mice. Therefore, we investigated the potential effect of triamterene on TGR5. METHODS: We transfected the TGR5 gene into cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells) to express TGR5...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434742/endocrine-and-metabolic-changes-in-transition-dairy-cows-are-affected-by-prepartum-infusions-of-a-serotonin-precursor
#18
Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Laura L Hernandez, Helga Sauerwein, Rupert M Bruckmaier
Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. In addition, 5-HT participates in a variety of metabolic pathways, mainly through the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The hypothesis of the present study was that the prepartum administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, would affect endocrine systems related to calcium homeostasis, and interact with other endocrine and metabolic pathways during the transition period...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434735/effects-of-graded-removal-of-lysine-from-an-intravenously-infused-amino-acid-mixture-on-lactation-performance-and-mammary-amino-acid-metabolism-in-lactating-goats
#19
C L Guo, Y T Li, X Y Lin, M D Hanigan, Z G Yan, Z Y Hu, Q L Hou, F G Jiang, Z H Wang
To investigate responses of milk protein synthesis and mammary AA metabolism to a graded decrease of postruminal Lys supply, 4 lactating goats fitted with jugular vein, mammary vein, and carotid artery catheters and transonic blood flow detectors on the external pudic artery were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Goats were fasted for 24 h and then received a 9-h intravenous infusion of an AA mixture plus glucose. Milk yield was recorded and samples were taken in h 2 to 8 of the infusion period; a mammary biopsy was performed in the last hour...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433470/daily-supplementation-of-dietary-protein-improves-the-metabolic-effects-of-glp-1-based-pharmacotherapy-in-lean-and-obese-rats
#20
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Joanna Krawczyk, Tram Pham, Rinzin Lhamo, David J Reiner, Matthew R Hayes
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and reduce feeding. Specific macronutrients, when ingested, may trigger GLP-1 secretion and enhance the effects of systemic sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (an enzyme that rapidly degrades GLP-1). In particular, macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1, and acute preclinical trials show that ingestion of dairy protein may represent a promising adjunct behavioral therapy in combination with sitagliptin...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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