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Alveolar macrophage

Eliza Tsitoura, Athol U Wells, Kostantinos Karagiannis, Ismini Lasithiotaki, Eirini Vasarmidi, Eleni Bibaki, Chara Koutoulaki, Hiroe Sato, Demetrios A Spandidos, Nikolaos M Siafakas, George Sourvinos, Katerina M Antoniou
MicroRNA signatures of BAL cells and alveolar macrophages are currently lacking in IPF. Here we sought to investigate the expression of fibrosis-related microRNAs in the cellular component of the BAL in IPF. We thus focused on microRNAs previously associated with fibrosis (miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-29c, let-7d, and miR-21) and rapid IPF progression (miR-185, miR-210, miR-302c-3p miR-376c and miR-423-5p). Among the tested microRNAs miR-29a and miR-185 were found significantly downregulated in IPF while miR-302c-3p and miR-376c were not expressed by BAL cells...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Na Li, Yunhuan Yan, Angke Zhang, Jiming Gao, Chong Zhang, Xue Wang, Gaopeng Hou, Gaiping Zhang, Jinbu Jia, En-Min Zhou, Shuqi Xiao
Many viruses encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs which play critical roles in virus-host interactions. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically impactful viruses in the swine industry. The present study sought to determine whether PRRSV encodes miRNAs that could regulate PRRSV replication. Four viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) were mapped to the stem-loop structures in the ORF1a, ORF1b and GP2a regions of the PRRSV genome by bioinformatics prediction and experimental verification...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Rania R Abdelaziz, Wagdi F Elkashef, Eman Said
Silicosis is a crippling respiratory disorder characterized by massive lung inflammation and fibrosis. The current study provides evidence on the protective potential of tadalafil; a specific phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor against experimentally-induced pulmonary silicosis in rats. Silicosis was induced by intranasal instillation of crystalline silica (50mg/rat). Halofuginone hydrobromide; a standard collagen-1 synthesis inhibitor was selected as a reference anti-fibrotic. Daily oral administration of tadalafil (1mg/kg) for 8weeks significantly ameliorated silica-induced pulmonary damage...
October 18, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Xu Chu, Xiao-Ju Liu, Jing-Man Qiu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Juan Shu
Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula are used for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (CPP) on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5). A mouse model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure. PM2.5 exposure was performed by inhalation of a PM2...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Nathan J Hare, Ling Y Lee, Ian Loke, Warwick J Britton, Bernadette M Saunders, Morten Thaysen-Andersen
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a prevalent and lethal infectious disease. The glycobiology associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of front-line alveolar macrophages is still unresolved. Herein, we investigated the regulation of protein N-glycosylation in human macrophages and their secreted microparticles (MPs) used for intercellular communication upon M. tb infection. LC-MS/MS-based proteomics and glycomics were performed to monitor the regulation of glycosylation enzymes and receptors and the N-glycome in in vitro-differentiated macrophages and in isolated MPs upon M...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
R Lin, Q Wang, B Qi, Y Huang, G Yang
Neuromedin S (NMS), a 36-amino acid neuropeptide, has been found to be involved in the regulation of the endocrine activity. It has been also detected in immune tissues in mammals, what suggests that NMS may play an important role in the regulation of immune response. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of NMS receptor 1 (NMU1R) and effect of NMS in pig splenic lymphocytes (SPLs) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The presence of NMU1R in pig SPLs and PAMs was respectively confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunocytochemical methods...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
A J Byrne, M Weiss, S A Mathie, S A Walker, H L Eames, D Saliba, C M Lloyd, I A Udalova
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a key transcription factor involved in the control of the expression of proinflammatory cytokine and responses to infection, but its role in regulating pulmonary immune responses to allergen is unknown. We used genetic ablation, adenoviral vector-driven overexpression, and adoptive transfer approaches to interrogate the role of IRF5 in pulmonary immunity and during challenge with the aeroallergen, house dust mite. Global IRF5 deficiency resulted in impaired lung function and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition...
October 19, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Elizabeth M Todd, Julie Y Zhou, Taylor P Szasz, Lauren E Deady, June A D'Angelo, Matthew D Cheung, Alfred H J Kim, Sharon Celeste Morley
Alveolar macrophages are lung-resident sentinel cells that develop perinatally and protect against pulmonary infection. Molecular mechanisms controlling alveolar macrophage generation have not been fully defined. Here we show that the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) is required for the perinatal development of alveolar macrophages. Mice expressing a conditional allele of LPL (CD11c.Cre(pos)-LPL(fl/fl)) exhibited significant reductions in alveolar macrophages and failed to effectively clear pulmonary pneumococcal infection, showing that immunodeficiency results from reduced alveolar macrophage numbers...
October 6, 2016: Blood
You Jin Jang, Moon Jung Back, Zhicheng Fu, Joo Hyun Lee, Jong Hoon Won, Hae Chan Ha, Hae Kyung Lee, Ji Min Jang, Jong Min Choi, Dae Kyong Kim
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a respiratory failure disease and the major source of mortality in the critically ill patients. The main pathological changes involved in ALI include the excessive recruitment and activation of neutrophils by increased pro-inflammatory mediators. However, any specific therapy for ALI has not been developed. The objective of this study was to investigate protective effects of parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone produced in feverfew, on LPS-induced lung injury. In the present study, parthenolide treatment reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, airway permeability and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced ALI mouse model...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Gabriela Barcenas-Morales, Peter Jandus, Rainer Döffinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concise overview of the field of anticytokine autoantibodies with a focus on recent developments. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in particular in the analysis of autoantibodies to IFNγ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IFN-1 are presented. The target epitope for anti-IFNγ autoantibodies has been found to have high homology to a protein from Aspergillus suggesting molecular mimicry as a mechanism of breaking self-tolerance...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Priya Sakthivel, Dunja Bruder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The formation of noncaseating granuloma is a hallmark of pulmonary sarcoidosis. This review summarizes recent progress made to explain the cellular dynamics within the granuloma structure that may considerably differ between the two clinically distinct variants, that is, acute and chronic sarcoidosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Compelling evidence exists that in acute but not chronic sarcoidosis CD4 T lymphocytes specifically recognizing the auto-antigen vimentin on human leukocyte antigen-DR3 molecules accumulate in sarcoid granuloma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
Zhongyang Lu, Yanchun Li, Colleen W Brinson, Keith L Kirkwood, Maria F Lopes-Virella, Yan Huang
BACKGROUND: We reported that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) exacerbates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated periodontitis and palmitate, the major saturated fatty acid in the HFD, amplified LPS-stimulated gene expression in vitro. Since CD36 is a major receptor for fatty acids, we investigated periodontal CD36 expression in mice with periodontitis and MetS, and the role of CD36 in inflammatory genes in macrophages stimulated by palmitate. METHODS: MetS and periodontitis were induced in mice by HFD and periodontal injection of LPS, respectively...
October 18, 2016: Oral Diseases
Jia Shi, Jian-Bo Yu, Wei Liu, Dan Wang, Yuan Zhang, Li-Rong Gong, Shu-An Dong, Da-Quan Liu
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most devastating complications of sepsis lacking of effective therapy. Mitochondrial dynamics undergoing continuous fusion and fission play a crucial role in mitochondrial structure and function. Fis1, as a small protein located on the outer membrane of mitochondria, has been thought to be an important protein mediated mitochondrial fission. During ARDS, alveolar macrophages suffer from increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and also accompanied by disrupted mitochondrial dynamics...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Yang Yang, Ben-Quan Wu, Yan-Hong Wang, Yun-Feng Shi, Jin-Mei Luo, Jun-Hui Ba, Hui Liu, Tian-Tuo Zhang
Macrophages play an important role in inflammatory responses; however, miRNA-mediated repolarization of macrophages is essential for fulfilling this function. To clarify a series of changes at the RNA level in alveolar macrophages under normal and inflammatory conditions, bronchial alveolar lavage liquid (BALF) was collected from healthy volunteers or patients with pneumonia. This approach, which differs from that used in previously, provides more accurate information about the states of macrophages in different lung microenvironments...
October 18, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Taylor S Cohen, Omari Jones-Nelson, Meghan Hotz, Lily Cheng, Lloyd S Miller, JoAnn Suzich, C Kendall Stover, Bret R Sellman
Bacterial pneumonia, such as those caused by Staphylococcus aureus, is associated with an influx of inflammatory neutrophils into the lung tissue and airways. Regulation and clearance of recruited neutrophils is essential for preventing tissue damage by "friendly fire", a responsibility of macrophages in a process called efferocytosis. We hypothesized that S. aureus impairs efferocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AMs) through the activity of the secreted virulence factor alpha toxin (AT), which has been implicated in altering the antimicrobial function of AMs...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Aichurek Soultanova, Zbigniew Mikulski, Uwe Pfeil, Veronika Grau, Wolfgang Kummer
Members of the calcitonin peptide family-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (AM), and adrenomedullin2/intermedin (IMD)-exert modulatory effects upon monocytes and macrophages of various extrapulmonary origins. Utilizing the rat alveolar macrophage (AMφ) cell line NR8383, we here set out to determine to which extent these three peptides and their receptors are differentially regulated in AMφ and what specific effects they have on AMφ key functions. LPS treatment differentially up-regulated expression of the peptides and receptors...
2016: PloS One
Nathaniel B Bone, Zhongyu Liu, Jean-Francois Pittet, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
Catecholamines, including β-adrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitters, have an essential role in regulating the "fight or flight" reflex and also affects immune cell proinflammatory action. However, little is known about whether catecholamines prevent dysfunction of metabolic pathways associated with inflammatory organ injury, including development of acute lung injury (ALI). We hypothesize that selected catecholamines may reduce metabolic alterations in LPS-stimulated macrophages and in the lungs of mice subjected to endotoxin-induced ALI, a situation characterized by diminished activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Sanaul Mustafa, V Kusum Devi, Roopa S Pai
Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. KS is polycationic, a property responsible for KS poor oral absorption half-life (2.5 h), and rapid renal clearance, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. The current study aimed to develop KS-loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) to reduce the dosing frequency and dose related adverse effect. In vitro release was sustained up to 10 days for KS PLGA-TPGS MPs and 13 days for KS PLGA-TPGS NPs in PBS pH 7...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Microencapsulation
Heedoo Lee, Duo Zhang, Ziwen Zhu, Charles S Dela Cruz, Yang Jin
Intercellular communications between lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages play an essential role in host defense against acute lung injury. Hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress is an established model to mimic human lung injury. We show that after hyperoxia-associated oxidative stress, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and culture medium of lung epithelial cells. Microvesicles (MVs), but not exosomes (Exos) or apoptotic bodies (Abs), are the main type of EVs found in the early stages after hyperoxia...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jessica M Deckman, Cathryn J Kurkjian, Joseph P McGillis, Theodore J Cory, Susan E Birket, Linda M Schutzman, Brian S Murphy, Beth A Garvy, David J Feola
Recent studies show a substantial incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization and infection in patients with chronic inflammatory lung conditions. However, little is known about the impact of Pneumocystis upon the regulation of pulmonary immunity. We demonstrate here that Pneumocystis polarizes macrophages towards an alternatively activated macrophage-like phenotype. Genetically engineered mice that lack the ability to signal through IL-4 and IL-13 were used to show that Pneumocystis alternative macrophage activation is dependent upon signaling through these cytokines...
October 5, 2016: Immunobiology
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