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Alveolar macrophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219321/sheta2-dry-powder-aerosols-for-tuberculosis-formulation-design-and-optimization-using-quality-by-design
#1
Mariam Ibrahim, Manolya Kukut Hatipoglu, Lucila Garcia-Contreras
Tuberculosis (TB) is a life threatening pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Current treatments are complex, lengthy and associated with severe side effects that decrease patient compliance and increase the probability of the emergence of drug resistant strains. Thus, more effective drugs with little to no side effects are needed to diversify the armamentarium against the global TB epidemic. SHetA2, an anticancer compound with null toxicity at doses much higher than the effective dose, was recently discovered to be active against MTB...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219058/macrophage-targeted-cellular-carriers-for-effective-delivery-of-anti-tubercular-drugs
#2
S Beg, Jaya Agnihotri, Shibhna Singh, Mohammad Wais
Newly developed vaccine VPM1002 confers paradigm swing in the prophylactic treatment of tuberculosis (TB).Multi drug resistant and latent TB in adults as well as in underprivileged patients is instigating menace over world population if the host is immune-compromised. One third of the world's population is infected with TB. Recently it is estimated around 9.6 million people around the world became sick with TB disease. There were 1.5 million TB-related deaths worldwide. Therefore with the advent in biotechnology and Nano engineering, newly adapted survival molecular mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, new targets receptors on alveolar macrophages must be explored out for eradication of TB from the globe...
December 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217623/prostaglandins-d2-and-e2-have-opposite-effects-on-alveolar-macrophage-infected-with-histoplasma-capsulatum
#4
Priscilla A T Pereira, Patrícia A Assis, Morgana K B Prado, Simone Gusamão Ramos, David M Aronoff, Francisco W G Paula-Silva, Carlos A Sorgi, Lúcia H Faccioli
PGE2 suppresses macrophage effector mechanisms; however, little is known about the function of PGD2 in infected alveolar macrophages (AMs). Using serum opsonized Histoplasma capsulatum (ops-H. capsulatum) in vitro, we demonstrated that AMs produced PGE2 and PGD2 in a time-dependent manner, with PGE2 levels exceeding those of PGD2 by 48 h post-infection. Comparison of the effects of both exogenous PGs on AMs revealed that PGD2 increased phagocytosis and killing through the DP2 receptor, whereas PGE2 had opposite effects, through EP2/EP4-dependent mechanisms...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212802/transcriptional-survey-of-alveolar-macrophages-in-a-murine-model-of-chronic-granulomatous-inflammation-reveals-common-themes-with-human-sarcoidosis
#5
Arjun Mohan, Anagha Malur, Matthew McPeek, Barbara P Barna, Lynn M Schnapp, Mary Jane Thomassen, Sina A Gharib
To advance our understanding of the pathobiology of sarcoidosis, we developed a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based murine model that shows marked histological and inflammatory signal similarities to this disease. In this study, we compared the alveolar macrophage transcriptional signatures of our animal model with human sarcoidosis to identify overlapping molecular programs. Whole-genome microarrays were used to assess gene expression of alveolar macrophages in 6 MWCNT-exposed and 6 control animals. The results were compared to the transcriptional profiles of alveolar immune cells in 15 sarcoidosis patients and 12 healthy humans...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212801/roles-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-and-thrombin-in-murine-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-the-therapeutic-potential-of-thrombomodulin
#6
Takashi Kida, Takahiro Seno, Hidetake Nagahara, Takuya Inoue, Amane Nakabayashi, Yuji Kukida, Kazuki Fujioka, Wataru Fujii, Makoto Wada, Masataka Kohno, Yutaka Kawahito
Cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation plays important roles in acute or subacute progressive pulmonary fibrosis characterized by diffuse alveolar damage. Thrombomodulin is a physiological inhibitor of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and thrombin, and may be effective for this condition. This study investigated the roles of HMGB1 and thrombin in the pathophysiology of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the efficacy of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM). Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in wild-type C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209456/novel-glutathione-containing-dry-yeast-extracts-inhibit-eosinophilia-and-mucus-overproduction-in-a-murine-model-of-asthma
#7
Yun-Ho Kim, Yean-Jung Choi, Eun-Jung Lee, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Dong Yeon Kim, Hyeongjoo Oh, Sang-Jae Park, Young-Hee Kang
BACKGROUND/OBSECTIVE: Airway inflammation by eosinophils, neutrophils and alveolar macrophages is a characteristic feature of asthma that leads to pathological subepithelial thickening and remodeling. Our previous study showed that oxidative stress in airways resulted in eosinophilia and epithelial apoptosis. The current study investigated whether glutathione-containing dry yeast extract (dry-YE) ameliorated eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus overproduction. MATERIALS/METHOD: This study employed 2 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or 20 ng/mL eotaxin-1-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells and ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged mice...
December 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202868/sp-a2-contributes-to-mirna-mediated-sex-differences-in-response-to-oxidative-stress-pro-inflammatory-anti-apoptotic-and-anti-oxidant-pathways-are-involved
#8
George T Noutsios, Nithyananda Thorenoor, Xuesheng Zhang, David S Phelps, Todd M Umstead, Faryal Durrani, Joanna Floros
BACKGROUND: Human innate host defense molecules, surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1), and SP-A2 differentially affect the function and proteome of the alveolar macrophage (AM). We hypothesized that SP-A genes differentially regulate the AM miRNome. METHODS: Humanized transgenic mice expressing SP-A1 and SP-A2 were subjected to O3-induced oxidative stress (OxS) or filtered air (FA), AMs were isolated, and miRNA levels were measured. RESULTS: In SP-A2 males, we found significant changes in miRNome in terms of sex and sex-OxS effects, with 11 miRNAs differentially expressed under OxS...
December 4, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202602/clinical-significance-of-serum-anti-gm-csf-autoantibody-levels-in-autoimmune-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis
#9
Masaki Nishimura, Etsuro Yamaguchi, Ayumu Takahashi, Nobuhiro Asai, Eisuke Katsuda, Toyohiro Ohta, Yoshinori Ohtsuka, Kenshi Kosaka, Ayako Matsubara, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Norihito Yokoe, Akihito Kubo, Satoshi Konno, Kenji Baba
AIM: Precise clinical significance of antigranulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibody levels in autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP) has not been well studied. METHODS: We obtained sera from 50 healthy controls, 46 aPAP patients, 50 with sarcoidosis, 52 with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and 75 with pneumoconiosis. The clinical course of aPAP patients was assessed by scoring computed tomography images in 19 patients. RESULTS: The cut-off level of anti-GM-CSF IgG for discrimination between aPAP and other diffuse lung diseases was 2...
December 5, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202212/nebulized-heparin-attenuates-pulmonary-coagulopathy-and-inflammation-through-alveolar-macrophages-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#10
Laura Chimenti, Marta Camprubí-Rimblas, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Maria Nieves Gomez, Jessica Tijero, Lluis Blanch, Antonio Artigas
Objective Alveolar macrophages play a key role in the development and resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), modulating the inflammatory response and the coagulation cascade in lungs. Anti-coagulants may be helpful in the treatment of ARDS. This study investigated the effects of nebulized heparin on the role of alveolar macrophages in limiting lung coagulation and inflammatory response in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI). Methods Rats were randomized to four experimental groups...
November 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198784/pathogenesis-of-tuberculosis-and-other-mycobacteriosis
#11
Pere-Joan Cardona
The evolution between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis is multifactorial and involves different biological scales. The synthesis of ESAT-6 or the induction of alveolar macrophage necrosis are key, but to understand it, it is necessary to consider the dynamics of endogenous and exogenous reinfection, drainage of lung parenchyma and respiratory mechanics, local fibrosis processes and blood supply. Paradoxically, the immune response generated by the infection is highly protective (90%) against active tuberculosis, although as it is essentially based on the proliferation of Th1 lymphocytes, it cannot prevent reinfection...
November 30, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197182/protection-of-macrophages-from-intracellular-pathogens-by-mir-182-5p-mimic-a-gene-expression-meta-analysis-approach
#12
David J Gregory, Igor Kramnik, Lester Kobzik
The goals of this study were to i) define which host genes are of particular importance during the interactions between macrophages and intracellular pathogens, and ii) use this knowledge to gain fresh, experimental understanding of how macrophage activities may be manipulated during host defence. We designed an in silico method for meta-analysis of microarray gene expression data, and used this to combine data from 16 different studies of cells in the monocyte-macrophage lineage infected with 7 different pathogens...
December 2, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190429/gene-edited-mle-15-cells-as-a-model-for-the-hermansky-pudlak-syndromes
#13
Seunghyi Kook, Aidong Qi, Ping Wang, Shufang Meng, Peter Gulleman, Lisa R Young, Susan H Guttentag
Defining the mechanisms of cellular pathogenesis for rare lung diseases such as Hermansky Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is often complicated by loss of the differentiated phenotype of cultured primary alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, and by a lack of durable cell lines that are faithful to both AT2 cell and rare disease phenotypes. We used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to generate a series of HPS-specific mutations in the MLE-15 cell line. The resulting MLE-15/HPS cell lines exhibit preservation of AT2 cellular functions, including formation of lamellar body-like organelles, complete processing of Surfactant protein B (SP-B), and known features of HPS specific to each trafficking complex, including loss of protein targeting to lamellar bodies...
November 30, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181837/expression-of-liver-x-receptors-in-normal-and-refractory-carcinoma-tissues-of-the-human-lung-and-pancreas
#14
Korehito Kashiwagi, Mai Yanagida, Daiki Matsui, Mizuko Tanaka, Kotaro Sugimoto, Honglei Chen, Naoki Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Shigeru Marubashi, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hideki Chiba
Liver X receptors (LXRs) participate not only in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis but also in controlling cellular growth in many types of normal and tumor cells. We previously reported that LXRα was aberrantly expressed in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HOSCC) tissues and cell lines, and that LXR stimulation led to significant reduction of proliferation of HOSCC cells via accelerating cholesterol efflux. Since LXRs and downstream proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism could be also applied as therapeutic targets in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we herein analyzed the distribution of LXR proteins in these refractory cancers as well as in normal human lung and pancreatic tissues...
November 28, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177978/zinc-deficiency-as-a-mediator-of-toxic-effects-of-alcohol-abuse
#15
REVIEW
Anatoly V Skalny, Margarita G Skalnaya, Andrei R Grabeklis, Anastasia A Skalnaya, Alexey A Tinkov
OBJECTIVE: To review data on the role of ethanol-induced alteration of Zn homeostasis in mediation of adverse effects of alcohol abuse. METHODS: The scholarly published articles on the association between Zn metabolism and alcohol-associated disorders (liver, brain, lung, gut dysfunction, and fetal alcohol syndrome) have been reviewed. RESULTS: It is demonstrated that alcohol-induced modulation of zinc transporters results in decreased Zn levels in lungs, liver, gut, and brain...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176377/pulmonary-effects-of-aging
#16
Daniel Tran, Kapil Rajwani, David A Berlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the population ages, the increase in chronic illnesses among patients with decreasing lung function will pose a major public health challenge. Determining which elderly patients are fit for surgery is an increasingly important skill. Anesthetic care of elderly patients requires an understanding of the effects that chronic diseases have on normal age-related changes in physiology and function. Postoperative respiratory complications are significantly increased in patients over 65 years of age, especially those with preexisting diseases...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175452/changes-in-expression-of-cytokines-in-polyhexamethylene-guanidine-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-mice-comparison-of-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis
#17
Min-Seok Kim, Sung-Hwan Kim, Doin Jeon, Hyeon-Young Kim, Kyuhong Lee
Inhalation of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) causes irreversible pulmonary injury, such as pulmonary fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying PHMG-induced lung injury is unclear. In this study, we compared the difference in time-dependent lung injury between PHMG- and bleomycin (BLM)-treated mice and determined cytokines involved in inducing lung injury by performing cytokine antibody array analysis. Mice were treated once with 1.8mg/kg BLM or 1.2mg/kg PHMG through intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed on days 7 and 28...
November 22, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169185/co-culture-of-human-alveolar-epithelial-haelvi-and-macrophage-thp-1-cell-lines
#18
Stephanie Kletting, Sarah Barthold, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths, Brigitta Loretz, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Cristiane de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Claus-Michael Lehr
The air-blood barrier is mainly composed of alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages. Whereas the epithelium acts as a diffusional barrier, macrophages represent an immunological barrier, in particular for larger molecules and nanoparticles. This paper describes a new co-culture of human cell lines representing both cell types. Acquiring, culturing and maintaining primary alveolar epithelial cells presents significant logistical and technical difficulties. The recently established human alveolar epithelial lentivirus immortalized cell line, hAELVi, when grown on permeable filters, form monolayers with high functional and morphological resemblance to alveolar type I cells...
November 23, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166668/interleukin-36%C3%AE-and-il-36-receptor-signaling-mediate-impaired-host-immunity-and-lung-injury-in-cytotoxic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pulmonary-infection-role-of-prostaglandin-e2
#19
Tetsuji Aoyagi, Michael W Newstead, Xianying Zeng, Yuta Nanjo, Marc Peters-Golden, Mitsuo Kaku, Theodore J Standiford
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen that can lead to severe infection associated with lung injury and high mortality. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines (IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ) are newly described IL-1 like family cytokines that promote inflammatory response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Here we investigated the functional role of IL-36 cytokines in the modulating of innate immune response against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection. The intratracheal administration of flagellated cytotoxic P...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166581/tgf-%C3%AE-gives-an-air-of-exclusivity-to-alveolar-macrophages
#20
Bart N Lambrecht
Tissue-resident macrophages shape the development and homeostasis of the organs that they colonize. Yu et al. (2017) demonstrate that, unique to the lung, the instructive cytokine TGF-β collaborates with GM-CSF to induce the master transcription factor PPARγ to drive alveolar macrophage differentiation and maintenance early in life.
November 21, 2017: Immunity
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