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Alveolar epithelial regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087752/deficient-retinoid-driven-angiogenesis-may-contribute-to-failure-of-adult-human-lung-regeneration-in-emphysema
#1
John-Poul Ng-Blichfeldt, Joana Alçada, M Angeles Montero, Charlotte H Dean, Uta Griesenbach, Mark J Griffiths, Matthew Hind
BACKGROUND: Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema...
January 13, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062913/understanding-the-developmental-pathways-pulmonary-fibroblasts-may-follow-during-alveolar-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Stephen McGowan
Although pulmonary alveolar interstitial fibroblasts are less specialized than their epithelial and endothelial neighbors, they play essential roles during development and in response to lung injury. At birth, they must adapt to the sudden mechanical changes imposed by the onset of respiration and to a higher ambient oxygen concentration. In diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and interstitial fibrosis, their adaptive responses are overwhelmed leading to compromised gas-exchange function. Thus, although fibroblasts do not directly participate in gas-exchange, they are essential for creating and maintaining an optimal environment at the alveolar epithelial-endothelial interface...
January 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012489/pathognomonic-remodeling-of-blood-and-lymphatic-capillaries-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Masahito Ebina
Numerous studies have been published investigating the pathologic alterations in various interstitial pneumonias, particularly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the few existing studies on capillary remodeling, which does not seem to have priority for pathologic diagnosis, are contradictory, with some reporting increased and others reduced vascularization. We hypothesized that these discrepancies were due to the temporal heterogeneity of the lesions in IPF. We subsequently developed original techniques for evaluating vascular density within the alveolar septa and discovered, for the first time, a heterogeneous increase in alveolar capillaries in the lungs of IPF patients...
January 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981380/tissue-remodelling-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Lars Knudsen, Clemens Ruppert, Matthias Ochs
Many lung diseases result in fibrotic remodelling. Fibrotic lung disorders can be divided into diseases with known and unknown aetiology. Among those with unknown aetiology, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a common diagnosis. Because of its progressive character leading to a rapid decline in lung function, it is a fatal disease with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Thus, IPF has motivated many studies in the last few decades in order to increase our mechanistic understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease...
December 16, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967234/alternative-progenitor-lineages-regenerate-the-adult-lung-depleted-of-type-ii-cells
#5
Min Yee, William Domm, Robert Gelein, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, R Matthew Kottmann, Patricia J Sime, B Paige Lawrence, Michael A O'Reilly
An aberrant oxygen environment at birth increases the severity of respiratory viral infections later in life through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we show that alveolar epithelial type II (AEC2) cells, a progenitor for AEC1 cells are depleted in adult mice exposed to neonatal hypoxia or hyperoxia. Airway cells expressing SP-C and ABCA3, alveolar pod cells expressing KRT5, and pulmonary fibrosis was observed when these mice were infected with a sublethal dose of HKx31, H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV). This was not seen in infected siblings birthed into room air...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923370/the-cellular-kinetics-of-lung-alveolar-epithelial-cells-and-its-relationship-with-lung-tissue-repair-after-acute-lung-injury
#6
Ling Zeng, Xue-Tao Yang, Hai-Sheng Li, Yong Li, Ce Yang, Wei Gu, Yin-Han Zhou, Juan Du, Hai-Yan Wang, Jian-Hui Sun, Da-Lin Wen, Jian-Xin Jiang
BACKGROUND: Organ regeneration in mammals is hypothesized to require a functional pool of stem or progenitor cells, but the role of these cells in lung regeneration is unknown. METHODS: Based on the fact that postnatal regeneration of alveolar tissue has been attributed to alveolar epithelial cells, we established a hemorrhagic shock and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lung injury model. Using this model, we analyzed the cellular kinetics of lung alveolar epithelial cells...
December 7, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861515/involvement-of-igf1r-in-bronchiolar-epithelial-regeneration-role-during-repair-kinetics-after-selective-club-cell-ablation
#7
Icíar P López, Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Rosete S Pais, Raquel Torrens, Andreas Hoeflich, José G Pichel
Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors) signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843709/a-computational-model-of-cellular-engraftment-on-lung-scaffolds
#8
Joshua J Pothen, Vignesh Rajendran, Darcy Wagner, Daniel J Weiss, Bradford J Smith, Baoshun Ma, Jason H T Bates
The possibility that stem cells might be used to regenerate tissue is now being investigated for a variety of organs, but these investigations are still essentially exploratory and have few predictive tools available to guide experimentation. We propose, in this study, that the field of lung tissue regeneration might be better served by predictive tools that treat stem cells as agents that obey certain rules of behavior governed by both their phenotype and their environment. Sufficient knowledge of these rules of behavior would then, in principle, allow lung tissue development to be simulated computationally...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796199/establishing-proximal-and-distal-regional-identities-in-murine-and-human-tissue-engineered-lung-and-trachea
#9
Andrew Trecartin, Soula Danopoulos, Ryan Spurrier, Hanaa Knaneh-Monem, Michael Hiatt, Barbara Driscoll, Christian Hochstim, Denise Al-Alam, Tracy C Grikscheit
The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin regeneration of the human lung are unknown, and the study of lung repair has been impeded by the necessity for reductionist models that may exclude key components. We hypothesized that multicellular epithelial and mesenchymal cell clusters or lung organoid units (LuOU) could be transplanted to recapitulate proximal and distal cellular structures of the native lung and airways. Transplantation of LuOU resulted in the growth of tissue-engineered lung (TELu) that contained the necessary cell types consistent with native adult lung tissue and demonstrated proliferative cells at 2 and 4 weeks...
November 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788570/regeneration-of-bovine-mammary-gland-in-immunodeficient-mice-by-transplantation-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-mixed-with-matrigel
#10
Hyun Jung Park, Won Young Lee, Ha Yeon Jeong, Hyuk Song
Background and Objectives: With the global demand for dairy protein for consumption growing annually, there has been increasing activity in the research field of dairy protein synthesis and production. From a manipulation perspective, it is more difficult to use live cattle for laboratory studies on the production of milk as well as of dairy protein such as casein, as compared with using laboratory animals like rodents. Therefore, we aimed to develop a mouse model of bovine mammary alveolar ducts for laboratory-scale studies...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694932/hyaluronan-and-tlr4-promote-surfactant-protein-c-positive-alveolar-progenitor-cell-renewal-and-prevent-severe-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#11
Jiurong Liang, Yanli Zhang, Ting Xie, Ningshan Liu, Huaiyong Chen, Yan Geng, Adrianne Kurkciyan, Jessica Monterrosa Mena, Barry R Stripp, Dianhua Jiang, Paul W Noble
Successful recovery from lung injury requires the repair and regeneration of alveolar epithelial cells to restore the integrity of gas-exchanging regions within the lung and preserve organ function. Improper regeneration of the alveolar epithelium is often associated with severe pulmonary fibrosis, the latter of which involves the recruitment and activation of fibroblasts, as well as matrix accumulation. Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) are stem cells in the adult lung that contribute to the lung repair process...
November 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694472/neutrophils-promote-alveolar-epithelial-regeneration-by-enhancing-type-ii-pneumocyte-proliferation-in-a-model-of-acid-induced-acute-lung-injury
#12
Andrew J Paris, Yuhong Liu, Junjie Mei, Ning Dai, Lei Guo, Lynn A Spruce, Kristin M Hudock, Jacob S Brenner, William J Zacharias, Hankun D Mei, April R Slamowitz, Kartik Bhamidipati, Michael F Beers, Steven H Seeholzer, Edward E Morrisey, G Scott Worthen
Alveolar epithelial regeneration is essential for resolution of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although neutrophils have traditionally been considered mediators of epithelial damage, recent studies suggest they promote type II pneumocyte (AT2) proliferation, which is essential for regenerating alveolar epithelium. These studies did not, however, evaluate this relationship in an in vivo model of alveolar epithelial repair following injury. To determine whether neutrophils influence alveolar epithelial repair in vivo, we developed a unilateral acid injury model that creates a severe yet survivable injury with features similar to ARDS...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623383/rac1-controls-both-the-secretory-function-of-the-mammary-gland-and-its-remodeling-for-successive-gestations
#13
Nasreen Akhtar, Weiping Li, Aleksander Mironov, Charles H Streuli
An important feature of the mammary gland is its ability to undergo repeated morphological changes during each reproductive cycle with profound tissue expansion in pregnancy and regression in involution. However, the mechanisms that determine the tissue's cyclic regenerative capacity remain elusive. We have now discovered that Cre-Lox ablation of Rac1 in mammary epithelia causes gross enlargement of the epithelial tree and defective alveolar regeneration in a second pregnancy. Architectural defects arise because loss of Rac1 disrupts clearance in involution following the first lactation...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613193/collagen-based-barrier-membranes-for-periodontal-guided-bone-regeneration-applications
#14
Zeeshan Sheikh, Javairia Qureshi, Abdullah M Alshahrani, Heba Nassar, Yuichi Ikeda, Michael Glogauer, Bernhard Ganss
Certain cell populations within periodontal tissues possess the ability to induce regeneration, provided they have the opportunity to populate the wound or defect. Guided regeneration techniques have been investigated for regenerating periodontal tissues and such therapies usually utilize barrier membranes. Various natural and synthetic barrier membranes have been fabricated and tested to prevent epithelial and connective tissue cells from invading while allowing periodontal cells to selectively migrate into the defect...
September 9, 2016: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570489/epithelial-sodium-channels-in-pulmonary-epithelial-progenitor-and-stem-cells
#15
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Bi-Jie Jiang, Run-Zhen Zhao, Hong-Long Ji
Regeneration of the epithelium of mammalian lungs is essential for restoring normal function following injury, and various cells and mechanisms contribute to this regeneration and repair. Club cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs), and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) are dominant stem/progenitor cells for maintaining epithelial turnover and repair. Epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), a critical pathway for transapical salt and fluid transport, are expressed in lung epithelial progenitors, including club and ATII cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524021/protein-adsorption-capability-on-polyurethane-and-modified-polyurethane-membrane-for-periodontal-guided-tissue-regeneration-applications
#16
Zeeshan Sheikh, Abdul Samad Khan, Nima Roohpour, Michael Glogauer, Ihtesham U Rehman
Periodontal disease if left untreated can result in creation of defects within the alveolar ridge. Barrier membranes are frequently used with or without bone replacement graft materials for achieving periodontal guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Surface properties of barrier membranes play a vital role in their functionality and clinical success. In this study polyetherurethane (PEU) membranes were synthesized by using 4,4'-methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) and 1,4-butane diol (BDO) as a chain extender via solution polymerization...
November 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459049/multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-functionalization-with-high-molecular-weight-hyaluronan-significantly-reduces-pulmonary-injury
#17
Salik Hussain, Zhaoxia Ji, Alexia J Taylor, Laura M DeGraff, Margaret George, Charles J Tucker, Chong Hyun Chang, Ruibin Li, James C Bonner, Stavros Garantziotis
Commercialization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-based applications has been hampered by concerns regarding their lung toxicity potential. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a ubiquitously found polysaccharide, which is anti-inflammatory in its native high molecular weight form. HA-functionalized smart MWCNTs have shown promise as tumor-targeting drug delivery agents and can enhance bone repair and regeneration. However, it is unclear whether HA functionalization could reduce the pulmonary toxicity potential of MWCNTs...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364009/epithelial-notch-signaling-regulates-lung-alveolar-morphogenesis-and-airway-epithelial-integrity
#18
Po-Nien Tsao, Chisa Matsuoka, Shu-Chen Wei, Atsuyasu Sato, Susumu Sato, Koichi Hasegawa, Hung-Kuan Chen, Thai-Yen Ling, Munemasa Mori, Wellington V Cardoso, Mitsuru Morimoto
Abnormal enlargement of the alveolar spaces is a hallmark of conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Notch signaling is crucial for differentiation and regeneration and repair of the airway epithelium. However, how Notch influences the alveolar compartment and integrates this process with airway development remains little understood. Here we report a prominent role of Notch signaling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that lead to alveolar formation in the developing lung...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322618/influenza-virus-infects-epithelial-stem-progenitor-cells-of-the-distal-lung-impact-on-fgfr2b-driven-epithelial-repair
#19
Jennifer Quantius, Carole Schmoldt, Ana I Vazquez-Armendariz, Christin Becker, Elie El Agha, Jochen Wilhelm, Rory E Morty, István Vadász, Konstantin Mayer, Stefan Gattenloehner, Ludger Fink, Mikhail Matrosovich, Xiaokun Li, Werner Seeger, Juergen Lohmeyer, Saverio Bellusci, Susanne Herold
Influenza Virus (IV) pneumonia is associated with severe damage of the lung epithelium and respiratory failure. Apart from efficient host defense, structural repair of the injured epithelium is crucial for survival of severe pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms underlying stem/progenitor cell mediated regenerative responses are not well characterized. In particular, the impact of IV infection on lung stem cells and their regenerative responses remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that a highly pathogenic IV infects various cell populations in the murine lung, but displays a strong tropism to an epithelial cell subset with high proliferative capacity, defined by the signature EpCamhighCD24lowintegrin(α6)high...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164543/pulmonary-administration-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-to-the-lungs-induces-alveolar-regeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
Michiko Horiguchi, Mai Hirokawa, Kaori Abe, Harumi Kumagai, Chikamasa Yamashita
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disease with several causes, including smoking, and no curative therapeutic agent is available, particularly for destructive alveolar lesions. In this study, we investigated the differentiation-inducing effect on undifferentiated lung cells (Calu-6) and the alveolar regenerative effect of the active vitamin 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (VD3) with the ultimate goal of developing a novel curative drug for COPD. First, the differentiation-inducing effect of VD3 on Calu-6 cells was evaluated...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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