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Alveolar epithelial repair

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886850/cellular-senescence-and-autophagy-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-ipf
#1
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Jun Araya, Hiromichi Hara, Shunsuke Minagawa, Naoki Takasaka, Saburo Ito, Kenji Kobayashi, Katsutoshi Nakayama
Aging is associated with impairments in homeostasis. Although aging and senescence are not equivalent, the number of senescent cells increases with aging. Cellular senescence plays important roles in tissue repair or remodeling, as well as embryonic development. Autophagy is a process of lysosomal self-degradation that maintains a homeostatic balance between the synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular proteins. Autophagy diminishes with aging; additionally, accelerated aging can be attributed to reduced autophagy...
November 2016: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861515/involvement-of-igf1r-in-bronchiolar-epithelial-regeneration-role-during-repair-kinetics-after-selective-club-cell-ablation
#2
Icíar P López, Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Rosete S Pais, Raquel Torrens, Andreas Hoeflich, José G Pichel
Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors) signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796509/lung-remodeling-associated-with-recovery-from-acute-lung-injury
#3
REVIEW
Sean E Gill, Cory M Yamashita, Ruud A W Veldhuizen
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a disease with a variety of causes and is defined by severe hypoxemia. Whereas ARDS carries a mortality of approximately 30 %, patients that survive may ultimately regain near normal pulmonary physiology. The critical pathophysiological processes in ARDS are alveolar barrier dysfunction and overwhelming inflammation. This encompasses damage to the epithelial and endothelial layers, thickening of the interstitial matrix, edema with inactivation of pulmonary surfactant at the alveolar surface and marked inflammation mediated by infiltrating neutrophils and pro-inflammatory macrophages...
October 29, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796199/establishing-proximal-and-distal-regional-identities-in-murine-and-human-tissue-engineered-lung-and-trachea
#4
Andrew Trecartin, Soula Danopoulos, Ryan Spurrier, Hanaa Knaneh-Monem, Michael Hiatt, Barbara Driscoll, Christian Hochstim, Denise Al-Alam, Tracy C Grikscheit
The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin regeneration of the human lung are unknown, and the study of lung repair has been impeded by the necessity for reductionist models that may exclude key components. We hypothesized that multicellular epithelial and mesenchymal cell clusters or lung organoid units (LuOU) could be transplanted to recapitulate proximal and distal cellular structures of the native lung and airways. Transplantation of LuOU resulted in the growth of tissue-engineered lung (TELu) that contained the necessary cell types consistent with native adult lung tissue and demonstrated proliferative cells at 2 and 4 weeks...
November 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788331/cells-respond-to-distinct-nanoparticle-properties-with-multiple-strategies-as-revealed-by-single-cell-rna-seq
#5
Hugh D Mitchell, Lye Meng Markillie, William B Chrisler, Matthew J Gaffrey, Dehong Hu, Craig J Szymanski, Yumei Xie, Eric S Melby, Alice Dohnalkova, Ronald C Taylor, Eva K Grate, Scott K Cooley, Jason E McDermott, Alejandro Heredia-Langner, Galya Orr
The impact of distinct nanoparticle (NP) properties on cellular response and ultimately human health is unclear. This gap is partially due to experimental difficulties in achieving uniform NP loads in the studied cells, creating heterogeneous populations with some cells "overloaded" while other cells are loaded with few or no NPs. Yet gene expression studies have been conducted in the population as a whole, identifying generic responses, while missing unique responses due to signal averaging across many cells, each carrying different loads...
October 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773701/rare-sox2-airway-progenitor-cells-generate-krt5-cells-that-repopulate-damaged-alveolar-parenchyma-following-influenza-virus-infection
#6
Samriddha Ray, Norika Chiba, Changfu Yao, Xiangrong Guan, Alicia M McConnell, Brian Brockway, Loretta Que, Jonathan L McQualter, Barry R Stripp
Recent studies have implicated keratin 5 (KRT5)(+) cells in repopulation of damaged lung tissue following severe H1N1 influenza virus infection. However, the origins of the cells repopulating the injured alveolar region remain controversial. We sought to determine the cellular dynamics of lung repair following influenza infection and define whether nascent KRT5(+) cells repopulating alveolar epithelium were derived from pre-existing alveolar or airway progenitor cells. We found that the wound-healing response begins with proliferation of SOX2(+) SCGB1A1(-) KRT5(-) progenitor cells in airways...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770432/fgf10-deficiency-is-causative-for-lethality-in-a-mouse-model-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#7
Cho-Ming Chao, Faady Yahya, Alena Moiseenko, Caterina Tiozzo, Amit Shrestha, Negah Ahmadvand, Elie El Agha, Jennifer Quantius, Salma Dilai, Vahid Kheirollahi, Matthew Jones, Jochen Wilhem, Gianni Carraro, Harald Ehrhardt, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Guillermo Barreto, Katrin Ahlbrecht, Rory E Morty, Susanne Herold, Rosanna G Abellar, Werner Seeger, Ralph Schermuly, Jin-San Zhang, Parviz Minoo, Saverio Bellusci
Inflammation-induced FGF10 protein deficiency is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of prematurely born infants characterized by arrested alveolar development. So far, experimental evidence for a direct role of FGF10 in lung disease is lacking. Using the hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury as a mouse model of BPD, the impact of Fgf10 deficiency in Fgf10(+/-) versus Fgf10(+/+) pups was investigated. In normoxia, no lethality of Fgf10(+/+) or Fgf10(+/-) pups was observed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725837/dynamic-tracking-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-tropism-following-smoke-inhalation-injury-in-nod-scid-mice
#8
MeiJuan Song, Qi Lv, XiuWei Zhang, Juan Cao, ShuLi Sun, PeiXin Xiao, ShiKe Hou, Hui Ding, ZiQuan Liu, WenLong Dong, JinQiang Wang, Xue Wang, ZhiGuang Sun, Man Tian, HaoJun Fan
Multiple preclinical evidences have supported the potential value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). However, few studies focus on the dynamic tropism of MSCs in animals with acute lung injury. In this study, we track systemically transplanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in NOD/SCID mice with smoke inhalation injury (SII) through bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The results showed that hBMSCs systemically delivered into healthy NOD/SCID mouse initially reside in the lungs and then partially translocate to the abdomen after 24 h...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694932/hyaluronan-and-tlr4-promote-surfactant-protein-c-positive-alveolar-progenitor-cell-renewal-and-prevent-severe-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#9
Jiurong Liang, Yanli Zhang, Ting Xie, Ningshan Liu, Huaiyong Chen, Yan Geng, Adrianne Kurkciyan, Jessica Monterrosa Mena, Barry R Stripp, Dianhua Jiang, Paul W Noble
Successful recovery from lung injury requires the repair and regeneration of alveolar epithelial cells to restore the integrity of gas-exchanging regions within the lung and preserve organ function. Improper regeneration of the alveolar epithelium is often associated with severe pulmonary fibrosis, the latter of which involves the recruitment and activation of fibroblasts, as well as matrix accumulation. Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) are stem cells in the adult lung that contribute to the lung repair process...
October 3, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694472/neutrophils-promote-alveolar-epithelial-regeneration-by-enhancing-type-ii-pneumocyte-proliferation-in-a-model-of-acid-induced-acute-lung-injury
#10
Andrew J Paris, Yuhong Liu, Junjie Mei, Ning Dai, Lei Guo, Lynn A Spruce, Kristin M Hudock, Jacob S Brenner, William J Zacharias, Hankun D Mei, April R Slamowitz, Kartik Bhamidipati, Michael F Beers, Steven H Seeholzer, Edward E Morrisey, G Scott Worthen
Alveolar epithelial regeneration is essential for resolution of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although neutrophils have traditionally been considered mediators of epithelial damage, recent studies suggest they promote type II pneumocyte (AT2) proliferation, which is essential for regenerating alveolar epithelium. These studies did not, however, evaluate this relationship in an in vivo model of alveolar epithelial repair following injury. To determine whether neutrophils influence alveolar epithelial repair in vivo, we developed a unilateral acid injury model that creates a severe yet survivable injury with features similar to ARDS...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570489/epithelial-sodium-channels-in-pulmonary-epithelial-progenitor-and-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Bi-Jie Jiang, Run-Zhen Zhao, Hong-Long Ji
Regeneration of the epithelium of mammalian lungs is essential for restoring normal function following injury, and various cells and mechanisms contribute to this regeneration and repair. Club cells, bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs), and alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) are dominant stem/progenitor cells for maintaining epithelial turnover and repair. Epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), a critical pathway for transapical salt and fluid transport, are expressed in lung epithelial progenitors, including club and ATII cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471572/bleomycin-blm-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cultured-a549-cells-via-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway
#12
Kui-Jun Chen, Qing Li, Cang-Mei Wen, Zhao-Xia Duan, Jie Yuan Zhang, Chuan Xu, Jian-Min Wang
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial cellular event in wound healing, tissue repair, and cancer progression in adult tissues, with the interactions with numerous signals. In this study, we aimed to determine whether bleomycin (BLM), an agent that causes pulmonary fibrosis, induces the EMT of the alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and investigated the possible mechanisms. We examined the EMT involved changes in cell morphology, isoform switching of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) by alternative splicing, and expression of the phenotypic markers including E-cadherin, vimentin, and α-SMA using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence assays...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459049/multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-functionalization-with-high-molecular-weight-hyaluronan-significantly-reduces-pulmonary-injury
#13
Salik Hussain, Zhaoxia Ji, Alexia J Taylor, Laura M DeGraff, Margaret George, Charles J Tucker, Chong Hyun Chang, Ruibin Li, James C Bonner, Stavros Garantziotis
Commercialization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-based applications has been hampered by concerns regarding their lung toxicity potential. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a ubiquitously found polysaccharide, which is anti-inflammatory in its native high molecular weight form. HA-functionalized smart MWCNTs have shown promise as tumor-targeting drug delivery agents and can enhance bone repair and regeneration. However, it is unclear whether HA functionalization could reduce the pulmonary toxicity potential of MWCNTs...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364757/toll-like-receptors-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
Theodoros Karampitsakos, Tony Woolard, Demosthenes Bouros, Argyris Tzouvelekis
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) constitutes the end stage of a broad range of heterogeneous interstitial lung diseases, characterized by the destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma, deposition of extracellular matrix and dramatic changes in the phenotype of both fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. More than 200 causes of pulmonary fibrosis have been identified so far, yet the most common form is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF is a lethal lung disorder of unknown etiology with a gradually increasing worldwide incidence and a median survival of 3-5 years from the time of diagnosis...
June 27, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364009/epithelial-notch-signaling-regulates-lung-alveolar-morphogenesis-and-airway-epithelial-integrity
#15
Po-Nien Tsao, Chisa Matsuoka, Shu-Chen Wei, Atsuyasu Sato, Susumu Sato, Koichi Hasegawa, Hung-Kuan Chen, Thai-Yen Ling, Munemasa Mori, Wellington V Cardoso, Mitsuru Morimoto
Abnormal enlargement of the alveolar spaces is a hallmark of conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Notch signaling is crucial for differentiation and regeneration and repair of the airway epithelium. However, how Notch influences the alveolar compartment and integrates this process with airway development remains little understood. Here we report a prominent role of Notch signaling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that lead to alveolar formation in the developing lung...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322618/influenza-virus-infects-epithelial-stem-progenitor-cells-of-the-distal-lung-impact-on-fgfr2b-driven-epithelial-repair
#16
Jennifer Quantius, Carole Schmoldt, Ana I Vazquez-Armendariz, Christin Becker, Elie El Agha, Jochen Wilhelm, Rory E Morty, István Vadász, Konstantin Mayer, Stefan Gattenloehner, Ludger Fink, Mikhail Matrosovich, Xiaokun Li, Werner Seeger, Juergen Lohmeyer, Saverio Bellusci, Susanne Herold
Influenza Virus (IV) pneumonia is associated with severe damage of the lung epithelium and respiratory failure. Apart from efficient host defense, structural repair of the injured epithelium is crucial for survival of severe pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms underlying stem/progenitor cell mediated regenerative responses are not well characterized. In particular, the impact of IV infection on lung stem cells and their regenerative responses remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that a highly pathogenic IV infects various cell populations in the murine lung, but displays a strong tropism to an epithelial cell subset with high proliferative capacity, defined by the signature EpCamhighCD24lowintegrin(α6)high...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302174/bax-induced-apoptosis-shortens-the-life-span-of-dna-repair-defect-ku70-knockout-mice-by-inducing-emphysema
#17
Shigemi Matsuyama, James Palmer, Adam Bates, Izmarie Poventud-Fuentes, Kelvin Wong, Justine Ngo, Mieko Matsuyama
Cells with DNA damage undergo apoptosis or cellular senescence if the damage cannot be repaired. Recent studies highlight that cellular senescence plays a major role in aging. However, age-associated diseases, including emphysema and neurodegenerative disorders, are caused by apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells and neurons, respectively. Therefore, enhanced apoptosis also promotes aging and shortens the life span depending on the cell type. Recently, we reported that ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(-) (/) (-) and ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/) (-) mice showed significantly extended life span in comparison with ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/+) mice...
June 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27233996/alveolar-epithelial-disintegrity-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#18
Tejaswini Kulkarni, Joao de Andrade, Yong Zhou, Tracy Luckhardt, Victor J Thannickal
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by progressive decline in lung function, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Current concepts of the pathogenesis of IPF primarily center on dysregulated epithelial cell repair and altered epithelial-mesenchymal communication and extracellular matrix deposition following chronic exposure to cigarette smoke or environmental toxins. In recent years, increasing attention has been directed toward the role of the intercellular junctional complex in determining the specific properties of epithelia in pulmonary diseases...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231860/what-we-know-about-the-pathogenesis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#19
S Puglisi, S E Torrisi, R Giuliano, V Vindigni, C Vancheri
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease of unknown cause, occurring in adults, limited to the lungs and associated with the pathologic and radiologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Prognosis is poor, and most patients die of respiratory failure within 3 to 6 years from the onset of symptoms. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has improved over the past two decades, the mechanisms responsible for this disorder have not been clearly defined. Aging is the single most important risk factor, but genetic, environmental, and diverse exogenous factors such as smoking, viral infections, chronic tissue injury (i...
June 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191651/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-combination-with-erythropoietin-repair-hyperoxia-induced-alveoli-dysplasia-injury-in-neonatal-mice-via-inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#20
Yun Luan, Luan Zhang, Sun Chao, Xiaoli Liu, Kaili Li, Yibiao Wang, Zhaohua Zhang
The aim of the present study is to investigate the protection effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with EPO against hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) injury in neonatal mice. BPD model was prepared by continuous high oxygen exposure, 1×106 bone marrow MSCs and 5000U/kg recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) were injected respectively. Results showed that administration of MSCs, EPO especially MSCs+EPO significant attenuated hyperoxia-induced lung damage with a decrease of fibrosis, radical alveolar counts and inhibition of the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
May 12, 2016: Oncotarget
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