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Alveolar epithelial injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080141/low-concentration-of-oleic-acid-exacerbates-lps-induced-cell-death-and-inflammation-in-human-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#1
Altug Kucukgul, Suat Erdogan
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to investigate in vitro effects of oleic acid on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in the human lung epithelial cells (A549). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) tests. Selected gene expression levels were analyzed by Real-Time Quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS: 24 hours of LPS (100 ng/mL) exposure decreased the cells viability by 44...
January 12, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077319/role-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-axis-in-the-bleomycin-induced-lung-injury-in-rats
#2
Lakshmi Kanth Kotarkonda, Ritu Kulshrestha, Krishnan Ravi
BACKGROUND: Alveolar epithelial cell injury has been proposed as a causative factor for the onset and progression ofpulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is controversial. AIMS: The present study performed in rats instilled with bleomycin investigated a) the expressions of the insulin growth factor (IGF-1) and insulin growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5) and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) in the type II AECs, b) the role oftype II AECs in EMT andextracellular matrix (ECM) formation and, c) the effect of pioglitazone on all the above parameters...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077237/interplay-of-extracellular-matrix-and-leukocytes-in-lung-inflammation
#3
REVIEW
Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert, Jason S Debley, Stephen R Reeves, William C Parks, Steven F Ziegler
During inflammation, leukocytes influx into lung compartments and interact with extracellular matrix (ECM). Two ECM components, versican and hyaluronan, increase in a range of lung diseases. The interaction of leukocytes with these ECM components controls leukocyte retention and accumulation, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and activation as part of the inflammatory phase of lung disease. In addition, bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children co-cultured with human lung fibroblasts generate an ECM that is adherent for monocytes/macrophages...
December 23, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076504/the-role-of-bradykinin-in-lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-rat-lung-transplantation-model
#4
Zheng Tang, Zhiwei Wang, Zhipeng Hu, Min Zhang, Luocheng Li, Bowen Li
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of bradykinin in a rat lung transplantation (LTx) model and preliminarily discuss the relationship between bradykinin and CD26/DPP-4. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CON), Sham, low potassium dextranglucose (LPD), and AB192 (n=15/group). Orthotopic single LTx was performed in the LPD and AB192 groups. The donor lungs were flush-perfused and preserved with low potassium dextranglucose (LPD) or LPD+CD26/DPP-4 catalytic inhibitor (AB192)...
December 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062913/understanding-the-developmental-pathways-pulmonary-fibroblasts-may-follow-during-alveolar-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Stephen McGowan
Although pulmonary alveolar interstitial fibroblasts are less specialized than their epithelial and endothelial neighbors, they play essential roles during development and in response to lung injury. At birth, they must adapt to the sudden mechanical changes imposed by the onset of respiration and to a higher ambient oxygen concentration. In diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and interstitial fibrosis, their adaptive responses are overwhelmed leading to compromised gas-exchange function. Thus, although fibroblasts do not directly participate in gas-exchange, they are essential for creating and maintaining an optimal environment at the alveolar epithelial-endothelial interface...
January 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062213/anti-fibrotic-effects-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-modified-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-silica-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
Xiaoli Li, Guoliang An, Yan Wang, Di Liang, Zhonghui Zhu, Ximeng Lian, Piye Niu, Caixia Guo, Lin Tian
Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by exposure to small particles of crystalline silica, which ultimately results in diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. Evidence indicates an anti-fibrotic role of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in lung diseases. Therefore, strategies incorporating genetic engineering and stem cell biology might have a tremendous potential to treat critical injuries and diseases. Therefore, we modified BMSCs to overexpress the BMP-7 gene (BMP-7-BMSCs) by lentivirus transduction, and then evaluated whether fibrotic processes were inhibited by these cells in vivo...
January 4, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052715/c2-ceramide-influences-alveolar-epithelial-barrier-function-by-down-regulating-zo-1-occludin-and-claudin-4-expression
#7
Jin Yang, Ying Wan, Hui Liu, Jirui Bi, Youjin Lu
Noncardiogenic lung edema is a key factor affecting the prognosis of acute lung injury (ALI). Previous studies have been focused on regulatory roles of ceramide on lung vascular endothelial barrier functions and had already identified ceramide as mediator involved in the formation of lung edema. However, the effects of ceramide on lung epithelial barrier were still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ceramide on the barrier function of alveolar epithelial cells. Primary mouse alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) were grown on Transwell polyester membranes to construct monolayer, and stimulated with different concentrations of ceramide...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049950/anticytotoxin-effects-of-amentoflavone-to-pneumolysin
#8
Xiaoran Zhao, Bowen Liu, Shui Liu, Lin Wang, Jianfeng Wang
Pneumolysin (PLY) is a devastating bacterial protein toxin of Streptococcus pneumoniae that punctures the cytomembrane, leading to pathological reactions, such as cell disruption and inflammation. Drugs capable of closely impacting the toxin are considered advantageous in the treatment of bacterial infections. Amentoflavone (AMF) is a chemical substance extracted from traditional Chinese herbs. Previous studies have demonstrated that AMF has multiple pharmacological effects and mentioned without attenuating pneumolysin-mediated cytotoxicity...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031106/-protective-effect-of-human-amnion-epithelial-cells-through-endotracheal-instillation-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#9
Yanmin Xia, Wenchen Wang, Hong Zhang, Jiakuan Chen, Ming Wang, Zhonghu Ge, Jian Wang, Tao Jiang
Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) through endotracheal instillation on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice and its underlying mechanism. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, hAECs control group, LPS-induced ALI group and hAECs treatment group (n=10 each group). In the latter two groups, mice were subjected to LPS (5 mg/kg) by oral insertion, and 1 hour later, PBS (50 μL) and hAECs (1×10(7)/mL, 50 μL) were administered by oral insertion in the two groups, respectively...
January 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012489/pathognomonic-remodeling-of-blood-and-lymphatic-capillaries-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Masahito Ebina
Numerous studies have been published investigating the pathologic alterations in various interstitial pneumonias, particularly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the few existing studies on capillary remodeling, which does not seem to have priority for pathologic diagnosis, are contradictory, with some reporting increased and others reduced vascularization. We hypothesized that these discrepancies were due to the temporal heterogeneity of the lesions in IPF. We subsequently developed original techniques for evaluating vascular density within the alveolar septa and discovered, for the first time, a heterogeneous increase in alveolar capillaries in the lungs of IPF patients...
January 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005404/anti-histone-properties-of-c1-esterase-inhibitor-protect-against-lung-injury
#11
Malgorzata Wygrecka, Djuro Kosanovic, Lukasz Wujak, Katrin Reppe, Ingrid Henneke, Helena Frey, Miroslava Didiasova, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Leigh M Marsh, Nelli Baal, Holger Hackstein, Dariusz Zakrzewicz, Holger C Müller-Redetzky, Steven de Maat, Coen Maas, Marc W Nolte, Con Panousis, Ralph T Schermuly, Werner Seeger, Martin Witzenrath, Liliana Schaefer, Philipp Markart
RATIONALE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, edema formation, and intraalveolar contact phase activation. OBJECTIVES: To explore whether C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH), an endogenous inhibitor of the contact phase, may protect from lung injury in vivo and to decipher the possible underlying mechanisms mediating protection. METHODS: The ability of C1INH to control the inflammatory processes was studied in vitro and in vivo...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992235/effects-of-baicalin-on-alveolar-fluid-clearance-and-%C3%AE-enac-expression-in-rats-with-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury
#12
Jia Deng, Dao-Xin Wang, Ai-Ling Liang, Jing Tang, Da-Kai Xiang
Baicalin has been reported to attenuate lung edema in the process of lung injury. However, the effect of baicalin on alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expression has not been tested. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and intratracheally injected with either 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline vehicle. Baicalin with various concentrations (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before administration of LPS. Then lungs were isolated for measurement of AFC, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level, and cellular localization of α-ENaC...
August 31, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981380/tissue-remodelling-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Lars Knudsen, Clemens Ruppert, Matthias Ochs
Many lung diseases result in fibrotic remodelling. Fibrotic lung disorders can be divided into diseases with known and unknown aetiology. Among those with unknown aetiology, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a common diagnosis. Because of its progressive character leading to a rapid decline in lung function, it is a fatal disease with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Thus, IPF has motivated many studies in the last few decades in order to increase our mechanistic understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease...
December 16, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966554/il-36-receptor-deletion-attenuates-lung-injury-and-decreases-mortality-in-murine-influenza-pneumonia
#14
T Aoyagi, M W Newstead, X Zeng, S L Kunkel, M Kaku, T J Standiford
Influenza virus causes a respiratory disease in humans that can progress to lung injury with fatal outcome. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are newly described IL-1 family cytokines that promote inflammatory responses via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). The mechanism of expression and the role of IL-36 cytokines are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of IL-36 cytokines in modulating the innate inflammatory response during influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mice. The intranasal administration of influenza virus upregulated IL-36α mRNA and protein production in the lungs...
December 14, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959396/ulinastatin-post-treatment-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-rats-and-human-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#15
Yunpeng Luo, Wen Che, Mingyan Zhao
Ulinastatin (UTI), a serine protease inhibitor, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and has been suggested to modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear DNA-binding protein, plays a key role in the development of ALI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether UTI attenuates ALI through the inhibition of HMGB1 expression and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. ALI was induced in male rats by the intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg)...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928554/bleomycin-induced-neonatal-lung-injury-requires-the-autocrine-pulmonary-angiotensin-system
#16
Abdellatif Abdelwahab, Indiwari Gopallawa, Christopher C Piasecki, Ira H Gewolb, Bruce D Uhal
BACKGROUND: Previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that apoptosis is regulated by a local angiotensin (ANG) system in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Autocrine generation of angiotensin II (ANGII) in response to endogenous or xenobiotic inducers is required for apoptosis in adult rat AECs and in AEC-derived human lung carcinoma cell line A549. Therefore, we hypothesized that a similar mechanism might also be involved in bleomycin (Bleo)-induced murine neonatal lung injury. METHODS: To investigate the local production of angiotensinogen (AGT) and ANGII in neonatal lung injury, lung explants were obtained from C57/BL6 wild type neonatal mice and were treated with Bleo in the presence or absence of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor...
September 2016: Jacobs J Pulmonol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923659/matrilin-2-regulates-proliferation-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-during-radiation-induced-injury-in-hpaepic-cell
#17
Junming Luo, Menglan Zhang, Hong Huang, Yichun Wang, Xin Yuan, Siqing Ma, Jingshi Liu, Shiying Zhou, Shukun Zhang
Radiation pulmonary injury is related to the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the alveolar interstitial space. Matrilin-2 as a component of extracellular filamentous networks, present higher level in the lung tissue from irradiated mice and irradiated pulmonary epithelial cell line, HPAEpiC cells. Knockdown of endogenous matrilin-2 prevents the apoptosis of HPAEpiC cell induced by the irradiation injury. Consistently, over-expression of matrilin-2 reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis of HPAEpiC cells...
December 3, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923370/the-cellular-kinetics-of-lung-alveolar-epithelial-cells-and-its-relationship-with-lung-tissue-repair-after-acute-lung-injury
#18
Ling Zeng, Xue-Tao Yang, Hai-Sheng Li, Yong Li, Ce Yang, Wei Gu, Yin-Han Zhou, Juan Du, Hai-Yan Wang, Jian-Hui Sun, Da-Lin Wen, Jian-Xin Jiang
BACKGROUND: Organ regeneration in mammals is hypothesized to require a functional pool of stem or progenitor cells, but the role of these cells in lung regeneration is unknown. METHODS: Based on the fact that postnatal regeneration of alveolar tissue has been attributed to alveolar epithelial cells, we established a hemorrhagic shock and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lung injury model. Using this model, we analyzed the cellular kinetics of lung alveolar epithelial cells...
December 7, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921210/tight-junctions-in-pulmonary-epithelia-during-lung-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Oliver H Wittekindt
Inflammatory lung diseases like asthma bronchiale, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergic airway inflammation are widespread public diseases that constitute an enormous burden to the health systems. Mainly classified as inflammatory diseases, the treatment focuses on strategies interfering with local inflammatory responses by the immune system. Inflammatory lung diseases predispose patients to severe lung failures like alveolar oedema, respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. These life-threatening syndromes are caused by increased permeability of the alveolar and airway epithelium and exudate formation...
January 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913426/depletion-of-circulating-monocytes-suppresses-il-17-and-hmgb1-expression-in-mice-with-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury
#20
Zhilong Jiang, Qianlin Zhou, Chenlin Gu, Dandan Li, Lei Zhu
Acute lung injury/Acute Respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. To investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of circulating monocytes and resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) in ALI/ARDS, we depleted circulating monocytes and AMs by clodronate-loaded liposome (CL) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI/ARDS mouse model. Our results indicated that depletion of circulating monocytes by intravenous (i...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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