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Epigenetic priming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786549/pluripotent-stem-cells-induction-and-self-renewal
#1
REVIEW
R Abu-Dawud, N Graffmann, S Ferber, W Wruck, J Adjaye
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) lie at the heart of modern regenerative medicine due to their properties of unlimited self-renewal in vitro and their ability to differentiate into cell types representative of the three embryonic germ layers-mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm. The derivation of induced PSCs bypasses ethical concerns associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells and also enables personalized cell-based therapies. To exploit their regenerative potential, it is essential to have a firm understanding of the molecular processes associated with their induction from somatic cells...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772764/the-making-of-leukemia
#2
REVIEW
Inés González-Herrero, Guillermo Rodríguez-Hernández, Andrea Luengas-Martínez, Marta Isidro-Hernández, Rafael Jiménez, Maria Begoña García-Cenador, Francisco Javier García-Criado, Isidro Sánchez-García, Carolina Vicente-Dueñas
Due to the clonal nature of human leukemia evolution, all leukemic cells carry the same leukemia-initiating genetic lesions, independently of the intrinsic tumoral cellular heterogeneity. However, the latest findings have shown that the mode of action of oncogenes is not homogeneous throughout the developmental history of leukemia. Studies on different types of hematopoietic tumors have shown that the contribution of oncogenes to leukemia is mainly mediated through the epigenetic reprogramming of the leukemia-initiating target cell...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764658/transgenerational-effects-of-insecticides-implications-for-rapid-pest-evolution-in-agroecosystems
#3
REVIEW
Kristian Brevik, Leena Lindström, Stephanie D McKay, Yolanda H Chen
Although pesticides are a major selective force in driving the evolution of insect pests, the evolutionary processes that give rise to insecticide resistance remain poorly understood. Insecticide resistance has been widely observed to increase with frequent and intense insecticide exposure, but can be lost following the relaxation of insecticide use. One possible but rarely explored explanation is that insecticide resistance may be associated with epigenetic modifications, which influence the patterning of gene expression without changing underlying DNA sequence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748167/kdm5b-decommissions-the-h3k4-methylation-landscape-of-self-renewal-genes-during-trophoblast-stem-cell-differentiation
#4
Jian Xu, Benjamin L Kidder
Trophoblast stem (TS) cells derived from the trophectoderm (TE) of mammalian embryos have the ability to self-renew indefinitely or differentiate into fetal lineages of the placenta. Epigenetic control of gene expression plays an instrumental role in dictating the fate of TS cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, the roles of histone demethylases and activating histone modifications such as methylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3/me2) in regulating TS cell expression programs, and in priming the epigenetic landscape for trophoblast differentiation, are largely unknown...
May 10, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728366/the-hush-complex-cooperates-with-trim28-to-repress-young-retrotransposons-and-new-genes
#5
Luisa Robbez-Masson, Christopher H C Tie, Lucia Conde, Hale Tunbak, Connor Husovsky, Iva A Tchasovnikarova, Richard T Timms, Javier Herrero, Paul J Lehner, Helen M Rowe
Retrotransposons encompass half of the human genome and contribute to the formation of heterochromatin, which provides nuclear structure and regulates gene expression. Here, we asked if the human silencing hub (HUSH) complex is necessary to silence retrotransposons and whether it collaborates with TRIM28 and the chromatin remodeler ATRX at specific genomic loci. We show that the HUSH complex contributes to de novo repression and DNA methylation of a SVA retrotransposon reporter. By using naïve vs. primed mouse pluripotent stem cells, we reveal a critical role for the HUSH complex in naïve cells, implicating it in programming epigenetic marks in development...
May 4, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718303/the-kdm4a-kdm4c-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-wdr5-epigenetic-cascade-regulates-the-activation-of-b-cells
#6
Kuo-Hsuan Hung, Yong H Woo, I-Ying Lin, Chin-Hsiu Liu, Li-Chieh Wang, Hsin-Yu Chen, Bor-Luen Chiang, Kuo-I Lin
T follicular helper (Tfh) cell-derived signals promote activation and proliferation of antigen-primed B cells. It remains unclear whether epigenetic regulation is involved in the B cell responses to Tfh cell-derived signals. Here, we demonstrate that Tfh cell-mimicking signals induce the expression of histone demethylases KDM4A and KDM4C, and the concomitant global down-regulation of their substrates, H3K9me3/me2, in B cells. Depletion of KDM4A and KDM4C potentiates B cell activation and proliferation in response to Tfh cell-derived signals...
April 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712771/igg-immunocomplexes-sensitize-human-monocytes-for-inflammatory-hyperactivity-via-transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-reprogramming-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Qiao Zhong, Fang-Yuan Gong, Zheng Gong, Sheng-Hao Hua, Ke-Qin Zeng, Xiao-Ming Gao
Prevalence of circulating immunocomplexes (ICs) strongly correlates with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans. Deposits of IgG-ICs are abundant in affected joints of patients, yet molecular mechanisms for the pathogenic roles of such ICs are not fully understood. In this study, we present evidence that IgG-ICs precipitated from RA sera sensitized human monocytes for a long-lasting inflammatory functional state, characterized by a strong TNF-α response to cellular proteins representing damage-associated molecular patterns and microbe-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710412/post-translational-modifications-in-priming-the-plant-immune-system-ripe-for-exploitation
#8
REVIEW
Daniel de Vega, Adrian C Newton, Ari Sadanandom
Microbes constantly challenge plants, and some can successfully infect their host and cause disease. Basal immunity against plant pathogens in many cases is not enough for survival and leads to disease and, ultimately, a premature death of the host plant. However, the plant immune system can be temporarily and even trans-generationally primed; this 'primed state' leads to changes in the plant involving transcriptional, post-translational, metabolic, physiological and epigenetic reprogramming, which enables fine-tuning defence mechanisms for a rapid and/or more robust response after abiotic and/or biotic stress...
April 30, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692868/epigenome-wide-association-study-of-total-serum-immunoglobulin-e-in-children-a-life-course-approach
#9
Cheng Peng, Andres Cardenas, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Marie-France Hivert, Diane R Gold, Thomas A Platts-Mills, Xihong Lin, Emily Oken, Andrea A Baccarelli, Augusto A Litonjua, Dawn L DeMeo
Background: IgE-mediated sensitization may be epigenetically programmed in utero, but early childhood environment may further alter complex traits and disease phenotypes through epigenetic plasticity. However, the epigenomic footprint underpinning IgE-mediated type-I hypersensitivity has not been well-understood, especially under a longitudinal early-childhood life-course framework. Methods: We used epigenome-wide DNA methylation (IlluminaHumanMethylation450 BeadChip) in cord blood and mid-childhood peripheral blood to investigate pre- and post-natal methylation marks associated with mid-childhood (age 6...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668306/dosage-compensation-of-the-x-chromosome-a-complex-epigenetic-assignment-involving-chromatin-regulators-and-long-noncoding-rnas
#10
Maria Samata, Asifa Akhtar
X chromosome regulation represents a prime example of an epigenetic phenomenon where coordinated regulation of a whole chromosome is required. In flies, this is achieved by transcriptional upregulation of X chromosomal genes in males to equalize the gene dosage differences in females. Chromatin-bound proteins and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constituting a ribonucleoprotein complex known as the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex or the dosage compensation complex mediate this process. MSL complex members decorate the male X chromosome, and their absence leads to male lethality...
April 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574793/identifying-human-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotent-stem-cells-evaluating-state-specific-reporter-lines-and-cell-surface-markers
#11
REVIEW
Amanda J Collier, Peter J Rugg-Gunn
Recent reports that human pluripotent stem cells can be captured in a spectrum of states with variable properties has prompted a re-evaluation of how pluripotency is acquired and stabilised. The latest additions to the stem cell hierarchy open up opportunities for understanding human development, reprogramming, and cell state transitions more generally. Many of the new cell lines have been collectively termed 'naïve' human pluripotent stem cells to distinguish them from the conventional 'primed' cells. Here, several transcriptional and epigenetic hallmarks of human pluripotent states in the recently described cell lines are reviewed and evaluated...
March 25, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569023/current-perspectives-on-in-vitro-maturation-and-its-effects-on-oocyte-genetic-and-epigenetic-profiles
#12
REVIEW
Cuiling Lu, Yaoyao Zhang, Xiaoying Zheng, Xueling Song, Ruiyang, Jieyan, Huailiang Feng, Jie Qiao
In vitro maturation (IVM), the maturation in culture of immature oocytes, has been used in clinic for more than 20 years. Although IVM has the specific advantages of low cost and minor side effects over controlled ovarian stimulation, the prevalence of IVM is less than 1% of routine in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer techniques in many reproductive centers. In this review, we searched the MEDLINE database for all full texts and/or abstract articles published in English with content related to oocyte IVM mainly between 2000 and 2016...
March 19, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563122/epigenetic-programming-of-t-cells-impacts-immune-reconstitution-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#13
Kristine Hardy, Corey Smith, Wen Juan Tu, Robert McCuaig, Archana Panikkar, Vijayendra Dasari, Fan Wu, Siok-Keen Tey, Geoffrey R Hill, Rajiv Khanna, Sudha Rao
Immune reconstitution following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is critical in preventing harmful sequelae in recipients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying immune reconstitution kinetics, we profiled the transcriptome-chromatin accessibility landscape of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells from HCST recipients with different immune reconstitution efficiencies. CMV-specific T cells from HSCT recipients with stable antiviral immunity expressed higher levels of interferon/defense response and cell cycle genes in an interconnected network involving PI3KCG , STAT5B , NFAT , RBPJ , and lower HDAC6 , increasing chromatin accessibility at the enhancer regions of immune and T-cell receptor signaling pathway genes...
March 27, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549885/epigenetic-impacts-of-stress-priming-of-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-sarin-surrogate-in-mice-a-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#14
David G Ashbrook, Benjamin Hing, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Wilfred C de Vega, Diane B Miller, Gordon Broderick, James P O'Callaghan, Patrick O McGowan
BACKGROUND: Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528906/viral-myocarditis-a-prime-example-for-endomyocardial-biopsy-guided-diagnosis-and-therapy
#15
Sophie Van Linthout, Carsten Tschöpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the cardiac muscle mainly caused by viral infection. Due to the diverse clinical presentation of myocarditis, accurate diagnosis demands simultaneous histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular biological workup of endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) as defined by the position statement of the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology on myocarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endomyocardial biopsy-based analysis of viral transcriptional activity, mRNA expression, epigenetics and region-specific protein expression analysis via imaging mass spectrometry have led to the identification of novel potential diagnostic criteria, markers with prognostic value and therapeutic targets for the treatment of viral myocarditis, opening new avenues for novel therapies, including cell therapies, as well as the use of established treatment options, be it from other indications...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495500/teaming-up-for-trouble-cancer-cells-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-signaling-and-the-epigenetic-corruption-of-stromal-na%C3%A3-ve-fibroblasts
#16
REVIEW
Sergio Lamprecht, Ina Sigal-Batikoff, Shraga Shany, Naim Abu-Freha, Eduard Ling, George J Delinasios, Keren Moyal-Atias, John G Delinasios, Alexander Fich
It is well recognized that cancer cells subvert the phenotype of stromal naïve fibroblasts and instruct the neighboring cells to sustain their growth agenda. The mechanisms underpinning the switch of fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the focus of intense investigation. One of the most significant hallmarks of the biological identity of CAFs is that their tumor-promoting phenotype is stably maintained during in vitro and ex vivo propagation without the continual interaction with the adjacent cancer cells...
February 27, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456180/ras-regulates-the-transition-from-naive-to-primed-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Anna Altshuler, Mila Verbuk, Swarnabh Bhattacharya, Ifat Abramovich, Roni Haklai, Jacob H Hanna, Yoel Kloog, Eyal Gottlieb, Ruby Shalom-Feuerstein
The transition from naive to primed state of pluripotent stem cells is hallmarked by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, and changes in the epigenetic landscape. Since these changes are also seen as putative hallmarks of neoplastic cell transformation, we hypothesized that oncogenic pathways may be involved in this process. We report that the activity of RAS is repressed in the naive state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and that all three RAS isoforms are significantly activated upon early differentiation induced by LIF withdrawal, embryoid body formation, or transition to the primed state...
March 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454856/nucleosidic-dna-demethylating-epigenetic-drugs-a-comprehensive-review-from-discovery-to-clinic
#18
REVIEW
Khushboo Agrawal, Viswanath Das, Pankhuri Vyas, Marián Hajdúch
DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in the etiology of cancer by mediating epigenetic silencing of cancer-related genes. Since the relationship between aberrant DNA methylation and cancer has been understood, there has been an explosion of research at developing anti-cancer therapies that work by inhibiting DNA methylation. From the discovery of first DNA hypomethylating drugs in the 1980s to recently discovered second generation pro-drugs, exceedingly large number of studies have been published that describe the DNA hypomethylation-based anti-neoplastic action of these drugs in various stages of the pre-clinical investigation and advanced stages of clinical development...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449798/dna-methylation-master-or-slave-of-neural-fate-decisions
#19
REVIEW
Stefan H Stricker, Magdalena Götz
The pristine formation of complex organs depends on sharp temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms have been frequently attributed a central role in controlling cell fate determination. A prime example for this is the first discovered and still most studied epigenetic mark, DNA methylation, and the development of the most complex mammalian organ, the brain. Recently, the field of epigenetics has advanced significantly: new DNA modifications were discovered, epigenomic profiling became widely accessible, and methods for targeted epigenomic manipulation have been developed...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440377/efficient-derivation-of-stable-primed-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-from-bovine-blastocysts
#20
Yanina Soledad Bogliotti, Jun Wu, Marcela Vilarino, Daiji Okamura, Delia Alba Soto, Cuiqing Zhong, Masahiro Sakurai, Rafael Vilar Sampaio, Keiichiro Suzuki, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Pablo Juan Ross
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation blastocysts. From agricultural and biomedical perspectives, the derivation of stable ESCs from domestic ungulates is important for genomic testing and selection, genome engineering, and modeling human diseases. Cattle are one of the most important domestic ungulates that are commonly used for food and bioreactors. To date, however, it remains a challenge to produce stable pluripotent bovine ESC lines. Employing a culture system containing fibroblast growth factor 2 and an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, we derived pluripotent bovine ESCs (bESCs) with stable morphology, transcriptome, karyotype, population-doubling time, pluripotency marker gene expression, and epigenetic features...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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