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Epigenetic priming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920256/a-transcription-factor-pulse-can-prime-chromatin-for-heritable-transcriptional-memory
#1
Aimee Iberg-Badeaux, Samuel Collombet, Benoit Laurent, Chris van Oevelen, Kuo-Kai Chin, Denis Thieffry, Thomas Graf, Shi Yang
Short-term and long-term transcriptional memory is the phenomenon whereby the kinetics or magnitude of gene induction is enhanced following a prior induction period. Short-term memory persists within one cell generation or in post-mitotic cells, while long-term memory can survive multiple rounds of cell division. We have developed a tissue culture model to study the epigenetic basis for long-term transcriptional memory (LTTM), and subsequently used this model to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that enable heritable memory of temporary stimuli...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913794/tlr-ligands-but-not-modulators-of-histone-modifiers-can-induce-the-complex-immune-response-pattern-of-endotoxin-tolerance-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#2
Juliane Günther, Wolfram Petzl, Holm Zerbe, Hans-Joachim Schuberth, Hans-Martin Seyfert
Excessive stimulation of the TLR4 axis through LPS reduces the expression of some cytokine genes in immune cells, while stimulating the expression of immune defense genes during a subsequent bacterial infection. This endotoxin tolerance (ET) is mediated via epigenetic mechanisms. Priming the udder of cows with LPS was shown to induce ET in mammary epithelial cells (MEC), thereby protecting the udder against reinfection for some time. Seeking alternatives to LPS priming we tried to elicit ET by priming MEC with either lipopeptide (Pam2CSK4) via the TLR2/6 axis or inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866876/prdm14-drives-oct3-4-recruitment-via-active-demethylation-in-the-transition-from-primed-to-naive-pluripotency
#3
Naoki Okashita, Yoshiaki Suwa, Osamu Nishimura, Nao Sakashita, Mitsutaka Kadota, Go Nagamatsu, Masanori Kawaguchi, Hiroki Kashida, Ayaka Nakajima, Makoto Tachibana, Yoshiyuki Seki
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified from epiblast cells in mice. Genes associated with naive pluripotency are repressed in the transition from inner cell mass to epiblast cells, followed by upregulation after PGC specification. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the reactivation of pluripotency genes are poorly characterized. Here, we exploited the in vitro differentiation of epiblast-like cells (EpiLCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to elucidate the molecular and epigenetic functions of PR domain-containing 14 (PRDM14)...
November 14, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836862/phase-i-study-of-epigenetic-priming-with-azacitidine-prior-to-standard-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-patients-with-resectable-gastric-and-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#4
Bryan J Schneider, Manish A Shah, Kelsey Klute, Allyson Ocean, Elizabeta Popa, Nasser K Altorki, Michael D Lieberman, Andrew Schreiner, Rhonda K Yantiss, Paul J Christos, Romae Palmer, Agnes Viale, Daoqi You, Pouneh Kermani, Joseph M Scandura
PURPOSE: Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is an acquired abnormality observed in cancer and is prototypically linked to DNA methylation. We postulated that pre-treatment (priming) with 5-azacitidine would increase the efficacy of chemotherapy by reactivating TSGs. This study was conducted to identify a tolerable dose of 5-azacitidine prior to EOX (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, capecitabine) neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally-advanced esophageal/gastric adenocarcinoma (EGC)...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791594/potential-relevance-of-micrornas-in-inter-species-epigenetic-communication-and-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis
#5
Pál Perge, Zoltán Nagy, Ábel Decmann, Ivan Igaz, Peter Igaz
MicroRNAs are short non-protein coding RNA molecules involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Recently, extracellular microRNAs have been described in body fluids that might enable epigenetic communication between distant tissues. Being highly conserved molecules, exogenous xeno-microRNAs from different species could affect gene expression in the host even in a cross-kingdom fashion. Several data underline the relevance of microRNA-mediated communication between virus and host, and there are some experimental data showing that plant- or animal-derived dietary microRNAs might have gene expression modulating activity in humans...
October 28, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780972/developmental-origins-of-nafld-a-womb-with-a-clue
#6
REVIEW
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher, Jacob E Friedman
Changes in the maternal environment leading to an altered intrauterine milieu can result in subtle insults to the fetus, promoting increased lifetime disease risk and/or disease acceleration in childhood and later in life. Particularly worrisome is that the prevalence of NAFLD is rapidly increasing among children and adults, and is being diagnosed at increasingly younger ages, pointing towards an early-life origin. A wealth of evidence, in humans and non-human primates, suggests that maternal nutrition affects the placenta and fetal tissues, leading to persistent changes in hepatic metabolism, mitochondrial function, the intestinal microbiota, liver macrophage activation and susceptibility to NASH postnatally...
October 26, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777744/bacteria-type-specific-biparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#7
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
The transfer of acquired and specific immunity against previously encountered bacteria from mothers to offspring boosts the immune response of the next generation and supports the development of a successful pathogen defense. While most studies claim that the transfer of immunity is a maternal trait, in the sex-role-reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle, fathers nurse the embryos over a placenta-like structure, which opens the door for additional paternal immune priming. We examined the potential and persistence of bacteria-type-specific parental immune priming in the pipefish S...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766083/behavioral-neuroadaptation-to-alcohol-from-glucocorticoids-to-histone-acetylation
#8
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759487/crosstalk-between-pluripotency-factors-and-higher-order-chromatin-organization
#9
Clara Lopes Novo, Peter J Rugg-Gunn
Pluripotent cells are characterized by a globally open and accessible chromatin organization that is thought to contribute to cellular plasticity and developmental decision-making. We recently identified the pluripotency factor Nanog as a key regulator of this form of chromatin architecture in mouse embryonic stem cells. In particular, we demonstrated that the transcription factors Nanog and Sall1 co-dependently mediate the epigenetic state of pericentromeric heterochromatin to reinforce a more open and accessible organization in pluripotent cells...
October 19, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759158/chromatin-assembly-and-transcriptional-cross-talk-in-xenopus-laevis-oocyte-and-egg-extracts
#10
Wei-Lin Wang, David Shechter
Chromatin, primarily a complex of DNA and histone proteins, is the physiological form of the genome. Chromatin is generally repressive for transcription and other information transactions that occur on DNA. A wealth of post-translational modifications on canonical histones and histone variants encode regulatory information to recruit or repel effector proteins on chromatin, promoting and further repressing transcription and thereby form the basis of epigenetic information. During metazoan oogenesis, large quantities of histone proteins are synthesized and stored in preparation for the rapid early cell cycles of development and to elicit maternal control of chromatin assembly pathways...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742468/effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-sodium-butyrate-on-heroin-seeking-behavior-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-rats
#11
Wei-Sheng Chen, Wen-Jin Xu, Hua-Qiang Zhu, Lei Gao, Miao-Jun Lai, Fu-Qiang Zhang, Wen-Hua Zhou, Hui-Fen Liu
Histone acetylation and other modifications of the chromatin are important regulators of gene expression and may contribute to drug-induced behaviors and neuroplasticity. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) activity results in the change of some drug-induced behaviors,however, relatively little is known about the effects of HDAC inhibitors on heroin-seeking behavior. In the present study, male rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, followed by 14 daily 2hours extinction session in the operant chamber...
October 11, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730302/systems-biology-and-genome-wide-approaches-to-unveil-the-molecular-players-involved-in-the-pre-germinative-metabolism-implications-on-seed-technology-traits
#12
Anca Macovei, Andrea Pagano, Paola Leonetti, Daniela Carbonera, Alma Balestrazzi, Susana S Araújo
The pre-germinative metabolism is among the most fascinating aspects of seed biology. The early seed germination phase, or pre-germination, is characterized by rapid water uptake (imbibition), which directs a series of dynamic biochemical events. Among those are enzyme activation, DNA damage and repair, and use of reserve storage compounds, such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Industrial seedling production and intensive agricultural production systems require seed stocks with high rate of synchronized germination and low dormancy...
October 11, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728778/comparative-principles-of-dna-methylation-reprogramming-during-human-and-mouse-in%C3%A2-vitro-primordial-germ-cell-specification
#13
Ferdinand von Meyenn, Rebecca V Berrens, Simon Andrews, Fátima Santos, Amanda J Collier, Felix Krueger, Rodrigo Osorno, Wendy Dean, Peter J Rugg-Gunn, Wolf Reik
Primordial germ cell (PGC) development is characterized by global epigenetic remodeling, which resets genomic potential and establishes an epigenetic ground state. Here we recapitulate PGC specification in vitro from naive embryonic stem cells and characterize the early events of epigenetic reprogramming during the formation of the human and mouse germline. Following rapid de novo DNA methylation during priming to epiblast-like cells, methylation is globally erased in PGC-like cells. Repressive chromatin marks (H3K9me2/3) and transposable elements are enriched at demethylation-resistant regions, while active chromatin marks (H3K4me3 or H3K27ac) are more prominent at regions that demethylate faster...
October 10, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687803/insight-from-animal-models-of-environmentally-driven-epigenetic-changes-in-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#14
Tiffany S Doherty, Tania L Roth
The efforts of many neuroscientists are directed toward understanding the appreciable plasticity of the brain and behavior. In recent years, epigenetics has become a core of this focus as a prime mechanistic candidate for behavioral modifications. Animal models have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of environmentally driven changes to the epigenome in the developing and adult brain. This review focuses mainly on such discoveries driven by adverse environments along with their associated behavioral outcomes...
September 30, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676037/epigenetic-priming-and-high-dose-radiation-for-enhanced-immune-response-in-pancreatic-cancer
#15
K M Mani, T Savage, I Basu, L Scandiuzzi, P Asp, C Guha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663171/concise-review-lessons-from-na%C3%A3-ve-human-pluripotent-cells
#16
Carol B Ware
The naïve state of pluripotency is actively being explored by a number of labs. There is some controversy in the field as to the true identity of naïve human pluripotent cells as they are not exact mirrors of the mouse. The various reports published, although in basic agreement, present discrepancies in the characterization of the various lines, which likely reflect the etiology of these lines. The primary lesson learned from these contributions is that a human naïve state reflecting the preimplantation human is likely to exist...
September 24, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660325/tankyrase-inhibition-promotes-a-stable-human-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotent-state-with-improved-functionality
#17
Ludovic Zimmerlin, Tea Soon Park, Jeffrey S Huo, Karan Verma, Sarshan R Pather, C Conover Talbot, Jasmin Agarwal, Diana Steppan, Yang W Zhang, Michael Considine, Hong Guo, Xiufeng Zhong, Christian Gutierrez, Leslie Cope, M Valeria Canto-Soler, Alan D Friedman, Stephen B Baylin, Elias T Zambidis
The derivation and maintenance of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in stable naïve pluripotent states has a wide impact in human developmental biology. However, hPSCs are unstable in classical naïve mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) WNT and MEK/ERK signal inhibition (2i) culture. We show that a broad repertoire of conventional hESC and transgene-independent human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines could be reverted to stable human preimplantation inner cell mass (ICM)-like naïve states with only WNT, MEK/ERK, and tankyrase inhibition (LIF-3i)...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616590/primed-for-success-oyster-parents-treated-with-poly-i-c-produce-offspring-with-enhanced-protection-against-ostreid-herpesvirus-type-i-infection
#18
Timothy J Green, Karla Helbig, Peter Speck, David A Raftos
The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is farmed globally. Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1) causes severe mortalities of farmed C. gigas. Management of OsHV-1 has proven difficult. Oysters treated with poly(I:C) exhibit enhanced protection (EP) against OsHV-1. This chemical treatment is highly effective, but it is not feasible to treat every oyster on a farm. To circumvent this practical limitation, previous studies on arthropods have suggested that EP can be transferred from parents to their offspring (trans-generational EP, TGEP)...
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585862/mammalian-brain-development-is-accompanied-by-a-dramatic-increase-in-bipolar-dna-methylation
#19
Ming-An Sun, Zhixiong Sun, Xiaowei Wu, Veena Rajaram, David Keimig, Jessica Lim, Hongxiao Zhu, Hehuang Xie
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism critical for tissue development and cell specification. Mammalian brains consist of many different types of cells with assumedly distinct DNA methylation profiles, and thus some genomic loci may demonstrate bipolar DNA methylation pattern, i.e. hypermethylated in one cell subset but hypomethylated in others. Currently, how extensive methylation patterns vary among brain cells is unknown and bipolar methylated genomic loci remain largely unexplored. In this study, we implemented a procedure to infer cell-subset specific methylated (CSM) loci from the methylomes of human and mouse frontal cortices at different developmental stages...
September 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563304/epigenetic-control-of-defense-signaling-and-priming-in-plants
#20
REVIEW
Nino A Espinas, Hidetoshi Saze, Yusuke Saijo
Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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