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Epigenetic priming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226238/defense-priming-an-adaptive-part-of-induced-resistance
#1
Brigitte Mauch-Mani, Ivan Baccelli, Estrella Luna, Victor Flors
Priming is an adaptive strategy that improves the defensive capacity of plants. This phenomenon is marked by an enhanced activation of induced defense mechanisms. Stimuli from pathogens, beneficial microbes, or arthropods, as well as chemicals and abiotic cues, can trigger the establishment of priming by acting as warning signals. Upon stimulus perception, changes may occur in the plant at the physiological, transcriptional, metabolic, and epigenetic levels. This phase is called the priming phase. Upon subsequent challenge, the plant effectively mounts a faster and/or stronger defense response that defines the postchallenge primed state and results in increased resistance and/or stress tolerance...
February 2, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192409/melanocyte-transformation-requires-complete-loss-of-all-pocket-protein-function-via-a-mechanism-that-mitigates-the-need-for-mapk-pathway-activation
#2
I D Tonks, P Mukhopadhyay, W A Schroder, A Sorolla, A W Mould, H Y Handoko, B Ferguson, H K Muller, P Keith, N K Hayward, G J Walker, G F Kay
Deregulation of p16INK4A is a critical event in melanoma susceptibility and progression. It is generally assumed that the major effect of loss of p16 function is mediated through the CDK-cyclin pathway via its influence on the pocket protein (PP) pRb. However, there are also two other PPs, p107 and p130, which, when phosphorylated by CDK-cyclin complexes, play a role in permitting cell progression. Cohorts of mice carrying melanocyte-specific knockouts (KOs) of various combinations of the three PPs were generated...
February 13, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185904/chromatin-priming-of-genes-in-development-concepts-mechanisms-and-consequences
#3
REVIEW
Constanze Bonifer, Peter N Cockerill
During ontogeny, cells progress through multiple alternate differentiation states by activating distinct gene regulatory networks. In this review we highlight the important role of chromatin priming in facilitating gene activation during lineage specification and in maintaining an epigenetic memory of previous gene activation. We describe that chromatin priming is part of a hugely diverse repertoire of regulatory mechanisms that genes use to ensure that they are expressed at the correct time, in the correct cell type, at the correct level, but also that they react to signals...
February 6, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174112/epigenetic-basis-of-the-dark-side-of-alcohol-addiction
#4
REVIEW
Subhash C Pandey, Evan Kyzar, Huaibo Zhang
Alcoholism is a complex brain disease characterized by three distinct stages of the addiction cycle that manifest as neuroadaptive changes in the brain. One such stage of the addiction cycle is alcohol withdrawal and the negative affective states that promote drinking and maintain addiction. Repeated alcohol use, genetic predisposition to alcoholism and anxiety, and alcohol exposure during crucial developmental periods all contribute to the development of alcohol-induced withdrawal and negative affective symptoms...
February 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173760/grandparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#5
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic changes in response to environmental influences can persist from one generation into the next. In many systems parental parasite experience influences offspring immune responses, known as transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP in vertebrates is mainly maternal and short-term, supporting the adaptive immune system of the offspring during its maturation. However, if fathers and offspring have a close physical connection, evolution of additional paternal immune priming can be adaptive...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169291/hotspots-of-aberrant-enhancer-activity-punctuate-the-colorectal-cancer-epigenome
#6
Andrea J Cohen, Alina Saiakhova, Olivia Corradin, Jennifer M Luppino, Katreya Lovrenert, Cynthia F Bartels, James J Morrow, Stephen C Mack, Gursimran Dhillon, Lydia Beard, Lois Myeroff, Matthew F Kalady, Joseph Willis, James E Bradner, Ruth A Keri, Nathan A Berger, Shondra M Pruett-Miller, Sanford D Markowitz, Peter C Scacheri
In addition to mutations in genes, aberrant enhancer element activity at non-coding regions of the genome is a key driver of tumorigenesis. Here, we perform epigenomic enhancer profiling of a cohort of more than forty genetically diverse human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. Using normal colonic crypt epithelium as a comparator, we identify enhancers with recurrently gained or lost activity across CRC specimens. Of the enhancers highly recurrently activated in CRC, most are constituents of super enhancers, are occupied by AP-1 and cohesin complex members, and originate from primed chromatin...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157493/soil-primes-the-seed-epigenetic-landscape-drives-tumor-behavior
#7
Ramon J Whitson, Anthony E Oro
Whether invasive tumor phenotypes like EMT arise from oncogenic drivers or from priming of the pre-tumor cell of origin remains unknown. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Latil et al. (2017) show that the pre-tumor niche establishes a chromatin state predisposing squamous cell carcinomas to undergo EMT and metastasis, suggesting that the pre-tumor epigenome has prognostic value.
February 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149332/the-immunomodulatory-anticancer-agent-rrx-001-induces-an-interferon-response-through-epigenetic-induction-of-viral-mimicry
#8
Hongjuan Zhao, Shoucheng Ning, Rosalie Nolley, Jan Scicinski, Bryan Oronsky, Susan J Knox, Donna M Peehl
BACKGROUND: RRx-001, a dinitroazetidine derivative, is a novel anticancer agent currently in phase II clinical trials. It mediates immunomodulatory effects either directly through polarization of tumor associated macrophages or indirectly through vascular normalization and increased T-lymphocyte infiltration. With multiple additional mechanisms of action including upregulation of oxidative stress, depletion of GSH and NADPH, anti-angiogenesis and epigenetic modulation, RRx-001 is being studied as a radio- and chemo-sensitizer to resensitize tumors to prior therapy and to prime tumors to respond to radiation, chemotherapy and immunotherapy in combination therapy studies...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143843/formative-pluripotency-the-executive-phase-in-a-developmental-continuum
#9
REVIEW
Austin Smith
The regulative capability of single cells to give rise to all primary embryonic lineages is termed pluripotency. Observations of fluctuating gene expression and phenotypic heterogeneity in vitro have fostered a conception of pluripotency as an intrinsically metastable and precarious state. However, in the embryo and in defined culture environments the properties of pluripotent cells change in an orderly sequence. Two phases of pluripotency, called naïve and primed, have previously been described. In this Hypothesis article, a third phase, called formative pluripotency, is proposed to exist as part of a developmental continuum between the naïve and primed phases...
February 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128194/a-molecular-roadmap-for-induced-multi-lineage-trans-differentiation-of-fibroblasts-by-chemical-combinations
#10
Xiaoping Han, Hao Yu, Daosheng Huang, Yang Xu, Assieh Saadatpour, Xia Li, Lengmei Wang, Jie Yu, Luca Pinello, Shujing Lai, Mengmeng Jiang, Xueying Tian, Fen Zhang, Yanhong Cen, Yuko Fujiwara, Wei Zhu, Bin Zhou, Tianhua Zhou, Hongwei Ouyang, Jianan Wang, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Shumin Duan, Stuart H Orkin, Guoji Guo
Recent advances have demonstrated the power of small molecules in promoting cellular reprogramming. Yet, the full potential of such chemicals in cell fate manipulation and the underlying mechanisms require further characterization. Through functional screening assays, we find that mouse embryonic fibroblast cells can be induced to trans-differentiate into a wide range of somatic lineages simultaneously by treatment with a combination of four chemicals. Genomic analysis of the process indicates activation of multi-lineage modules and relaxation of epigenetic silencing programs...
January 27, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111014/tethered-oligonucleotide-primed-sequencing-top-seq-a-high-resolution-economical-approach-for-dna-epigenome-profiling
#11
Zdislav Staševskij, Povilas Gibas, Juozas Gordevičius, Edita Kriukienė, Saulius Klimašauskas
Modification of CG dinucleotides in DNA is part of epigenetic regulation of gene function in vertebrates and is associated with complex human disease. Bisulfite sequencing permits high-resolution analysis of cytosine modification in mammalian genomes; however, its utility is often limited due to substantial cost. Here, we describe an alternative epigenome profiling approach, named TOP-seq, which is based on covalent tagging of individual unmodified CG sites followed by non-homologous priming of the DNA polymerase action at these sites to directly produce adjoining regions for their sequencing and precise genomic mapping...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105774/stiffness-controlled-thermoresponsive-hydrogels-for-cell-harvesting-with-sustained-mechanical-memory
#12
Xingliang Fan, Lu Zhu, Ke Wang, Bingjie Wang, Yaozu Wu, Wei Xie, Chengyu Huang, Barbara Pui Chan, Yanan Du
Most mechanobiological investigations focused on in situ mechanical regulation of cells on stiffness-controlled substrates with few downstream applications, as it is still challenging to harvest and expand mechanically primed cells by enzymatic digestion (e.g., trypsin) without interrupting cellular mechanical memory between passages. This study develops thermoresponsive hydrogels with controllable stiffness to generate mechanically primed cells with intact mechanical memory for augmented wound healing. No significant cellular property alteration of the fibroblasts primed on thermoresponsive hydrogels with varied stiffness has been observed through thermoresponsive harvesting...
January 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089671/pdgfr%C3%AE-cells-in-embryonic-stem-cell-cultures-represent-the-in%C3%A2-vitro-equivalent-of-the-pre-implantation-primitive-endoderm-precursors
#13
Antonio Lo Nigro, Anchel de Jaime-Soguero, Rita Khoueiry, Dong Seong Cho, Giorgia Maria Ferlazzo, Ilaria Perini, Vanesa Abon Escalona, Xabier Lopez Aranguren, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Kian Peng Koh, Pier Giulio Conaldi, Wei-Shou Hu, An Zwijsen, Frederic Lluis, Catherine M Verfaillie
In early mouse pre-implantation development, primitive endoderm (PrE) precursors are platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) positive. Here, we demonstrated that cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) express PDGFRα heterogeneously, fluctuating between a PDGFRα+ (PrE-primed) and a platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1)-positive state (epiblast-primed). The two surface markers can be co-detected on a third subpopulation, expressing epiblast and PrE determinants (double-positive)...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076901/nuclear-factor-one-transcription-factors-as-epigenetic-regulators-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Mitchell Fane, Lachlan Harris, Aaron G Smith, Michael Piper
Tumour heterogeneity poses a distinct obstacle to therapeutic intervention. While the initiation of tumours across various physiological systems is frequently associated with signature mutations in genes that drive proliferation and bypass senescence, increasing evidence suggests that tumour progression and clonal diversity is driven at an epigenetic level. The tumour microenvironment plays a key role in driving diversity as cells adapt to demands during tumour growth, and is thought to drive certain subpopulations back to a stem cell-like state...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065711/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-male-pheromone-priming-and-optogenetic-inhibition-of-accessory-olfactory-bulb-forebrain-inputs-on-the-sexual-behavior-of-estrous-female-mice
#15
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Tenzin Kunkhyen, Wayne J Korzan, Ajay Naik, Arman Maqsudlu, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
Previous research has shown that repeated testing with a stimulus male is required for ovariectomized, hormone-primed female mice to become sexually receptive (show maximal lordosis quotients; LQs) and that drug-induced, epigenetic enhancement of estradiol receptor function accelerated the improvement in LQs otherwise shown by estrous females with repeated testing. We asked whether pre-exposure to male pheromones ('pheromone priming') would also accelerate the improvement in LQs with repeated tests and whether optogenetic inhibition of accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) projection neurons could inhibit lordosis in sexually experienced estrous female mice...
January 5, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064082/novel-flavonol-analogues-as-potential-inhibitors-of-jmjd3-histone-demethylase-a-study-based-on-molecular-modelling
#16
Sanchari Basu Mallik, Aravinda Pai, Rekha R Shenoy, B S Jayashree
Epigenetic modulation of gene expression has drawn enormous attention among researchers globally in the present scenario. Since their discovery, Jmj-C histone demethylases were identified as useful markers in understanding the role of epigenetics in inflammatory conditions and in cancer as well. This has created arousal of interest in search of suitable candidates. Potential inhibitors from various other scaffolds such as hydroxyquinolines, hydroxamic acids and triazolopyridines have already been identified and reported...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059702/cdk-regulated-dimerization-of-m18bp1-on-a-mis18-hexamer-is-necessary-for-cenp-a-loading
#17
Dongqing Pan, Kerstin Klare, Arsen Petrovic, Annika Take, Kai Walstein, Priyanka Singh, Arnaud Rondelet, Alexander W Bird, Andrea Musacchio
Centromeres are unique chromosomal loci that promote the assembly of kinetochores, macromolecular complexes that bind spindle microtubules during mitosis. In most organisms, centromeres lack defined genetic features. Rather, they are specified epigenetically by a centromere-specific histone H3 variant, CENP-A. The Mis18 complex, comprising the Mis18α:Mis18β subcomplex and M18BP1, is crucial for CENP-A homeostasis. It recruits the CENP-A-specific chaperone HJURP to centromeres and primes it for CENP-A loading...
January 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059436/the-bet-bromodomain-inhibitor-jq1-suppresses-chondrosarcoma-cell-growth-via-regulation-of-yap-p21-c-myc-signaling
#18
Huan-Tian Zhang, Tao Gui, Yuan Sang, Jie Yang, Yu-Hang Li, Gui-Hong Liang, Thomas Li, Qing-Yu He, Zhen-Gang Zha
Chondrosarcoma, the second-most frequent primary bone malignancy, is generally more resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore, the development of an effective adjuvant therapy is necessary. Recently, targeting the epigenetic regulator such as bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins has achieved great success. For instance, the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 has been shown to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Herein we demonstrated that JQ1 significantly inhibited chondrosarcoma cell growth and colony formation...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057215/the-role-of-epigenetic-regulation-in-transcriptional-memory-in-the-immune-system
#19
A M Woodworth, A F Holloway
The immune system is exquisitely poised to identify, respond to, and eradicate pathogens from the body, as well as to produce a more rapid and augmented response to a subsequent encounter with the pathogen. These cellular responses rely on the highly coordinated and rapid activation of gene expression programs as well as the ability of the cell to retain a memory of the initial gene response. It is clear that chromatin structure and epigenetic mechanisms play a crucial role in determining these gene responses, and in fact the immune system has proved an instructive model for investigating the multifaceted mechanisms through which the chromatin landscape contributes to gene expression programs...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026028/chromatin-priming-elements-establish-immunological-memory-in-t-cells-without-activating-transcription-t-cell-memory-is-maintained-by-dna-elements-which-stably-prime-inducible-genes-without-activating-steady-state-transcription
#20
Sarah L Bevington, Pierre Cauchy, Peter N Cockerill
We have identified a simple epigenetic mechanism underlying the establishment and maintenance of immunological memory in T cells. By studying the transcriptional regulation of inducible genes we found that a single cycle of activation of inducible factors is sufficient to initiate stable binding of pre-existing transcription factors to thousands of newly activated distal regulatory elements within inducible genes. These events lead to the creation of islands of active chromatin encompassing nearby enhancers, thereby supporting the accelerated activation of inducible genes, without changing steady state levels of transcription in memory T cells...
December 27, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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