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Reactive oxygen species bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899535/a-tomato-universal-stress-protein-involved-in-oxidative-stress-is-a-cipk6-phosphorylation-target
#1
Emilio Gutierrez-Beltran, José María Personat, Fernando N de la Torre, Olga Del Pozo
Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) decode calcium signals upon interaction with the calcium sensors calcineurin B like proteins (CBLs) into phosphorylation events that result into adaptation to environmental stresses. Few phosphorylation targets of CIPKs are known and therefore the molecular mechanisms underlying their downstream output responses are not fully understood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cipk6 regulates immune and susceptible Programmed cell death (PCD) in immunity transforming Ca2+ signals into Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) signaling...
November 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893752/effect-of-butyrate-on-collagen-expression-cell-viability-cell-cycle-progression-and-related-proteins-expression-of-mg-63-osteoblastic-cells
#2
Mei-Chi Chang, Yi-Ling Tsai, Eric Jein-Wein Liou, Chia-Mei Tang, Tong-Mei Wang, Hsin-Cheng Liu, Ming-Wei Liao, Sin-Yuet Yeung, Chiu-Po Chan, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
AIMS: Butyric acid is one major metabolic product generated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria of periodontal and root canal infection. Butyric acid affects the activity of periodontal cells such as osteoblasts. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of butyrate on MG-63 osteoblasts. METHODS: MG-63 cells were exposed to butyrate and cell viability was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The mRNA and protein expression of type I collagen and cell cycle-related proteins were measured by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting or immunofluorescent staining...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884621/photoantimicrobials-are-we-afraid-of-the-light
#3
REVIEW
Mark Wainwright, Tim Maisch, Santi Nonell, Kristjan Plaetzer, Adelaide Almeida, George P Tegos, Michael R Hamblin
Although conventional antimicrobial drugs have been viewed as miraculous cure-alls for the past 80 years, increasing antimicrobial drug resistance requires a major and rapid intervention. However, the development of novel but still conventional systemic antimicrobial agents, having only a single mode or site of action, will not alleviate the situation because it is probably only a matter of time until any such agents will also become ineffective. To continue to produce new agents based on this notion is unacceptable, and there is an increasing need for alternative approaches to the problem...
November 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878107/imaging-the-nadh-nad-homeostasis-for-understanding-the-metabolic-response-of-mycobacterium-to-physiologically-relevant-stresses
#4
Shabir A Bhat, Iram K Iqbal, Ashwani Kumar
The NADH:NAD(+) ratio is the primary indicator of the metabolic state of bacteria. NAD(H) homeostasis is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival and is thus considered an important drug target, but the spatio-temporal measurements of NAD(H) remain a challenge. Genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors of the NADH:NAD(+) ratios were recently described, paving the way for investigations of the metabolic state of pathogens during infection. Here we have adapted the genetically encoded biosensor Peredox for measurement of the metabolic state of Mtb in vitro and during infection of macrophage cells...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872278/reconstitution-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteostasis-network-highlights-essential-cofactor-interactions-with-chaperone-dnak
#5
Tania J Lupoli, Allison Fay, Carolina Adura, Michael S Glickman, Carl F Nathan
During host infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounters several types of stress that impair protein integrity, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and chemotherapy. The resulting protein aggregates can be resolved or degraded by molecular machinery conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes. Eukaryotic Hsp104/Hsp70 and their bacterial homologs ClpB/DnaK are ATP-powered chaperones that restore toxic protein aggregates to a native folded state. DnaK is essential in Mycobacterium smegmatis, and ClpB is involved in asymmetrically distributing damaged proteins during cell division as a mechanism of survival in Mtb, commending both proteins as potential drug targets...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871794/accessory-subunit-nuym-ndufs4-is-required-for-stability-of-the-electron-input-module-and-activity-of-mitochondrial-complex-i
#6
Flora Kahlhöfer, Katarzyna Kmita, Ilka Wittig, Klaus Zwicker, Volker Zickermann
Mitochondrial complex I is an intricate 1MDa membrane protein complex with a central role in aerobic energy metabolism. The minimal form of complex I consists of fourteen central subunits that are conserved from bacteria to man. In addition, eukaryotic complex I comprises some 30 accessory subunits of largely unknown function. The gene for the accessory NDUFS4 subunit of human complex I is a hot spot for fatal pathogenic mutations in humans. We have deleted the gene for the orthologous NUYM subunit in the aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, an established model system to study eukaryotic complex I and complex I linked diseases...
November 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869109/effect-of-red-dyes-on-blue-light-phototoxicity-against-vsc-producing-bacteria-in-an-experimental-oral-biofilm
#7
U Jeffet, R Nasrallah, N Sterer
Oral malodour is considered to be caused mainly by the production of volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by anaerobic Gram-negative oral bacteria. Previous study showed that these bacteria were susceptible to blue light (wavelengths of 400-500 nm). In the present study, we tested the effect of blue light in the presence of red dyes on malodour production in an experimental oral biofilm. Biofilms were exposed to a plasma-arc light source for 30, 60, and 120 s (i.e. fluences of 41, 82, and 164 J cm(-2), respectively) with the addition of erythrosine, natural red and rose bengal (0...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867387/neutrophils-discriminate-between-lipopolysaccharides-of-different-bacterial-sources-and-selectively-release-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#8
Elmar Pieterse, Nils Rother, Cansu Yanginlar, Luuk B Hilbrands, Johan van der Vlag
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), either during "suicidal" or "vital" NETosis, represents an important strategy of neutrophils to combat Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a reported stimulus for NET formation. Although it is widely acknowledged that the structural diversity in LPS structures can elicit heterogeneous immune responses, species- and serotype-specific differences in the capacity of LPS to trigger NET formation have not yet been investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866220/molecular-basis-of-mycobacterial-survival-in-macrophages
#9
REVIEW
Jane Atesoh Awuh, Trude Helen Flo
Macrophages play an essential role in the immune system by ingesting and degrading invading pathogens, initiating an inflammatory response and instructing adaptive immune cells, and resolving inflammation to restore homeostasis. More interesting is the fact that some bacteria have evolved to use macrophages as a natural habitat and tools of spread in the host, e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and some non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Mtb is considered one of humanity's most successful pathogens and is the causal agent of tuberculosis, while NTMs cause opportunistic infections all of which are of significant public health concern...
November 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856417/the-probiotic-mixture-vsl-3-reduces-colonic-inflammation-and-improves-intestinal-barrier-function-in-muc2-mucin-deficient-mice
#10
Manish Kumar, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, Aralia Leon Coria, France Moreau, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is the major glycoprotein in colonic mucus that separates intestinal microbiota from underlying host cells and serves as a food source for some eubacteria. MUC2 deficiency results in impaired epithelial barrier function, imbalance in gut microbiota and spontaneous colitis. Use of probiotics has been shown to have protective effect against colitis. In this study we tested whether the probiotic mixture VSL#3 required an intact mucin barrier to exert its beneficial effect using Muc2 mucin deficient (Muc2(-/-)) and Muc2(+/+) littermates...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856328/the-therapeutic-potential-of-iron-targeting-gallium-compounds-in-human-disease-from-basic-research-to-clinical-application
#11
REVIEW
Christopher R Chitambar
Gallium, group IIIa metal, shares certain chemical characteristics with iron which enable it to function as an iron mimetic that can disrupt iron-dependent tumor cell growth. Gallium may also display antimicrobial activity by disrupting iron homeostasis in certain bacteria and fungi. Gallium's action on iron homeostasis leads to inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase, mitochondrial function, and changes in proteins of iron transport and storage. In addition, gallium induces an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in cells which triggers downstream upregulation of metallothionein and hemoxygenase-1...
November 14, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845185/interfacial-assembly-at-silver-nanoparticle-enhances-the-antibacterial-efficacy-of-nisin
#12
Manoranjan Arakha, Sapna M Borah, Mohammed Saleem, Anupam N Jha, Suman Jha
Nisin is a well-recognised antimicrobial peptide (AMP) used in food industry. However, efficacy of the peptide has been compromised due to development of resistance in different bacterial strains. Here, efficacy of the peptide upon assembly at a silver nanoparticle (AgNP) interface has been characterized. To this end, experimental and simulation studies are done to characterize the interfacial assembly of nisin and underlie antibacterial mechanism. Being an AMP, efficacy of an intact nisin is explored against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and compared with antibacterial propensity of the interfacially assembled nisin...
November 11, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829349/cytotoxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-against-bacteria-and-tumor-cells
#13
Tianyuan Shi, Xuesong Sun, Qing-Yu He
With the rapid increase of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activities have been widely applied in the treatment of bacterial infection. Meanwhile, AgNPs also have anticancer activities to different cell lines. The toxic effects of AgNPs depend on concentration, size, shape, coated materials and surrounding environments. In order to better understand the antibacterial and antitumor effects of AgNPs, various investigations have been carried out to uncover the molecular mechanism of action...
November 7, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823777/a-mechanistic-study-of-tio2-nanoparticle-toxicity-on-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1-with-uv-containing-simulated-solar-irradiation-bacterial-growth-riboflavin-secretion-and-gene-expression
#14
Tian A Qiu, Ben M Meyer, Ky G Christenson, Rebecca D Klaper, Christy L Haynes
Toxicity of nanomaterials to ecological systems has recently emerged as an important field of research, and thus, many researchers are exploring the mechanisms of how nanoparticles impact organisms. Herein, we probe the mechanisms of bacteria-nanoparticle interaction by investigating how TiO2 nanoparticles impact a model organism, the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. In addition to examining the effect of TiO2 exposure, the effect of synergistic simulated solar irradiation containing UV was explored in this study, as TiO2 nanoparticles are known photocatalysts...
November 4, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815998/activation-of-biologically-relevant-levels-of-reactive-oxygen-species-by-au-g-c3n4-hybrid-nanozyme-for-bacteria-killing-and-wound-disinfection
#15
Zhenzhen Wang, Kai Dong, Zhen Liu, Yan Zhang, Zhaowei Chen, Hanjun Sun, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
As common reactive oxygen species, H2O2 is widely used for bacterial inactivation and wound disinfection. However, the concentrations used are always higher than physiological levels, which frequently result in potential toxicity to healthy tissue and even delay wound healing. Here we report highly efficient nanozyme hybrids that are capable of activating biologically relevant concentrations of H2O2 for defending bacterial infections. The integration of AuNPs with ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) provides excellent peroxidase-activity, which can catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to OH radicals much more efficiently, allowing the use of bio-safety levels of H2O2 for the first time...
October 28, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811301/barnacle-biology-before-during-and-after-settlement-and-metamorphosis-a-study-of-the-interface
#16
Tara Essock-Burns, Neeraj V Gohad, Beatriz Orihuela, Andrew S Mount, Christopher M Spillmann, Kathryn J Wahl, Daniel Rittschof
Mobile barnacle cypris larvae settle and metamorphose, transitioning to sessile juveniles with morphology and growth similar to adults. Because biofilms exist on immersed surfaces on which they attach, barnacles must interact with bacteria during initial attachment and subsequent growth. The objective of this study was to characterize the developing interface of the barnacle and substratum during this key developmental transition to inform potential mechanisms that promote attachment. The interface was characterized using confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes to identify morphological and chemical changes in the interface and the status of bacteria present as a function of barnacle developmental stage...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802316/chemical-characterization-and-antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-south-brazilian-organic-propolis
#17
Ana Paula Tiveron, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Marcelo Franchin, Risia Cristina Coelho Lacerda, Bruno Bueno-Silva, Bruna Benso, Carina Denny, Masaharu Ikegaki, Severino Matias de Alencar
South Brazilian organic propolis (OP), which has never been studied before, was assessed and its chemical composition, scavenging potential of reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are herein presented. Based on the chemical profile obtained using HPLC, OP was grouped into seven variants (OP1-OP7) and all of them exhibited high scavenging activity, mainly against superoxide and hypochlorous acid species. OP1, OP2, and OP3 had the smallest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus aureus (12...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798950/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri-periplasmic-proteins-reveals-changes-in-cellular-envelope-metabolism-during-in-vitro-pathogenicity-induction
#18
Juliana Artier, Flávia da Silva Zandonadi, Flávia Maria de Souza Carvalho, Bianca Alves Pauletti, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Carolina Moretto Carnielli, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre de Araujo, Maria Célia Bertolini, Jesus Aparecido Ferro, José Belasque Júnior, Julio Cezar Franco de Oliveira, Maria Teresa Marques Novo-Mansur
Citrus canker is a plant disease caused by gram-negative bacteria from the genus Xanthomonas, and the most virulent species is Xanthomonas citri subsp.citri (XAC), which attacks a wide range of citrus hosts. Differential proteomic analysis of periplasm-enriched fraction was performed for XAC cells grown in pathogenicity-inducing (XAM-M) and pathogenicity non-inducing (NB) media, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the 40 proteins identified, transglycosylase was detected in a highly abundant spot in XAC cells grown under inducing condition...
October 31, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798344/obese-mice-fed-a-diet-supplemented-with-enzyme-treated-wheat-bran-display-marked-shifts-in-the-liver-metabolome-concurrent-with-altered-gut-bacteria
#19
Dorothy A Kieffer, Brian D Piccolo, Maria L Marco, Eun Bae Kim, Michael L Goodson, Michael J Keenan, Tamara N Dunn, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen, Sean H Adams, Roy J Martin
BACKGROUND: Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) contains a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides (TGs) and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding affects hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., xenometabolites) associated with specific microbes may be involved. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize ETWB-driven shifts in the cecal microbiome and to identify correlates between microbial changes and diet-related differences in liver metabolism in diet-induced obese mice that typically display steatosis...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795369/combined-systems-approaches-reveal-a-multistage-mode-of-action-of-a-marine-antimicrobial-peptide-against-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-protective-effect-against-bacterial-peritonitis-and-endotoxemia
#20
Xiumin Wang, Da Teng, Ruoyu Mao, Na Yang, Ya Hao, Jianhua Wang
A marine arenicin-3 derivative N4 displayed potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, but its antibacterial mode of action remains elusive. The mechanism of action of N4 against pathogenic Escherichia coli was first researched by combined cytological and transcriptomic techniques in this study. The N4 peptide permeabilized the outer membrane within 1 min, disrupted the plasma membrane after 0.5 h, and localized the cytoplasm within 5 min. Gel retardation and CD spectra analyses demonstrated that N4 bound specifically to DNA and disrupted the DNA conformation from the B- to C-type...
October 24, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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