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Epigenetics anaplasma

Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Pilar Alberdi, Nieves Ayllón, James J Valdés, Raymond Pierce, Margarita Villar, José de la Fuente
Epigenetic mechanisms have not been characterized in ticks despite their importance as vectors of human and animal diseases worldwide. The objective of this study was to characterize the histones and histone modifying enzymes (HMEs) of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and their role during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. We first identified 5 histones and 34 HMEs in I. scapularis in comparison with similar proteins in model organisms. Then, we used transcriptomic and proteomic data to analyze the mRNA and protein levels of I...
April 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Kristen E Rennoll-Bankert, Jose C Garcia-Garcia, Sara H Sinclair, J Stephen Dumler
Control of host epigenetics is becoming evident as a mechanism by which symbionts and pathogens survive. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, down-regulates multiple host defence genes where histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) binds and histone 3 is deacetylated at their promoters, including the NADPH oxidase component, CYBB. How HDAC1 is targeted to defence gene promoters is unknown. Ankyrin A (AnkA), an A. phagocytophilum type IV secretion system effector, enters the granulocyte nucleus, binds stretches of AT-rich DNA and alters transcription of antimicrobial defence genes, including down-regulation of CYBB...
November 2015: Cellular Microbiology
Sara H Sinclair, Kristen E Rennoll-Bankert, J S Dumler
Obligate intracellular pathogenic bacteria evolved to manipulate their host cells with a limited range of proteins constrained by their compact genomes. The harsh environment of a phagocytic defense cell is one that challenges the majority of commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet, these are the obligatory vertebrate homes for important pathogenic species in the Anaplasmataceae family. Survival requires that the parasite fundamentally alter the native functions of the cell to allow its entry, intracellular replication, and transmission to a hematophagous arthropod...
2014: Frontiers in Genetics
Kristen E Rennoll-Bankert, J Stephen Dumler
Bacterial pathogens can alter global host gene expression via histone modifications and chromatin remodeling in order to subvert host responses, including those involved with innate immunity, allowing for bacterial survival. Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum express effector proteins that modify host histones and chromatin structure. A. phagocytophilum modulates granulocyte respiratory burst in part by dampening transcription of several key phagocyte oxidase genes...
October 2012: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Jose C Garcia-Garcia, Nicole C Barat, Sarah J Trembley, J Stephen Dumler
Intracellular bacteria have evolved mechanisms that promote survival within hostile host environments, often resulting in functional dysregulation and disease. Using the Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected granulocyte model, we establish a link between host chromatin modifications, defense gene transcription and intracellular bacterial infection. Infection of THP-1 cells with A. phagocytophilum led to silencing of host defense gene expression. Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) expression, activity and binding to the defense gene promoters significantly increased during infection, which resulted in decreased histone H3 acetylation in infected cells...
June 2009: PLoS Pathogens
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