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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458218/effects-of-curcuminoids-plus-piperine-on-glycemic-hepatic-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Yunes Panahi, Nahid Khalili, Ebrahim Sahebi, Soha Namazi, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
INTRODUCTION: Curcuminoids have been shown to reduce glycemia and related complications in diabetes. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of curcuminoids plus piperine administration on glycemic, hepatic and inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. METHODS: T2D patients aged 18-65 years were enrolled in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and randomly allocated to standard-of-care treatment and dietary advises plus either curcuminoids (daily dose of 500 mg/day co-administered with piperine 5 mg/day) or placebo for a period of 3 months...
February 19, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458085/the-effect-of-surface-charge-and-ph-on-the-physiological-behaviour-of-cobalt-copper-manganese-antimony-zinc-and-titanium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-vitro
#2
Tiina Titma
The precise knowledge on various interactions of metal nanoparticles (NP) in a living organism is scarce. It is expected that metals can bind to nucleic acids, peptides and proteins (e.g. enzymes), and modify the functioning of vital cellular compartments after entering the organism. The predictive factors for quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) analysis could enhance efficient and harmless usage of nanoparticles (NPs) in the industry as well in the medicine. The studies value the composition of the NP corona determined by time, temperature and source of protein which has been found to implicate the physiological behaviour of NPs...
February 16, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458023/structural-characterization-of-the-hcov-229e-fusion-core
#3
Wei Zhang, Qianqian Zheng, Mengrong Yan, Xiaobo Chen, Haitao Yang, Weihong Zhou, Zihe Rao
HCoV-229E spike (S) protein mediates virion attachment to cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This protein is composed of an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (S1) and a C-terminal trans-membrane fusion domain (S2). S2 contains a highly conserved heptad repeat 1 and 2 (HR1 and HR2). In this study, the HRs sequences were designed and connected with a flexible linker. The recombinant fusion core protein was crystallized and its structure was solved at a resolution of 2.45 Å. Then we characterized the binding of HR1s and HR2s via both sequence alignment and structural analysis...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457529/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-associated-with-2-year-mortality-from-both-cardiovascular-and-non-cardiovascular-origins-in-prevalent-chronic-hemodialysis-patients
#4
Chihiro Kawagoe, Yuji Sato, Tatsunori Toida, Hideto Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Yamashita, Akihiro Fukuda, Shuji Iwatsubo, Shouichi Fujimoto
N-terminal-pro-B-type-natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was a predictive marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related death in chronic dialysis patients. NT-proBNP was also correlated with markers of inflammation, malnutrition and protein-energy wasting. We hypothesized whether NT-proBNP was also associated with non-CVD death in chronic dialysis patients. A prospective observational study for incidence of death in chronic dialysis patients was conducted. Prevalent chronic dialysis patients (n = 1310) were enrolled and followed for 24 months...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457462/determination-of-site-specific-phosphorylation-ratios-in-proteins-with-targeted-mass-spectrometry
#5
Lennard J M Dekker, Lona Zeneyedpour, Sandor Snoeijers, Jos Joore, Sieger Leenstra, Theo M Luider
We show that parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) can be used for exact quantification of phosphorylation ratios of proteins using stable isotope labelled peptides. We have compared two different PRM approaches on a digest of a U87 cell culture, namely direct-PRM (tryptic digest measured by PRM without any further sample preparation) and TiO2-PRM (tryptic digest enriched with TiO2 cartridges, followed by PRM measurement); these approaches are compared for the following phosphorylation sites: Neuroblast differentiation-associated protein (AHNAK S5480-p), Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta (CAMK2D T337-p) and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR S1166-p)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457296/silk-and-silk-like-supramolecular-materials
#6
REVIEW
Tanner D Fink, R Helen Zha
Silk is a source of marvel for centuries as one of nature's high-performance materials. More recently, chemical and structural analysis techniques have helped explore the relationship between silk's properties and its hierarchical structure. Furthermore, recombinant protein engineering as well as polymer and organic synthesis techniques have enabled the production of silk-like materials. It has become apparent that silk is a supramolecular polymer with many of the properties exhibited by well-known synthetic supramolecular materials, such as block copolymers, liquid crystals, thermoplastic elastomers, and self-assembling peptides...
February 19, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457128/evaluation-of-hydrogels-presenting-extracellular-matrix-derived-adhesion-peptides-and-encapsulating-cardiac-progenitor-cells-for-cardiac-repair
#7
Srishti Bhutani, Aline L Y Nachlas, Milton E Brown, Tionne Pete, Christopher T Johnson, Andres J García, Michael E Davis
Cell therapy is an emerging paradigm for the treatment of heart disease. In spite of the exciting and promising preclinical results, the benefits of cell therapy for cardiac repair in patients have been modest at best. Biomaterials-based approaches may overcome the barriers of poor differentiation and retention of transplanted cells. In this study, we prepared and tested hydrogels presenting extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived adhesion peptides as delivery vehicles for c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs)...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456802/hts-by-nmr-for-the-identification-of-potent-and-selective-inhibitors-of-metalloenzymes
#8
Carlo Baggio, Linda Cerofolini, Marco Fragai, Claudio Luchinat, Maurizio Pellecchia
We have recently proposed a novel drug discovery approach based on biophysical screening of focused positional scanning libraries in which each element of the library contained a common binding moiety for the given target or class of targets. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of this approach to target metal containing proteins. In our implementation, we first derived a focused positional scanning combinatorial library of peptide mimetics (of approximately 100,000 compounds) in which each element of the library contained the metal-chelating moiety hydroxamic acid at the C-terminal...
February 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456697/relationship-between-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-expression-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-severity
#9
Qiuling Wang, Jinhuan Wang, Haixia Lin, Xuechen Huo, Qiaoling Zhu, Min Zhang
This study sought to investigate any correlation between fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) expression and the severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In total 110 patients newly diagnosed with T2DM in the outpatient department of Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital between September 2016 and March 2017 were selected as study subjects and were divided into severe (58 cases) and mild groups (52 cases) according to T2DM severity. Patients in the severe group were followed up for 12 weeks. An additional 60 healthy individuals were selected to serve as the normal control group...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456061/the-drosophila-cytokine-gbp-a-model-that-illuminates-the-yin-yang-of-inflammation-and-longevity-in-humans
#10
Stephen B Shears, Yoichi Hayakawa
Our laboratories have determined that the Drosophila cytokine, Growth-blocking peptide (GBP), mediates its biological effects through the Mthl10 G-protein coupled receptor. In this Cytokine Stimulus, we discuss the functional plasticity of the GBP/Mthl10 axis, and we propose that conserved components of this regulatory network may be relevant to human health.
February 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455575/exercise-counteracts-the-homeostatic-decrease-in-thermogenesis-caused-by-caloric-restriction-in-sheep
#11
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Iain J Clarke, Alexandra Rao, Belinda A Henry
Caloric restriction causes a homeostatic reduction in thermogenesis. We aimed to determine whether exercise could counteract this. We studied four groups of normal-weight ewes ( n = 5), including control sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise fed ad libitum (30 min/d, 5 d/wk), diet-restricted (70% of ad libitum food intake), and combined diet and exercise. Temperature probes implanted in sternal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue and skeletal muscle measured thermogenesis. After the 4-wk intervention, hypothalami were collected for in situ hybridization, and fat and muscle biopsies were collected for real-time PCR and Western blotting...
February 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455414/defining-g-protein-coupled-receptor-peptide-ligand-expressomes-and-signalomes-in-human-and-mouse-islets
#12
Patricio Atanes, Inmaculada Ruz-Maldonado, Ross Hawkes, Bo Liu, Min Zhao, Guo Cai Huang, Israa Mohammed Al-Amily, Albert Salehi, Stefan Amisten, Shanta J Persaud
INTRODUCTION: Islets synthesise and secrete numerous peptides, some of which are known to be important regulators of islet function and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we quantified mRNAs encoding all peptide ligands of islet G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in isolated human and mouse islets and carried out in vitro islet hormone secretion studies to provide functional confirmation for the species-specific role of peptide YY (PYY) in mouse islets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GPCR peptide ligand mRNAs in human and mouse islets were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR relative to the reference genes ACTB, GAPDH, PPIA, TBP and TFRC...
February 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455278/a-review-of-the-design-and-modification-of-lactoferricins-and-their-derivatives
#13
Ya Hao, Na Yang, Da Teng, Xiumin Wang, Ruoyu Mao, Jianhua Wang
Lactoferricin (Lfcin), a multifunction short peptide with a length of 25 residues, is derived from the whey protein lactoferrin by acidic pepsin hydrolysis. It has potent nutritional enhancement, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review describes the research advantages of the above biological functions, with attention to the molecular design and modification of Lfcin. In this examination of design and modification studies, research on the identification of Lfcin active derivatives and crucial amino acid residues is also reviewed...
February 17, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455109/dysregulation-of-jak-stat-genes-by-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-vip-in-salmonella-infected-monocytes-may-inhibit-its-therapeutic-potential-in-human-sepsis
#14
Hiba Ibrahim, Basim Askar, Paul Barrow, Neil Foster
Murine/LPS models of Gram negative sepsis indicate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has therapeutic potential. We investigated the unknown effect of VIP on JAK/STAT proteins and genes in human monocytes infected with Salmonella Typhimurium 14028. S. Typhimurium 14028 increased expression of both IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFNγR1) on monocytes but co-culture of infected monocytes with VIP (10-7 M) only decreased expression of IFNγR1 (P < 0.05). In contrast, S. Typhimurium 14028 infection or co-culture with VIP had no effect on IL-10 receptor expression on the monocyte surface...
February 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455106/nonribosomal-peptides-for-iron-acquisition-pyochelin-biosynthesis-as-a-case-study
#15
REVIEW
Trey A Ronnebaum, Audrey L Lamb
Microbes synthesize small, iron-chelating molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from the environment. One way siderophores are generated is by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The bioactive peptides generated by NRPS enzymes have unique chemical features, which are incorporated by accessory and tailoring domains or proteins. The first part of this review summarizes recent progress in NRPS structural biology. The second part uses the biosynthesis of pyochelin, a siderophore from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as a case study to examine enzymatic methods for generating the observed diversity in NRPS-derived natural products...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454855/signalling-pathways-regulating-galactosaminoglycan-synthesis-and-structure-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-implications-for-lipoprotein-binding-and-atherosclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Rizwana Afroz, Yingnan Cao, Muhamad Ashraf Rostam, Hang Ta, Suowen Xu, Wenhua Zheng, Narin Osman, Danielle Kamato, Peter J Little
Atherosclerosis commences with the trapping of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) in blood vessels by modified proteoglycans (PGs) with hyperelongated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. GAG chain synthesis and growth factor mediated hyperelongation regulates the composition and size of PGs in a manner that would cause low density lipoprotein (LDLs) retention in vessel wall. Galactosaminoglycans are a class of GAGs, commonly observed on PGs. Multiple enzymes are involved in galactosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Galactosaminoglycan synthesis is regulated by various signalling pathways which are amenable to pharmacological manipulation to treat atherosclerosis...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454675/targeting-immune-driven-opioid-analgesia-by-sigma-1-receptors-opening-the-door-to-novel-perspectives-for-the-analgesic-use-of-sigma-1-antagonists
#17
Miguel Á Tejada, Ángeles Montilla-García, Rafael González-Cano, Inmaculada Bravo-Caparrós, M Carmen Ruiz-Cantero, Francisco R Nieto, Enrique J Cobos
Immune cells have a known role in pronociception, since they release a myriad of inflammatory algogens which interact with neurons to facilitate pain signaling. However, these cells also produce endogenous opioid peptides with analgesic potential. The sigma-1 receptor is a ligand-operated chaperone that modulates neurotransmission by interacting with multiple protein partners, including the μ-opioid receptor. We recently found that sigma-1 antagonists are able to induce opioid analgesia by enhancing the action of endogenous opioid peptides of immune origin during inflammation...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454581/emerging-roles-of-microglial-cathepsins-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#18
REVIEW
Jessica R Lowry, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia, and its prevalence is expected to increase dramatically due to the aging global population. Microglia-driven neuroinflammation may contribute to the progression of AD. Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), become chronically activated by the pathological proteins of AD including amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Such adversely activated microglia secrete mediators that promote inflammation and damage neurons. Cathepsins are proteases that are expressed by all brain cell types, and most of them are found both intra- and extra-cellularly...
February 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454496/heterologous-expression-of-mlra-in-a-photoautotrophic-host-engineering-cyanobacteria-to-degrade-microcystins
#19
Jason Dexter, Dariusz Dziga, Jing Lv, Junqi Zhu, Wojciech Strzalka, Anna Maksylewicz, Magdalena Maroszek, Sylwia Marek, Pengcheng Fu
In this report, we establish proof-of-principle demonstrating for the first time genetic engineering of a photoautotrophic microorganism for bioremediation of naturally occurring cyanotoxins. In model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 we have heterologously expressed Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05 microcystinase (MlrA) bearing a 23 amino acid N-terminus secretion peptide from native Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 PilA (sll1694). The resultant whole cell biocatalyst displayed about 3 times higher activity against microcystin-LR compared to a native MlrA host (Sphingomonas sp...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454031/expression-and-characterization-of-recombinant-rattusin-an-%C3%AE-defensin-related-peptide-with-a-homodimeric-scaffold-formed-by-intermolecular-disulfide-exchanges
#20
Sehyeon Ji, Hyosuk Yun, Gwansik Park, Hye Jung Min, Chul Won Lee
Rattusin is an α-defensin-related peptide isolated from the small intestine of rats. The primary sequence of linear rattusin is composed of 31 amino acids containing five cysteines with a unique spacing pattern. It forms a homodimeric scaffold in which the primary structure occurs in an antiparallel fashion formed by five intermolecular disulfide (SS) bonds. Rattusin is a highly potent antibiotic, which not only exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, but also maintains its antimicrobial activity at physiological salt concentrations...
February 14, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
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