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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350872/rna-sequence-analysis-of-gene-expression-from-honeybees-apis-mellifera-infected-with-nosema-ceranae
#1
Bouabid Badaoui, André Fougeroux, Fabien Petit, Anna Anselmo, Chiara Gorni, Marco Cucurachi, Antonella Cersini, Anna Granato, Giusy Cardeti, Giovanni Formato, Franco Mutinelli, Elisabetta Giuffra, John L Williams, Sara Botti
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are constantly subjected to many biotic stressors including parasites. This study examined honeybees infected with Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae). N. ceranae infection increases the bees energy requirements and may contribute to their decreased survival. RNA-seq was used to investigate gene expression at days 5, 10 and 15 Post Infection (P.I) with N. ceranae. The expression levels of genes, isoforms, alternative transcription start sites (TSS) and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation suggesting that bees use a range of tactics to cope with the stress of N...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350441/chemical-probes-unravel-an-antimicrobial-defense-response-triggered-by-binding-of-the-human-opioid-dynorphin-to-a-bacterial-sensor-kinase
#2
Megan Holly Wright, Christian Fetzer, Stephan A Sieber
Host-microbe communication via small molecule signals is important for both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships, but is often poorly understood at the molecular level. Under conditions of host stress, levels of the human opioid peptide dynorphin are elevated, triggering virulence in the opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa via an unknown pathway. Here we apply a multilayered chemical biology strategy to unravel the mode of action of this putative interkingdom signal. We designed and applied dynorphin-inspired photoaffinity probes to reveal the protein targets of the peptide in live bacteria via chemical proteomics...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347132/radiolabeled-peptides-current-and-new-perspectives
#3
Marta Opalinska, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Anna Sowa-Staszczak
Radiolabeled peptides have been the subject of research for over 20 years and during that time possibility/variety of peptide receptor imaging and later targeted radiotherapy increased significantly. The targeted receptors belong to the large family of G-protein-coupled receptors or tyrosine kinases receptors partially connected with them. They both regulate large signaling networks, control multiple cell functions and are implicated in many diseases including cancers. The essential feature of peptides used in nuclear medicine involves their ability to binding with high affinity and specify to their receptors overexpressed on tumor cells...
June 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346930/enzymes-in-human-milk
#4
David C Dallas, J Bruce German
Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346520/downregulation-of-mir-139-5p-contributes-to-the-antiapoptotic-effect-of-liraglutide-on-the-diabetic-rat-pancreas-and-ins-1-cells-by-targeting-irs1
#5
Jin Li, Lei Su, Ying-Ying Gong, Mei-Lin Ding, Shu-Bin Hong, Shuang Yu, Hai-Peng Xiao
Liraglutide is administered as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist for diabetic patients and can protect pancreatic β-cells by inhibiting their apoptosis. MicroRNA-139-5p (miRNA-139-5p) participates in the regulation of cancer cell apoptosis. However, it is not clear whether miR-139-5p contributes to the anti-apoptotic effect of liraglutide in β-cells. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-139-5p on apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells. MicroRNA levels in pancreatic tissue from diabetic rats and INS-1 cells treated with liraglutide were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346102/phage-display-derived-ligand-for-mucosal-transcytotic-receptor-gp-2-promotes-antigen-delivery-to-m-cells-and-induces-antigen-specific-immune-response
#6
Inam Ullah Khan, Jiansheng Huang, Rui Liu, Jingbo Wang, Jun Xie, Naishuo Zhu
Successful oral immunization depends on efficient delivery of antigens (Ags) to the mucosal immune induction site. Glycoprotein-2 (GP-2) is an integral membrane protein that is expressed specifically on M cells within follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and serves as transcytotic receptor for luminal Ags. In this study, we selected peptide ligands against recombinant human GP-2 by screening a phage display library and evaluated their interaction with GP-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Selected peptides were conjugated to the C-terminal of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and evaluated for their ability to induce an immune response in mice...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345935/targeting-self-binding-peptides-as-a-novel-strategy-to-regulate-protein-activity-and-function-a-case-study-on-the-proto-oncogene-tyrosine-protein-kinase-c-src
#7
Zhengya Bai, Shasha Hou, Shilei Zhang, Zhongyan Li, Peng Zhou
Previously, we have reported a new biomolecular phenomenon spanning between protein folding and binding, termed as self-binding peptides (SBPs), where a short peptide segment in monomeric protein functions as molecular switch by dynamically binding to/unbinding from its cognate domain in the monomer (Yang C, Zhang S, He P, Wang C, Huang J, Zhou P. Self-binding peptides: folding or binding? J. Chem. Inf. MODEL: 2015, 55: 329-342). Here, we attempt to raise the SBP as a new class of druggable targets to regulate the biological activity and function of proteins...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345876/engineering-cellular-microenvironments-with-photo-and-enzymatically-responsive-hydrogels-toward-biomimetic-3d-cell-culture-models
#8
Roger Y Tam, Laura J Smith, Molly S Shoichet
Conventional cell culture techniques using 2D polystyrene or glass have provided great insight into key biochemical mechanisms responsible for cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell-cell interactions. However, the physical and chemical properties of 2D culture in vitro are dramatically different than those found in the native cellular microenvironment in vivo. Cells grown on 2D substrates differ significantly from those grown in vivo, and this explains, in part, why many promising drug candidates discovered through in vitro drug screening assays fail when they are translated to in vivo animal or human models...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345783/natural-tolerance-development-in-cow-s-milk-allergic-children-ige-and-igg4-epitope-binding
#9
Jean Christoph Caubet, Jing Lin, Birgit Ahrens, Gustavo Gimenez, Luda Bardina, Bodo Niggemann, Hugh A Sampson, Kirsten Beyer
BACKGROUND: Although most of cow's milk (CM) allergic children will outgrow their allergy, the pathomechanism of the natural development of tolerance remains poorly understood. It has been suggested that the balance between milk specific IgE and IgG4 plays a major role. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate differences in IgE and IgG4 antibody binding to cow's milk (CM) epitopes between patients with persistent CM allergy (CMA) and those that naturally became tolerant...
March 27, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345667/the-toxicity-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-to-larvae-of-the-disease-vectors-aedes-aegypti-and-anopheles-gambiae
#10
Zatul-'Iffah Abu Hasan, Helen Williams, Nur M Ismail, Hidayatulfathi Othman, Gyles E Cozier, K Ravi Acharya, R Elwyn Isaac
The control of mosquitoes is threatened by the appearance of insecticide resistance and therefore new control chemicals are urgently required. Here we show that inhibitors of mosquito peptidyl dipeptidase, a peptidase related to mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), are insecticidal to larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. ACE inhibitors (captopril, fosinopril and fosinoprilat) and two peptides (trypsin-modulating oostatic factor/TMOF and a bradykinin-potentiating peptide, BPP-12b) were all inhibitors of the larval ACE activity of both mosquitoes...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345601/towards-reproducible-mrm-based-biomarker-discovery-using-dried-blood-spots
#11
Sureyya Ozcan, Jason D Cooper, Santiago G Lago, Diarmuid Kenny, Nitin Rustogi, Pawel Stocki, Sabine Bahn
There is an increasing interest in the use of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and multiple reaction monitoring in proteomics. Although several groups have explored the utility of DBS by focusing on protein detection, the reproducibility of the approach and whether it can be used for biomarker discovery in high throughput studies is yet to be determined. We assessed the reproducibility of multiplexed targeted protein measurements in DBS compared to serum. Eighty-two medium to high abundance proteins were monitored in a number of technical and biological replicates...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345451/the-impact-of-advanced-proteomics-in-the-search-for-markers-and-therapeutic-targets-of-bladder-cancer
#12
Hongshuo Zhang, Yue Fan, Lingling Xia, Chunhui Gao, Xin Tong, Hanfu Wang, Lili Sun, Tuo Ji, Mingyu Jin, Bing Gu, Bo Fan
Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract and can be avoided through proper surveillance and monitoring. Several genetic factors are known to contribute to the progression of bladder cancer, many of which produce molecules that serve as cancer biomarkers. Blood, urine, and tissue are commonly analyzed for the presence of biomarkers, which can be derived from either the nucleus or the mitochondria. Recent advances in proteomics have facilitated the high-throughput profiling of data generated from bladder cancer-related proteins or peptides in parallel with high sensitivity and specificity, providing a wealth of information for biomarker discovery and validation...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345248/application-of-thiol-yne-thiol-ene-reactions-for-peptide-and-protein-macrocyclizations
#13
Yuanxiang Wang, Benjamin Bruno, Sean Cornillie, Jason Nogueira, Diao Chen, Thomas Cheatham, Carol Lim, Danny Chou
We report the application of thiol-yne/thiol-ene reactions to synthesize mono- and bicyclic stapled peptides and proteins. We first developed a thiol-ene based peptide stapling method in aqueous conditions. This method enabled us to efficiently staple recombinantly expressed coil-coiled proteins. The resulting stapled protein demonstrates higher stability in its secondary structure than the unstapled version. Furthermore, we performed a thiol-yne coupling by using an α,ω-diyne to react with two cysteine residues to synthesize a stapled peptide with two vinyl sulfide groups...
March 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344989/efficient-presentation-of-multiple-endogenous-epitopes-to-both-cd4-and-cd8-diabetogenic-t-cells-for-tolerance
#14
Shamael R Dastagir, Jorge Postigo-Fernandez, Chunliang Xu, James H Stoeckle, Rebuma Firdessa-Fite, Rémi J Creusot
Antigen-specific immunotherapy of type 1 diabetes, typically via delivery of a single native β cell antigen, has had little clinical benefit to date. With increasing evidence that diabetogenic T cells react against multiple β cell antigens, including previously unappreciated neo-antigens that can be emulated by mimotopes, a shift from protein- to epitope-based therapy is warranted. To this end, we aimed to achieve efficient co-presentation of multiple major epitopes targeting both CD4(+) and CD8(+) diabetogenic T cells...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344885/pappalysin-1-t-cell-receptor-transgenic-allo-restricted-t-cells-kill-ewing-sarcoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Andreas Kirschner, Melanie Thiede, Thomas G P Grünewald, Rebeca Alba Rubio, Günther H S Richter, Thomas Kirchner, Dirk H Busch, Stefan Burdach, Uwe Thiel
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA), also known as pappalysin, is a member of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. PAPPA acts as a protease, cleaving IGF inhibitors, i.e., IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), thereby setting free IGFs. The insulin/IGF-axis is involved in cancer in general and in Ewing sarcoma (ES) in particular. ES is a highly malignant bone tumor characterized by early metastatic spread. PAPPA is associated with various cancers. It is overexpressed and required for proliferation in ES...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344864/an-immunogenic-wt1-derived-peptide-that-induces-t-cell-response-in-the-context-of-hla-a-02-01-and-hla-a-24-02-molecules
#16
Tao Dao, Tatyana Korontsvit, Victoria Zakhaleva, Casey Jarvis, Patrizia Mondello, Claire Oh, David A Scheinberg
The Wilms' tumor oncogene protein (WT1) is a highly validated tumor antigen for immunotherapy. WT1-targeted immunotherapy has been extensively explored in multiple human trials in various cancers. However, clinical investigations using WT1 epitopes have generally focused on two peptides, HLA-restricted to HLA-A*02:01 or HLA-A*24:02. The goal of this study was to identify new epitopes derived from WT1, to expand the potential use of WT1 as a target of immunotherapy. Using computer-based MHC-binding algorithms and in vitro validation of the T cell responses specific for the identified peptides, we found that a recently identified HLA-A*24:02-binding epitope (239-247), NQMNLGATL (NQM), was also a strong CD8(+) T cell epitope for HLA-A*02:01 molecule...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344859/hla-class-ii-antigen-processing-pathway-in-tumors-molecular-defects-and-clinical-relevance
#17
REVIEW
Barbara Seliger, Matthias Kloor, Soldano Ferrone
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II antigen-processing machinery (APM) presents to cognate CD4(+) T-cells antigenic peptides mainly generated from exogeneous proteins in the endocytic compartment. These CD4(+) T cells exert helper function, but may also act as effector cells, thereby recognizing HLA class II antigen-expressing tumor cells. Thus, HLA class II antigen expression by tumor cells influences the tumor antigen (TA)-specific immune responses and, depending on the cancer type, the clinical course of the disease...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344547/app-function-and-lipids-a-bidirectional-link
#18
REVIEW
Marcus O W Grimm, Janine Mett, Heike S Grimm, Tobias Hartmann
Extracellular neuritic plaques, composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. One of the most prominent risk factor for sporadic AD, carrying one or two aberrant copies of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 alleles, closely links AD to lipids. Further, several lipid classes and fatty acids have been reported to be changed in the brain of AD-affected individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344321/broad-spectrum-antiviral-activity-for-paramyxoviruses-is-modulated-by-biophysical-properties-of-fusion-inhibitory-peptides
#19
Cyrille Mathieu, Marcelo T Augusto, Stefan Niewiesk, Branka Horvat, Laura M Palermo, Giuseppina Sanna, Silvia Madeddu, Devra Huey, Miguel A R B Castanho, Matteo Porotto, Nuno C Santos, Anne Moscona
Human paramyxoviruses include global causes of lower respiratory disease like the parainfluenza viruses, as well as agents of lethal encephalitis like Nipah virus. Infection is initiated by viral glycoprotein-mediated fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Paramyxovirus viral fusion proteins (F) insert into the target cell membrane, and form a transient intermediate that pulls the viral and cell membranes together as two heptad-repeat regions refold to form a six-helix bundle structure that can be specifically targeted by fusion-inhibitory peptides...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344169/the-identification-characterization-and-function-of-two-trems-genes-in-chinese-yangzhou-goose-anas-cygnoides
#20
Huanxi Zhu, Xiaoqian Liu, Jie Du, Mingming Lei, Shijia Ying, Junshu Yan, Jianning Yu, Zhendan Shi, Hui Li
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) is a cell-surface receptor primarily expressed on macrophages. Here, two novel TREM genes, AcTREM1 and AcTREM2, were identified from Anas cygnoides. AcTREM1 cDNA contained a putative signal peptide, two IG domains, and a transmembrane domain. The deduced AcTREM2 sequence also contained a signal peptide, an IG domain, and a transmembrane domain. qRT-PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence experiments showed that AcTREM1 and AcTREM2 were mainly expressed in the liver and spleen, and both genes and proteins were mainly distributed in cytoplasm...
March 23, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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