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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926980/role-and-regulation-of-p27-in-neuronal-apoptosis
#1
Surbhi Jaiswal, Pushkar Sharma
It is necessary for the cell cycle machinery of neurons to be suppressed to promote differentiation and maintenance of their terminally differentiated state. Reactivation of the cell cycle in response to neurotoxic insults leads to neuronal cell death and some cell cycle related proteins contribute to the process. p27 kip1 (p27), an inhibitor of Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKs), prevents unwarranted CDK activation. In the present study, we have elucidated a novel mechanism via which p27 promotes apoptosis of neurons stimulated by neurotoxic amyloid peptide Aβ42 (Amyloid β1-42 peptide)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926664/absence-of-serological-rheumatoid-arthritis-biomarkers-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-with-arthropathies
#2
Sanne J H Van Erp, Marije K Verheul, E W Nivine Levarht, Johan J van der Reijden, Désirée van der Heijde, Floris A van Gaalen, Daniel W Hommes, Gary L Norman, Zakera Shums, Michael Mahler, Hein W Verspaget, Leendert A Trouw, Andrea E van der Meulen-de Jong
OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers that are associated with future progression to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and joint destruction have been discovered previously in patients with arthralgia. The present study examined these RA biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with arthropathies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sera from 155 IBD patients with and 99 IBD patients without arthropathies were analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) M rheumatoid factor (RF), IgA-RF, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 3...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926477/intra-or-extra-exosomal-secretion-of-hdgf-isoforms-the-extraordinary-function-of-the-hdgf-a-n-terminal-peptide
#3
Jessica Nüße, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Ursula Mirastschijski, Lennart Kappelmann, Sørge Kelm, Frank Dietz
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a protein with diverse intracellular functions. Moreover, after non-conventional secretion, extracellular HDGF is able to influence different signalling pathways, leading for example to induction of processes like epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration. Intriguingly, in recent proteome studies, HDGF was also found secreted by special microvesicles called exosomes. Recently, we demonstrated the existence of two new HDGF isoforms (B and C). These isoforms are involved in different cellular processes than HDGF-A...
December 7, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925615/positive-selection-in-cathelicidin-host-defense-peptides-adaptation-to-exogenous-pathogens-or-endogenous-receptors
#4
S Zhu, B Gao
The cause of adaptive protein evolution includes internal (for example, co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs) and external (for example, adaptation to different ecological niches) mechanisms. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of vertebrate-specific cationic antimicrobial peptides evolving under positive selection. Besides their antibiotic activity, HDPs also exert an effect on multiple host immune cells, thus providing an ideal model to study selective agents driving their evolution. On the basis of a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we studied the evolution of LL-37-type HDPs in mammals, the mature peptide of cathelicidin CAP18 (herein termed CAP18-MP) and investigated the driving force behind the evolution...
December 7, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925205/generation-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-stepwise-differentiation-protocol-optimized-with-platelet-rich-plasma
#5
Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Yousef Mortazavi, Masoud Soleimani, Samad Nadri, Alireza Biglari, Reyhaneh Nassiri Mansour
Studies on patient-specific human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as well as a series of autologous growth factors presumably will reveal their many benefits for cell base replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients in the future. For this purpose, we established a multistep protocol by adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) that induce the hiPSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We present here a differentiation protocol consisting of five stages in two groups including protocol with PRP and without PRP...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924724/delivery-systems-for-antimicrobial-peptides-and-proteins-towards-optimization-of-bioavailability-and-targeting
#6
Joana R Costa, Nádia C Silva, Bruno Sarmento, Manuela Pintado
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins are produced by a wide range of organisms as important elements of their defense mechanisms, forming a large number of antimicrobial compounds that can be used to treat several human infections. The potential for the use of AMPs and antimicrobial proteins in therapeutics is growing, but their application is often limited, due to their poor physical and/or chemical properties. In recent years, several drug delivery systems have been proposed to carry such molecules, in an attempt to overcome the difficulties regarding their properties...
December 7, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924562/single-step-affinity-purification-of-erk-signaling-complexes-using-the-streptavidin-binding-peptide-sbp-tag
#7
Liu Yang, Alexey Veraksa
Elucidation of biological functions of signaling proteins is facilitated by studying their protein-protein interaction networks. Affinity purification combined with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) has become a favorite method to study protein complexes. Here we describe a procedure for single-step purification of ERK (Rolled) and associated proteins from Drosophila cultured cells. The use of the streptavidin-binding peptide (SBP) tag allows for a highly efficient isolation of native ERK signaling complexes, which are suitable for subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924558/structural-studies-of-erk2-protein-complexes
#8
Johannes F Weijman, Stefan J Riedl, Peter D Mace
ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2) are the primary effector kinases of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. A variety of substrates and regulatory partners associate with ERK1/2 through distinct D-peptide- and DEF-docking sites on their kinase domains. While understanding of D-peptides that bind to ERK1/2 has become increasingly clear over the last decade, only more recently have structures of proteins interacting with other binding sites on ERK1/2 become available. PEA-15 is a 130-residue ERK1/2 regulator that engages both the D-peptide- and DEF-docking sites of ERK kinases, and directly sequesters the ERK2 activation loop in various different phosphorylation states...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924496/incorporation-of-a-reporter-peptide-in-fpop-compensates-for-adventitious-scavengers-and-permits-time-dependent-measurements
#9
Ben Niu, Brian C Mackness, Don L Rempel, Hao Zhang, Weidong Cui, C Robert Matthews, Jill A Zitzewitz, Michael L Gross
Incorporation of a reporter peptide in solutions submitted to fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) allows for the correction of adventitious scavengers and enables the normalization and comparison of time-dependent results. Reporters will also be useful in differential experiments to control for the inclusion of a radical-reactive species. This incorporation provides a simple and quick check of radical dosage and allows comparison of FPOP results from day-to-day and lab-to-lab. Use of a reporter peptide in the FPOP workflow requires no additional measurements or spectrometers while building a more quantitative FPOP platform...
December 6, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924484/peptide-based-inhibition-of-mirna-guided-gene-silencing
#10
Johannes Danner, Balagopal Pai, Ludwig Wankerl, Gunter Meister
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of distinct target mRNAs. miRNAs are incorporated into Argonaute (AGO) proteins and guide them to their target mRNAs. Subsequently, AGO proteins recruit a member of the glycine-tryptophan-rich (GW) protein family by direct protein-protein interaction. GW proteins coordinate all downstream processes leading to robust and efficient gene silencing. A short peptide of GW proteins comprising the AGO interaction motif can be used to biochemically isolate endogenous AGO protein complexes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924291/data-on-isoaspartylation-of-neuronal-elavl-proteins
#11
Mario A Pulido, Meleeneh Kazarian DerHartunian, Prerna Sehgal, Ite A Laird-Offringa
This article contains experimental data examining the propensity of neuronal ELAVL proteins to become isoaspartylated. The data are related to the article "Isoaspartylation appears to trigger small cell lung cancer-associated autoimmunity against neuronal protein ELAVL4" (M.A. Pulido, M.K. DerHartunian, Z. Qin, E.M. Chung, D.S. Kang, A.W. Woodham, J.A. Tsou, R. Klooster, O. Akbari, L. Wang, W.M. Kast, S.V. Liu, J.J.G.M. Verschuuren, D.W. Aswad, I.A. Laird-Offringa, 2016) [1], in which it was reported that the N-terminal region of recombinant human ELAVL4 protein, incubated under physiological conditions, acquires a type of highly immunogenic protein damage...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924276/mypresto-omegagene-a-gpu-accelerated-molecular-dynamics-simulator-tailored-for-enhanced-conformational-sampling-methods-with-a-non-ewald-electrostatic-scheme
#12
Kota Kasahara, Benson Ma, Kota Goto, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Junichi Higo, Ikuo Fukuda, Tadaaki Mashimo, Yutaka Akiyama, Haruki Nakamura
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a promising computational approach to investigate dynamical behavior of molecular systems at the atomic level. Here, we present a new MD simulation engine named "myPresto/omegagene" that is tailored for enhanced conformational sampling methods with a non-Ewald electrostatic potential scheme. Our enhanced conformational sampling methods, e.g., the virtual-system-coupled multi-canonical MD (V-McMD) method, replace a multi-process parallelized run with multiple independent runs to avoid inter-node communication overhead...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924273/molecular-dynamics-analysis-to-evaluate-docking-pose-prediction
#13
Takako Sakano, Md Iqbal Mahamood, Takefumi Yamashita, Hideaki Fujitani
The accurate prediction of a ligand-protein complex structure is important for computer-assisted drug development. Although many docking methods have been developed over the last three decades, the success of binding structure prediction remains greatly limited. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in assessing a docking pose predicted using a docking program. If the predicted pose is not unstable in an aqueous environment, MD simulation equilibrates the system and removes the ligand from the predicted position...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924074/optimized-t-cell-receptor-mimic-tcrm-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-directed-towards-the-intracellular-wilms-tumor-1-antigen
#14
S Rafiq, T J Purdon, A F Daniyan, M Koneru, T Dao, C Liu, D A Scheinberg, R J Brentjens
CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are clinically effective in a limited set of leukemia patients. However, CAR T-cell therapy thus far has been largely restricted to targeting extracellular tumor-associated antigens (TAA). Herein, we report a T-cell receptor-mimic (TCRm) CAR, termed WT1-28z, that is reactive to a peptide portion of the intracellular onco-protein Wilms Tumor 1(WT1), as it is expressed on the surface of the tumor cell in the context of HLA-A*02:01. T-cells modified to express WT1-28z specifically targeted and lysed HLA-A*02:01+ WT1+ tumors and enhanced survival of mice engrafted with HLA-A*02:01+, WT1+ leukemia or ovarian tumors...
December 7, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923980/humanin-skeletal-muscle-protein-levels-increase-after-resistance-training-in-men-with-impaired-glucose-metabolism
#15
Eva-Karin Gidlund, Ferdinand von Walden, Mika Venojärvi, Ulf Risérus, Olli J Heinonen, Jessica Norrbom, Carl Johan Sundberg
Humanin (HN) is a mitochondrially encoded and secreted peptide linked to glucose metabolism and tissue protecting mechanisms. Whether skeletal muscle HN gene or protein expression is influenced by exercise remains unknown. In this intervention study we show, for the first time, that HN protein levels increase in human skeletal muscle following 12 weeks of resistance training in persons with prediabetes. Male subjects (n = 55) with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) were recruited and randomly assigned to resistance training, Nordic walking or a control group...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923683/role-of-a-tachykinin-related-peptide-and-its-receptor-in-modulating-the-olfactory-sensitivity-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#16
Shun-Hua Gui, Hong-Bo Jiang, Li Xu, Yu-Xia Pei, Xiao-Qiang Liu, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Insect tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), an ortholog of tachykinin in vertebrates, has been linked with regulation of diverse physiological processes, such as olfactory perception, locomotion, aggression, lipid metabolism and myotropic activity. In this study, we investigated the function of TRP (BdTRP) and its receptor (BdTRPR) in an important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. BdTRPR is a typical G-protein coupled-receptor (GPCR), and it could be activated by the putative BdTRP mature peptides with the effective concentrations (EC50) at the nanomolar range when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells...
December 3, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923655/development-of-a-novel-catalytic-amyloid-displaying-a-metal-dependent-atpase-like-activity
#17
Octavio Monasterio, Esteban Nova, Rodrigo Diaz-Espinoza
Amyloids are protein aggregates of highly regular structure that are involved in diverse pathologies such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Recent evidence has shown that under certain conditions, small peptides can self-assemble into amyloids that exhibit catalytic reactivity towards certain compounds. Here we report a novel peptide with a sequence derived from the active site of RNA polymerase that displays hydrolytic activity towards ATP. The catalytic reaction proceeds in the presence of the divalent metal manganese and the products are ADP and AMP...
December 3, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923653/a-fluorescence-based-high-throughput-assay-to-identify-inhibitors-of-tyrosylprotein-sulfotransferase-activity
#18
Wenbo Zhou, Yan Wang, Jiashu Xie, Robert J Geraghty
Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPSTs) are Golgi-resident enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfuryl group to the side chain hydroxyl of tyrosine residues. Sulfotyrosine residues are involved in protein-protein interactions in the extracellular space. These interactions are important for chemokines to bind cognate receptor, for cell adhesion and trafficking, and for pathogen entry into cells. To better understand the role of TPSTs in cellular processes and disease states, we are interested in identifying small molecules to modulate TPST activity in experimental systems...
December 3, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923601/understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-nets-and-their-role-in-antiviral-innate-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Juan Manuel Agraz-Cibrian, Diana M Giraldo, Fafutis-Morris Mary, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant cells in the context of innate immunity; they are one of the first cells to arrive at the site of viral infection constituting the first line of defense in response to invading pathogens. Indeed, neutrophils are provided with several defense mechanisms including release of cytokines, cytotoxic granules and the last recently described neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The main components of NETs are DNA, granular antimicrobial peptides, and nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, that together play an important role in the innate immune response...
December 3, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923413/impact-of-enriched-environment-on-production-of-tau-amyloid-precursor-protein-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-in-high-fat-and-high-sucrose-fed-rats
#20
Yavuz Selvi, Hasan Serdar Gergerlioglu, Nursel Akbaba, Mehmet Oz, Ali Kandeger, Enver Ahmet Demir, Fatma Humeyra Yerlikaya, Kismet Esra Nurullahoglu-Atalik
OBJECTIVE: The Western-type diet is associated with an elevated risk of Alzheimer's disease and other milder forms of cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the environmental enrichment on amyloid and tau pathology in high-fat and high-sucrose-fed rats. METHODS: In total, 40 adult male rats were categorised into two main groups according to their housing conditions: enriched environment (EE, n=16) and standard housing condition (n=24)...
December 7, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
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