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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244730/isolation-and-characterization-of-ftsz-genes-in-cassava
#1
Meng-Ting Geng, Yi Min, Yuan Yao, Xia Chen, Jie Fan, Shuai Yuan, Lei Wang, Chong Sun, Fan Zhang, Lu Shang, Yun-Lin Wang, Rui-Mei Li, Shao-Ping Fu, Rui-Jun Duan, Jiao Liu, Xin-Wen Hu, Jian-Chun Guo
The filamenting temperature-sensitive Z proteins (FtsZs) play an important role in plastid division. In this study, three FtsZ genes were isolated from the cassava genome, and named MeFtsZ1, MeFtsZ2-1, and MeFtsZ2-2, respectively. Based on phylogeny, the MeFtsZs were classified into two groups (FtsZ1 and FtsZ2). MeFtsZ1 with a putative signal peptide at N-terminal, has six exons, and is classed to FtsZ1 clade. MeFtsZ2-1 and MeFtsZ2-2 without a putative signal peptide, have seven exons, and are classed to FtsZ2 clade...
December 15, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244531/effects-of-natural-peptides-from-food-proteins-on-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-activity-and-hypertension
#2
Melanie Martin, Andreas Deussen
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. The underlying pathophysiology is largely contributed by an overactivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS). Herein, angiotensin II (AngII) is a key mediator not only in blood pressure control and vascular tone regulation, but also involved in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Since more than three decades suppression of AngII generation by inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or blockade of the AngII-receptor has shown clinical benefit by reducing hypertension, atherosclerosis and other inflammation-associated cardiovascular diseases...
December 15, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244193/comparative-peptidomic-profile-between-human-hypertrophic-scar-tissue-and-matched-normal-skin-for-identification-of-endogenous-peptides-involved-in-scar-pathology
#3
Jingyun Li, Ling Chen, Qian Li, Jing Cao, Yanli Gao, Jun Li
Endogenous peptides recently attract increasing attention for their participation in various biological processes. Their roles in the pathogenesis of human hypertrophic scar remains poorly understood. In this study, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to construct a comparative peptidomic profiling between human hypertrophic scar tissue and matched normal skin. A total of 179 peptides were significantly differentially expressed in human hypertrophic scar tissue, with 95 upregulated and 84 downregulated peptides between hypertrophic scar tissue and matched normal skin...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243824/apoplastp-prediction-of-effectors-and-plant-proteins-in-the-apoplast-using-machine-learning
#4
Jana Sperschneider, Peter N Dodds, Karam B Singh, Jennifer M Taylor
The plant apoplast is integral to intercellular signalling, transport and plant-pathogen interactions. Plant pathogens deliver effectors both into the apoplast and inside host cells, but no computational method currently exists to discriminate between these localizations. We present ApoplastP, the first method for predicting whether an effector or plant protein localizes to the apoplast. ApoplastP uncovers features of apoplastic localization common to both effectors and plant proteins, namely depletion in glutamic acid, acidic amino acids and charged amino acids and enrichment in small amino acids...
December 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243092/-multiple-partial-recognitions-in-dynamic-equilibrium-in-the-binding-sites-of-proteins-form-the-molecular-basis-of-promiscuous-recognition-of-structurally-diverse-ligands
#5
REVIEW
Daisuke Kohda
Promiscuous recognition of ligands by proteins is as important as strict recognition in numerous biological processes. In living cells, many short, linear amino acid motifs function as targeting signals in proteins to specify the final destination of the protein transport. In general, the target signal is defined by a consensus sequence containing wild-characters, and hence represented by diverse amino acid sequences. The classical lock-and-key or induced-fit/conformational selection mechanism may not cover all aspects of the promiscuous recognition...
December 14, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242808/small-peptide-substrates-and-high-resolution-peptide-gels-for-the-analysis-of-site-specific-protein-phosphorylation-and-dephosphorylation
#6
Laura Johnson Battle, Timothy C Chambers
Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions play key regulatory roles in many fundamental cellular processes. Due to the large number of kinases and phosphatases in the genome, the identification of the specific enzymes responsible for a given site in a given protein is immensely challenging. However, because protein kinases and phosphatases recognize local specificity determinants within proteins, it is possible to use small peptides to study the characteristics of site-specific phosphorylation...
2017: Journal of Biological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242535/lipid-bodies-containing-oxidatively-truncated-lipids-block-antigen-cross-presentation-by-dendritic-cells-in-cancer
#7
Filippo Veglia, Vladimir A Tyurin, Dariush Mohammadyani, Maria Blasi, Elizabeth K Duperret, Laxminarasimha Donthireddy, Ayumi Hashimoto, Alexandr Kapralov, Andrew Amoscato, Roberto Angelini, Sima Patel, Kevin Alicea-Torres, David Weiner, Maureen E Murphy, Judith Klein-Seetharaman, Esteban Celis, Valerian E Kagan, Dmitry I Gabrilovich
Cross-presentation is a critical function of dendritic cells (DCs) required for induction of antitumor immune responses and success of cancer immunotherapy. It is established that tumor-associated DCs are defective in their ability to cross-present antigens. However, the mechanisms driving these defects are still unknown. We find that impaired cross-presentation in DCs is largely associated with defect in trafficking of peptide-MHC class I (pMHC) complexes to the cell surface. DCs in tumor-bearing hosts accumulate lipid bodies (LB) containing electrophilic oxidatively truncated (ox-tr) lipids...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242522/amyloid-%C3%AE-and-tau-complexity-towards-improved-biomarkers-and-targeted-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Juan Carlos Polanco, Chuanzhou Li, Liviu-Gabriel Bodea, Ramon Martinez-Marmol, Frederic A Meunier, Jürgen Götz
Most neurodegenerative diseases are proteinopathies, which are characterized by the aggregation of misfolded proteins. Although many proteins have an intrinsic propensity to aggregate, particularly when cellular clearance systems start to fail in the context of ageing, only a few form fibrillar aggregates. In Alzheimer disease, the peptide amyloid-β (Aβ) and the protein tau aggregate to form plaques and tangles, respectively, which comprise the histopathological hallmarks of this disease. This Review discusses the complexity of Aβ biogenesis, trafficking, post-translational modifications and aggregation states...
December 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242512/synthetic-integrin-binding-immune-stimulators-target-cancer-cells-and-prevent-tumor-formation
#9
Manuel Brehs, André J G Pötgens, Julia Steitz, Karine Thewes, Janett Schwarz, Anne C Conibear, Matthias Bartneck, Frank Tacke, Christian F W Becker
Immuno-oncology approaches mainly utilize monoclonal antibodies or protein-based scaffolds that bind with high affinity to cancer cells and can generate an immune response. Peptides can also bind with high affinity to cancer cells and are intermediate in size between antibodies and small molecules. They are also synthetically accessible and therefore easily modified to optimize their stability, binding affinity and selectivity. Here we describe the design of immune system engagers (ISErs), a novel class of synthetic peptide-based compounds that bind specifically to cancer cells and stimulate the immune system...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242347/comprehensive-computational-design-of-ordered-peptide-macrocycles
#10
Parisa Hosseinzadeh, Gaurav Bhardwaj, Vikram Khipple Mulligan, Matthew D Shortridge, Timothy W Craven, Fátima Pardo-Avila, Stephen A Rettie, David E Kim, Daniel-Adriano Silva, Yehia M Ibrahim, Ian K Webb, John R Cort, Joshua N Adkins, Gabriele Varani, David Baker
Mixed-chirality peptide macrocycles such as cyclosporine are among the most potent therapeutics identified to date, but there is currently no way to systematically search the structural space spanned by such compounds. Natural proteins do not provide a useful guide: Peptide macrocycles lack regular secondary structures and hydrophobic cores, and can contain local structures not accessible with l-amino acids. Here, we enumerate the stable structures that can be adopted by macrocyclic peptides composed of l- and d-amino acids by near-exhaustive backbone sampling followed by sequence design and energy landscape calculations...
December 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242345/eudicot-plant-specific-sphingolipids-determine-host-selectivity-of-microbial-nlp-cytolysins
#11
Tea Lenarčič, Isabell Albert, Hannah Böhm, Vesna Hodnik, Katja Pirc, Apolonija B Zavec, Marjetka Podobnik, David Pahovnik, Ema Žagar, Rory Pruitt, Peter Greimel, Akiko Yamaji-Hasegawa, Toshihide Kobayashi, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Jasmin Gömann, Jenny C Mortimer, Lin Fang, Adiilah Mamode-Cassim, Magali Deleu, Laurence Lins, Claudia Oecking, Ivo Feussner, Sébastien Mongrand, Gregor Anderluh, Thorsten Nürnberger
Necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1-like (NLP) proteins constitute a superfamily of proteins produced by plant pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Many NLPs are cytotoxins that facilitate microbial infection of eudicot, but not of monocot plants. Here, we report glycosylinositol phosphorylceramide (GIPC) sphingolipids as NLP toxin receptors. Plant mutants with altered GIPC composition were more resistant to NLP toxins. Binding studies and x-ray crystallography showed that NLPs form complexes with terminal monomeric hexose moieties of GIPCs that result in conformational changes within the toxin...
December 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242232/ralf4-19-peptides-interact-with-lrx-proteins-to-control-pollen-tube-growth-in-arabidopsis
#12
Martin A Mecchia, Gorka Santos-Fernandez, Nadine N Duss, Sofía C Somoza, Aurélien Boisson-Dernier, Valeria Gagliardini, Andrea Martínez-Bernardini, Tohnyui Ndinyanka Fabrice, Christoph Ringli, Jorge P Muschietti, Ueli Grossniklaus
The communication of changes in the extracellular matrix to the interior of the cell is crucial for a cell's function. The extracellular peptides of the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) family have been identified as ligands of receptor-like kinases of the CrRLK1L subclass, but the exact mechanism of their perception is unclear. We found that Arabidopsis RALF4 and RALF19 redundantly regulate pollen tube integrity and growth, and that their function depends on pollen-expressed proteins of the LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT EXTENSIN (LRX) family, which play a role in cell wall development but whose mode of action is not understood...
December 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242118/activation-of-transglutaminase-2-by-nerve-growth-factor-in-differentiating-neuroblastoma-cells-a-role-in-cell-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth
#13
Alanood S Algarni, Alan J Hargreaves, John M Dickenson
NGF (nerve growth factor) and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 transamidase activity by NGF in retinoic acid-induced differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242008/immune-responses-to-peptides-containing-homocitrulline-or-citrulline-in-the-dr4-transgenic-mouse-model-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Patrick Lac, Sheri Saunders, Elena Tutunea-Fatan, Lillian Barra, David A Bell, Ewa Cairns
Antibodies to proteins/peptides containing citrulline are hallmarks of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). These antibodies are strongly associated with the expression of the Shared Epitope (SE). RA patients also generate antibodies to homocitrulline-containing proteins/peptides (also referred to as anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (Anti-CarP)). This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between homocitrulline and citrulline immune responses using an established mouse model of RA: DR4-transgenic (DR4tg) mice that express the human SE...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241953/innate-immune-responses-in-the-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#15
Xialu Wang, Haoluo, Rong Zhang
Innate immunity, the evolutionarily conserved defense system, has been extensively analyzed in insect models over recent decades. The significant progress in this area has formed our dominant conceptual framework of the innate immune system, but critical advances in other insects have had a profound impact on our insights into the mystery of innate immunity. In recent years, we focused on the immune responses in Antheraea pernyi, an important commercial silkworm species reared in China. Here, we review the immune responses of A...
December 11, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241568/the-atmc4-regulates-the-stem-cell-homeostasis-in-arabidopsis-by-catalyzing-the-cleavage-of-atla1-protein-in-response-to-environmental-hazards
#16
Yifeng Huang, Yuchao Cui, Xueliang Hou, Tao Huang
The AtLa1 protein is an RNA binding factor that initiates the translation of WUSCHEL (WUS) mRNA in Arabidopsis. The AtLa1 protein can regulate the stem cell homeostasis via the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation in response to environmental hazards. However, the translocation mechanism of AtLa1 protein remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we have explored the role of AtMC4 protein in the subcellular translocation of AtLa1 protein. Our results showed that the AtLa1 protein is a substrate of AtMC4 protein...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241555/inhibiting-the-ca2-influx-induced-by-human-csf
#17
Anna Drews, Suman De, Patrick Flagmeier, David C Wirthensohn, Wei-Hsin Chen, Daniel R Whiten, Margarida Rodrigues, Cécile Vincke, Serge Muyldermans, Ross W Paterson, Catherine F Slattery, Nick C Fox, Jonathan M Schott, Henrik Zetterberg, Christopher M Dobson, Sonia Gandhi, David Klenerman
One potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is to use antibodies that bind to small soluble protein aggregates to reduce their toxic effects. However, these therapies are rarely tested in human CSF before clinical trials because of the lack of sensitive methods that enable the measurement of aggregate-induced toxicity at low concentrations. We have developed highly sensitive single vesicle and single-cell-based assays that detect the Ca2+ influx caused by the CSF of individuals affected with AD and healthy controls, and we have found comparable effects for both types of samples...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241548/diverging-mrna-and-protein-networks-in-activated-microglia-reveal-srsf3-suppresses-translation-of-highly-upregulated-innate-immune-transcripts
#18
Hejer Boutej, Reza Rahimian, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Louis-Charles Béland, Mélanie Lalancette-Hébert, Jasna Kriz
Uncontrolled microglial activation may lead to the development of inflammation-induced brain damage. Here, we uncover a ribosome-based mechanism/checkpoint involved in control of the innate immune response and microglial activation. Using an in vivo model system for analysis of the dynamic translational state of microglial ribosomes, with mRNAs as input and newly synthesized peptides as an output, we find a marked dissociation of microglia mRNA and protein networks following innate immune challenge. Highly upregulated and ribosome-associated mRNAs were not translated, resulting in two distinct microglial molecular signatures, a highly specialized pro-inflammatory mRNA signature and an immunomodulatory/homeostatic protein signature...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241420/molecular-modeling-and-dynamic-simulations-of-agglutinin-like-family-members-from-candida-albicans-new-insights-into-potential-targets-for-the-treatment-of-candidiasis
#19
Natalia L von Ranke, Murilo L Bello, Lucio M Cabral, Helena C Castro, Carlos R Rodrigues
Infections by Candida albicans in immune compromised patients cause significant morbidity and mortality. In the search for potential molecular targets for drug development, the family of agglutinin-like proteins (Als) in C. albicans have been identified due to numerous attributes associated with high virulence, most prominently due to their role in adherence. Here, molecular models of individual members of the Als family illustrated common and unique structure features. Additionally, dynamic simulations were performed to display regions of high mobility...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241326/the-awsem-amylometer-predicting-amyloid-propensity-and-fibril-topology-using-an-optimized-folding-landscape-model
#20
Mingchen Chen, Nicholas P Schafer, Weihua Zheng, Peter G Wolynes
Amyloids are fibrillar protein aggregates with simple repeated structural motifs in their cores, usually β-strands but sometimes α-helices. Identifying the amyloid-prone regions within protein sequences is important both for understanding the mechanisms of amyloid-associated diseases and for understanding functional amyloids. Based on the crystal structures of seven cross-β amyloidogenic peptides with different topologies and one recently solved cross-α fiber structure, we have developed a computational approach for identifying amyloidogenic segments in protein sequences using the Associative memory, Water mediated, Structure and Energy Model...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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