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Helen H W Chen, Macus Tien Kuo
Effective radiotherapy for cancer has relied on the promise of maximally eradicating tumor cells while minimally killing normal cells. Technological advancement has provided state-of-the-art instrumentation that enables delivery of radiotherapy with great precision to tumor lesions with substantial reduced injury to normal tissues. Moreover, better understanding of radiobiology, particularly the mechanisms of radiation sensitivity and resistance in tumor lesions and toxicity in normal tissues, has improved the treatment efficacy of radiotherapy...
June 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Sho Nambara, Koshi Mimori
MicroRNAs(miRNAs)are small(18-25 nucleotides)noncoding RNA molecules that bind to partially complementary mRNA sequences, resulting in target degradation or translation inhibition. A single miRNA can influence the expression of hundreds of target genes, and miRNAs have been implicated as key molecules in various diseases, including cancer. Many studies have shown that the miRNAs play an important role in cancer cells and tumor microenvironment and may be biomarkers for early detection and therapeutic targets for various cancers...
May 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Riki Okita, Ai Maeda, Katsuhiko Shimizu, Yuji Nojima, Shinsuke Saisho, Masao Nakata
Immunocheckpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis have shown promising results in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recent research has shown that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling affects PD-L1 expression in NSCLC cells; however, the mechanism regulating PD-L1 expression in tumor cells remains unclear. Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the impact of expression of PD-L1 and EGF family receptors EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in tumor cells from 91 patients with pathological Stage IA-IIIA NSCLC...
March 25, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Valerio Leoni, Valentina Gatta, Costanza Casiraghi, Alfredo Nicosia, Biljana Petrovic, Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume
The oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) that has been approved for clinical practice and those HSVs in clinical trials are attenuated viruses, often with the neurovirulence gene γ134.5 and additional genes deleted. One strategy to engineer nonattenuated oncolytic HSVs consists of retargeting the viral tropism to a cancer-specific receptor of choice, exemplified by HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), which is present in breast, ovary, and other cancers, and in detargeting from the natural receptors...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Shunsuke Chikuma, Mitsuhiro Kanamori, Setsuko Mise-Omata, Akihiko Yoshimura
Inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules, PD-1 and CTLA4, has been shown to be a promising cancer treatment. PD-1 and CTLA4 inhibit TCR and co-stimulatory signals. The third T cell activation signal represents the signals from the cytokine receptors. The cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ) plays an important role in anti-tumor immunity by activating cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Most cytokines use the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, and the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins are major negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway...
April 2017: Cancer Science
Gregory S Alexander, Joshua D Palmer, Madalina Tuluc, Jianqing Lin, Adam P Dicker, Voichita Bar-Ad, Larry A Harshyne, Jennifer Louie, Colette M Shaw, D Craig Hooper, Bo Lu
BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab is a monoclonal antibody that is designed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Pembrolizumab and other immunocheckpoint-blocking monoclonal antibodies work by modulating a patient's own immune system to increase anti-tumor activity. While immunocheckpoint blockade has shown promising results, only 20-40 % of patients experience objective clinical benefit. Differences in individual tumor biology and the presence multiple immune checkpoints present a challenge for treatment...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Lucio Buffoni, Tiziana Vavalà, Silvia Novello
Twenty years ago, an individual patient data meta-analysis of eight cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) studies in completely resected early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) demonstrated a 13 % reduction of the risk of death favoring chemotherapy that was of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.08). This marginal benefit boosted a new generation of randomized trials to evaluate the role of modern platinum-based regimens in resectable stages of NSCLC and, although individual studies generated conflicting results, overall they contributed to confirm the role of AC which is now recommended for completely resected stage II and III NSCLC, mostly 4 cycles, while subset analyses suggested a benefit in patients with large IB tumors...
October 2016: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Azusa Miyashita, Satoshi Fukushima, Satoshi Nakahara, Junji Yamashita, Aki Tokuzumi, Jun Aoi, Asako Ichihara, Hisashi Kanemaru, Masatoshi Jinnin, Hironobu Ihn
Recent studies have shown that immunotherapies and molecular targeted therapies are effective for advanced melanoma. Non-antigen-specific immunotherapies such as immunocheckpoint blockades have been shown to be effective in the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, the response rates remain low. To improve their efficacy, they should be combined with antigen-specific immunotherapy. Elevated expression of the transcription factor, Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), has been reported in various human cancers, and it has been shown to have potential as a target for immunotherapy...
2015: PloS One
Francesco Massari, Matteo Santoni, Chiara Ciccarese, Daniele Santini
The notion that the immune system can act as a key factor in controlling cancer cell proliferation and thus its stimulation may be an important resource for cancer therapy has long been known. Tumors can elude the immune system by deploying proteins that shut down the immune response by binding to specific surface receptors on immune cells. Several promising strategies have been designed to overcome cancer cells' ability to suppress the immune surveillance. Immune checkpoint molecules that block cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (ipilimumab) or the programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 axis (i...
July 2015: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
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