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Substance abuse in trauma patients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520660/childhood-trauma-and-lifetime-traumatic-brain-injury-among-individuals-who-are-homeless
#1
Michael Jae Song, Mohammadali Nikoo, Fiona Choi, Christian G Sch├╝tz, Kerry Jang, Reinhard Michael Krausz
OBJECTIVES: To study the association of childhood trauma and lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among individuals who are homeless. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Three cities in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred individuals who are homeless and 19 years of age or older in 2009. MEASUREMENTS: Traumatic brain injury was identified with National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) and childhood trauma using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426546/methamphetamine-use-and-dependence-in-vulnerable-female-populations
#2
Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon, Soontaree Srikosai, Apisak Wittayanookulluk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study reviews recent publications on methamphetamine use and dependence women in term of their epidemic, physical health impact, psychosocial impacts, and also in the identified vulnerable issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of vulnerable populations of women are wide ranging and include sex workers, sexual minorities, homeless, psychiatric patients, suburban women, and pregnant women, in which amphetamine type stimulants (ATSs) are the most commonly reported illicit drug used among them...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388283/does-trauma-exposure-predict-prescription-drug-problems-beyond-the-contribution-of-ptsd-depression-an-analysis-of-the-mind-your-heart-cohort-study
#3
Raj K Kalapatapu, Tatiana P Dannenbaum, John D Harbison, Beth E Cohen
BACKGROUND: It is not clear from prior studies whether trauma exposure predicts substance use problems independent of psychiatric comorbidities. Most prior studies were cross-sectional in nature, and none focused on prescription drug problems. AIMS: To address this gap in the literature, this paper is a secondary analysis of veterans from the Mind Your Heart prospective cohort study. The primary research question is whether trauma exposure predicts prescription drug problems even after controlling for major psychiatric symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258762/patient-outcomes-at-urban-and-suburban-level-i-versus-level-ii-trauma-centers
#4
Amy H Kaji, Nichole Bosson, Marianne Gausche-Hill, Aaron J Dawes, Brant Putnam, Tchaka Shepherd, Roger J Lewis
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Regionalized systems of trauma care and level verification are promulgated by the American College of Surgeons. Whether patient outcomes differ between the 2 highest verifications, Levels I and II, is unknown. In contrast to Level II centers, Level I centers are required to care for a minimum number of severely injured patients, have immediate availability of subspecialty services and equipment, and demonstrate research, substance abuse screening, and injury prevention...
February 23, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149195/non-unions-after-fixation-of-humeral-fractures-using-hackethal-s-bundle-nailing-technique
#5
Petr Obruba, Stefan Rammelt, Lubomir Kopp, Karel Edelmann, Jakub Avenarius
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify factors contributing to the development of non-union after fixation of diaphyseal humeral fractures using Hackethal's intramedullary nailing technique. METHODS: In the time period from 2001 to 2010 156 patients with diaphyseal humeral fractures were treated surgically using Hackethal's technique. Six of them (3.8%) developed non-union. This group included three women and two men aged 63-69 years and one woman aged 37 years...
September 2016: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147254/pre-treatment-predictors-of-dropout-from-prolonged-exposure-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-comorbid-substance-use-disorders
#6
Emily L Belleau, Eu Gene Chin, Sonya G Wanklyn, Laura Zambrano-Vazquez, Julie A Schumacher, Scott F Coffey
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are commonly co-occurring disorders associated with more adverse consequences than PTSD alone. Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is one of the most efficacious treatments for PTSD. However, among individuals with PTSD-SUD, 35-62% of individuals drop out of trauma-focused exposure treatments. Thus, it is important to identify predictors of PTSD treatment dropout among substance abusers with PTSD in order to gain information about adapting treatment strategies to enhance retention and outcomes...
April 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107388/factors-moderating-the-relationship-between-childhood-trauma-and-premorbid-adjustment-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#7
S Kilian, J K Burns, S Seedat, L Asmal, B Chiliza, S Du Plessis, M R Olivier, M Kidd, R Emsley
Childhood trauma is a recognised risk factor for schizophrenia. It has been proposed that childhood trauma interferes with normal neurodevelopment, thereby establishing a biological vulnerability to schizophrenia. Poor premorbid adjustment is frequently a precursor to schizophrenia, and may be a manifestation of neurodevelopmental compromise. We investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment in 77 patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We also investigated possible mediating roles for other selected risk factors in the relationship...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074563/a-time-and-motion-study-of-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-implementation-in-health-care-settings
#8
Alexander J Cowell, William N Dowd, Justin Landwehr, Carolina Barbosa, Jeremy W Bray
AIMS: Screening and brief intervention for harmful substance use in medical settings is being promoted heavily in the United States. To justify service provision fiscally, the field needs accurate estimates of the number and type of staff required to provide services, and thus the time taken to perform activities used to deliver services. This study analyzed the time spent in activities for the component services of the substance misuse Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program implemented in emergency departments, in-patient units and ambulatory clinics...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072643/early-life-trauma-in-hospitalized-patients-with-mood-disorders-and-its-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#9
Ajay K Parsaik, Noha Abdelgawad, Jigar K Chotalia, Scott D Lane, Teresa A Pigott
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood trauma and its impact on clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with mood disorders is unknown. We studied the frequency of childhood trauma among inpatient adults with mood disorders and its association with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients admitted to our hospital with a primary diagnosis of mood disorders completed the short form of the Early Trauma Inventory-Self-Report (ETISR-SF), the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Clinician-Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity scale...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043728/acute-compartment-syndrome-caused-by-uncontrolled-hypothyroidism
#10
Anar Modi, Hari Amin, Matthew Salzman, Farah Morgan
Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004983/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia-in-critically-ill-trauma-and-burn-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Kristen L Bunnell, Andrew R Zullo, Christine Collins, Charles A Adams
BACKGROUND: The timing and risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in trauma patients are not well characterized. This information is critical for the selection of appropriate empiric antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of MRSA pneumonia in early-onset and late-onset pneumonia and to identify risk factors for MRSA in the trauma-burn intensive care unit (ICU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from January 2012 to March 2015 of patients in the trauma and burn ICU with clinical and microbiologic evidence of pneumonia...
February 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786516/trauma-focused-exposure-therapy-for-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-alcohol-and-drug-dependent-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Scott F Coffey, Julie A Schumacher, Elizabeth Nosen, Andrew K Littlefield, Amber M Henslee, Amy Lappen, Paul R Stasiewicz
To test whether a modified version of prolonged exposure (mPE) can effectively treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals with co-occurring PTSD and substance dependence, an efficacy trial was conducted in which substance dependent treatment-seekers with PTSD (N = 126, male = 54.0%, White = 79.4%) were randomly assigned to mPE, mPE + trauma-focused motivational enhancement session (mPE + MET-PTSD), or a health information-based control condition (HLS). All participants were multiply traumatized; the median number of reported traumas that satisfied DSM-IV Criterion A for PTSD was 8...
November 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747539/risk-factors-associated-with-legal-interventions
#13
Alfreda Holloway-Beth, Linda Forst, Julia Lippert, Sherry Brandt-Rauf, Sally Freels, Lee Friedman
BACKGROUND: Current research regarding injuries caused during interactions between police officers and civilians is conducted intermittently or on a very narrow sample frame which provides very little clinical information about the injuries suffered or the adverse outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify comorbid risk factors and describe acute outcomes of medically treated traumatic injuries occurring as a result of contact with law enforcement personnel. METHODS: For this retrospective study, patients injured as a result of contact with law enforcement personnel were identified using ICD-9 external cause of injury codes from medical record databases of patients treated in all hospitals and trauma units in Illinois between 2000 and 2009...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703960/effect-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-demographic-factors-on-psychological-outcome
#14
Elham Shafiei, Esmaeil Fakharian, Abdollah Omidi, Hossein Akbari, Ali Delpisheh
BACKGROUND: It is well-known that severe brain injury can make people susceptible to psychological symptoms. However, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is still open for discussion. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare psychological symptoms of MTBI patients with those without MTBI considering demographic auxiliary variables. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 50 MTBI patients and 50 healthy subjects aged 15 - 65 years...
June 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576933/acute-mental-disorders-and-short-and-long-term-morbidity-in-patients-with-third-degree-flame-burn-a-population-based-outcome-study-of-96-451-patients-from-the-nationwide-inpatient-sample-nis-database-2001-2011
#15
Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, Diane M Durgan, Ronald S Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Although burn patients with preexisting mood disorders have been shown to have diminished clinical recovery, acute mental disorders (AMD) are often unrecognized despite a link with post-traumatic stress disorder and social maladjustment later on. This study assessed the clinical profile of a large cohort of burn patients who developed AMD compared to those with chronic mental illness (CMI) and those without mental health problems to assess the impact of AMI on burn outcomes...
December 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537516/a-single-center-retrospective-review-of-post-operative-infectious-complications-in-the-surgical-management-of-mandibular-fractures-post-operative-antibiotics-add-no-benefit
#16
Fernando Domingo, Elizabeth Dale, Cuilan Gao, Cynthia Groves, J Daniel Stanley, Robert A Maxwell, Jimmy L Waldrop
BACKGROUND: Mandibular fractures are common facial injuries and treatment may be complicated by post-operative infection. Risk of infection from contamination with oral flora is well established but no consensus exists regarding antibiotic prophylaxis. The purpose of this study is to assess risk factors and perioperative antibiotics on surgical site infection (SSI) rates following mandibular fracture surgery. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review was completed for trauma patients of any age surgically treated for mandibular fractures at a Level I Trauma Center from September 2006 to June 2012...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517964/ptsd-symptom-severities-interpersonal-traumas-and-benzodiazepines-are-associated-with-substance-related-problems-in-trauma-patients
#17
Jeffrey Guina, Ramzi W Nahhas, Adam J Goldberg, Seth Farnsworth
BACKGROUND: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs) are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472), we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis), as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses) in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions...
2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451895/risk-factors-for-recurrent-violent-injury-among-black-men
#18
Joseph B Richardson, Christopher St Vil, Tanya Sharpe, Michael Wagner, Carnell Cooper
BACKGROUND: Black men are disproportionately overrepresented among victims of repeat violent injury. However, little is known about the risk factors that influence violent trauma recidivism among black men. We hypothesize that the following risk factors would be significant among black male victims of repeat violent injury: disrespect; being under the influence; being in a fight and using a weapon in the past year; and previous incarceration when comparing trauma recidivists versus nonrecidivists...
July 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436455/barriers-and-facilitators-to-recognition-and-reporting-of-child-abuse-by-prehospital-providers
#19
Gunjan Kamdar Tiyyagura, Marcie Gawel, Aimee Alphonso, Jeannette Koziel, Kyle Bilodeau, Kirsten Bechtel
BACKGROUND: Prehospital care providers are in a unique position to provide initial unadulterated information about the scene where a child is abusively injured or neglected. However, they receive minimal training with respect to detection of Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) and make few reports of suspected CAN to child protective services. AIMS: To explore barriers and facilitators to the recognition and reporting of CAN by prehospital care providers. DESIGN/METHODS: Twenty-eight prehospital care providers participated in a simulated case of infant abusive head trauma prior to participating in one-on-one semi-structured qualitative debriefs...
January 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359281/frequency-of-recidivism-in-patients-with-orthopedic-trauma
#20
Juliann C Koleszar, Benjamin R Childs, Heather A Vallier
The goals of this study were to determine the frequency of trauma recidivism and to identify risk factors. The authors hypothesized that substance abuse and mental illness would be associated with recidivism. They performed a retrospective review of 879 patients who were treated surgically for high-energy fractures over a period of 4 years. Recidivism was defined as presentation to the trauma center for a new, unrelated injury. A recurrent recidivist was a repeat patient who returned for more than 1 additional injury...
September 1, 2016: Orthopedics
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