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Pns and pain

Timothy J Ness, Alan Randich, Dwight E Nelson, Xin Su
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neuromodulation has been reported to reliably improve symptoms of bladder overactivity and sometimes pain. The effect of electrical stimulation of several nerve pathways demonstrated to alter cystometric responses to bladder distension was examined on nociceptive responses in models of bladder hypersensitivity. METHODS: Bladder hypersensitivity was produced by several published methods including neonatal inflammation, acute inflammation, and chronic stress...
September 28, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Krishnan Chakravarthy, Andrew Nava, Paul J Christo, Kayode Williams
Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for the treatment of chronic pain has become an increasingly important field in the arena of neuromodulation, given the ongoing advances in electrical neuromodulation technology since 1999 permitting minimally invasive approaches using an percutaneous approach as opposed to implantable systems. Our review aims to provide clinicians with the recent advances and studies in the field, with specific emphasis on clinical data and indications that have been accumulated over the last several years...
November 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Jose V León-Hernández, Aitor Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Laura G Frutos, Isabel M Alguacil-Diego, Ana I de la Llave-Rincón, Josue Fernandez-Carnero
BACKGROUND: Dry needling (DN) and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) are widely used techniques in the treatment of myofascial pain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the immediate and short-term effects of the combination of DN and PENS compared to DN alone on the upper trapezius muscle. METHOD: This is a 72-hour follow-up single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sixty-two volunteer patients with chronic myofascial neck pain with active Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs) in the upper trapezius muscle were recruited...
July 11, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Sweta S Lohiya, Seema V Patel, Apurva M Pawde, Bhagyashree D Bokare, Prafulla T Sakhare
Evaluation of the accuracy of objective diagnostic modalities for chronic rhinosinusitis and their comparison to each other to reach the correct diagnosis with minimum cost and highest accuracy. Prospective diagnostic cohort study. Academic medical center. Subjects more than 10 years of age presenting for evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis, not responding to 12 weeks of medical treatment, suffering from at least 2 or more of the following symptoms- nasal obstruction, anterior and or posterior nasal discharge, headache or facial pains, and abnormalities of smell were prospectively studied...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Poonam Sachin Ghodki, Noopur Dasmit Singh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We compared interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) using peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) and ultrasound (US) techniques. The primary outcomes were the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis (HDP) and the duration of the block. Secondary outcomes were the block success rate, time to conduct the block, onset of sensory block, and dermatomal spread, postoperative pain by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), duration of postoperative analgesia and incidence of complications...
April 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Gareth R Tibbs, David J Posson, Peter A Goldstein
Neuropathic pain arises from injury to the nervous system. Conditions associated with neuropathic pain are diverse, and lesions and/or pathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS) can frequently, but not always, be identified. It is difficult to treat, with patients often on multiple, different classes of medications, all with appreciable adverse side effect profiles. Consequently, there is a pressing need for the development of new medications. The development of such therapeutics is predicated on a clear understanding of the relevant molecular and cellular processes that contribute to the development, and maintenance, of the neuropathic pain state...
July 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Lila M Landowski, P James B Dyck, JaNean Engelstad, Bruce V Taylor
Peripheral neuropathies (PNs) are injuries or diseases of the nerves which arise from varied aetiology, including metabolic disease, trauma and drug toxicity. The clinical presentation depends on the type of neuropathy, and may include the loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions, or development of debilitating neuropathic pain distal to the injury site. It can be challenging to identify the aetiology of PNs, as the clinical syndromes are often indistinct. However, the mechanisms that underlie pathological changes in peripheral neuropathy are fundamentally different, depending on the trigger...
October 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Haim Shapiro, Pierre Singer, Amiram Ariel
Pain is a complex sensation that may be protective or cause undue suffering and loss of function, depending on the circumstances. Peripheral nociceptor neurons (PNs) innervate most tissues, and express ion channels, nocisensors, which depolarize the cell in response to intense stimuli and numerous substances. Inflamed tissues manifest inflammatory hyperalgesia in which the threshold for pain and the response to painful stimuli are decreased and increased, respectively. Constituents of the inflammatory milieu sensitize PNs, thereby contributing to hyperalgesia...
August 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Sharad S Darandale, Ganesh B Shevalkar, Pradeep R Vavia
Current endeavor was aimed towards studying significance of lipid composition on free propofol concentration in aqueous phase and associated pain on injection. Three different nanoformulations, namely long-chain triglyceride (LCT)/medium-chain glyceride (MCG)-based nanoemulsion (ProNano), MCG-based self-nanoemulsifying formulation (PSNE), and lipid-free nanoformulation (PNS) were accessed for the same. In vitro and in vivo performances of developed formulations were compared with Diprivan®. ProNano showed minimum free propofol concentration (0...
April 7, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Staci Martin, Pamela L Wolters, Mary Anne Toledo-Tamula, Shawn Nelson Schmitt, Andrea Baldwin, Amy Starosta, Andrea Gillespie, Brigitte Widemann
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder affecting about 1 in 3,500 individuals. Chronic pain is commonly reported among individuals with NF1 and plexiform neurofibroma tumors (PNs). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), an empirically supported method for addressing chronic pain, helps individuals re-focus on valued relationships and activities. This pilot study investigated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a brief ACT workshop in the NF1 population. Eligible participants included adolescents and young adults (AYA; 12-21 years) with NF1 and chronic pain that interfered with daily functioning and their parents...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Ji Hye Choi, Shu Chung Choi, Dong Kyu Kim, Choon Ho Sung, Jin Young Chon, Sung Jin Hong, Ji Young Lee, Ho Sik Moon
Brachial plexopathy usually results from an iatrogenic brachial plexus injury and can sometimes cause severe chronic pain and disability. There are a number of possible treatments for this condition, including medication, physical therapy, nerve blocks, and neuromodulation, but they are not always successful. Recently, combined spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) have been tried for various chronic pain diseases because of their different mechanisms of action.Here, we describe the case of a 54-year-old man who was diagnosed with brachial plexopathy 8 years ago...
March 2016: Pain Physician
Shi-Hao Gao, Hui-Zhong Wen, Lin-Lin Shen, Yan-Dong Zhao, Huai-Zhen Ruan
Neuronal hyperexcitability in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is considered as one of the most important pathological changes responsible for the chronification of neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. We found a substantial decrease in hyperpolarization-activated/cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) currents in layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5 PNs) in ACC slices, which dramatically increased the excitability of these neurons...
June 2016: Neuropharmacology
He-Bin Yao, Ya-Ning Chen, Jian Shang, Qiao-Jun Han
The current study reports the case of a 61-year-old man with diabetes who was suffering from generalized pain over the whole body and gradually progressive numbness. The patient was initially diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and received treatment, however, the symptoms persisted. In October 2010, the patient was admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy General Hospital (Beijing, China) for the treatment of diabetes, however, a full-body sharp pain was also described, which was relieved upon massaging the area...
December 2015: Oncology Letters
Panagiotis Kallidonis, Jason Kyriazis, Wissam Kamal, Francesco Porpiglia, Evangelos Liatsikos
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of mini-laparoscopic instruments in combination with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) instruments for the performance of oncological urological surgery. METHODS: Thirty-five patients underwent oncological hybrid LESS either mini-laparoscopic-assisted LESS partial nephrectomy (LESS-PN, n = 12) or mini-laparoscopic-assisted LESS radical nephrectomy (LESS-RN, n = 23). Perioperative data were prospectively collected. The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) was used for the evaluation of the cosmetic outcome...
September 2016: World Journal of Urology
Toshiyuki Hijikata, Takahiro Mihara, Nobuhito Nakamura, Takaaki Miwa, Koui Ka, Takahisa Goto
BACKGROUND: Emergence agitation is common in children recovering from general anaesthesia. The prevention of emergence agitation remains an important challenge in the field of paediatric anaesthesia. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the effectiveness of electrically stimulating the heart 7 (HT7) acupuncture site with a peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS) during surgery, for preventing emergence agitation in paediatric patients recovering from general anaesthesia. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel-group trial...
July 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Christopher R Abrecht, Rodney A Gabriel, Richard P Dutton, Alan D Kaye, Edward Michna, Richard D Urman
BACKGROUND: There is abundant literature on the long-term complications of intrathecal pumps (ITP), spinal cord stimulators (SCS), and peripheral nerve stimulators (PNS) used in the treatment of chronic pain. There is less information, however, on the perioperative complications of these procedures. OBJECTIVE: Exploration of the perioperative outcomes of implantable pain devices. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: University hospitals, community hospitals, specialty hospitals, attached surgery centers, and freestanding surgery centers METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry (NACOR) of the Anesthesia Quality Institute (AQI)...
November 2015: Pain Physician
Selina Johnson, Andreas Goebel
BACKGROUND: External noninvasive peripheral nerve stimulation (EN-PNS) is a neuromodulation technique in which a low-frequency electrical stimulation is applied via a ball-shaped electrode that is placed directly onto the skin. OBJECTIVES: To examine how this modality is being used in the long term, by patients with chronic neuropathic pain who had responded to this treatment in a short-term trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with a diagnosis of neuropathic pain who had obtained a machine for continued long-term use (via special funding requests), following a successful trial between 2009 and 2012 were contacted...
November 10, 2015: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
V B Kulyk, I V Chizhmakov, T M Volkova, O P Maximyuk, O A Krishtal
Homomeric P2X3 receptors expressed in primary nociceptive neurons are crucial elements in the pain signal generation. In turn, opioid system regulates the intensity of this signal in both CNS and PNS. Here we describe the effects of opioids on P2X3 receptors in DRG neurons studied by using patch clamp technique. Activation of G-protein coupled opioid receptors by endogenous opioid Leu-enkephalin (Leu), resulted in the two opposite effects on P2X3 receptor-mediated currents (P2X3 currents). In particular, application of 1 µM Leu lead to the complete inhibition of P2X3 currents...
2015: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
Pallavi Asthana, Joaquim Si Long Vong, Gajendra Kumar, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Gang Zhang, Kazim A Sheikh, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune polyneuropathy disease affecting the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Most of the GBS patients experienced neurological symptoms such as paresthesia, weakness, pain, and areflexia. There are also combinations of non-neurological symptoms which include upper respiratory tract infection and diarrhea. One of the major causes of GBS is due largely to the autoantibodies against gangliosides located on the peripheral nerves. Gangliosides are sialic acid-bearing glycosphingolipids consisting of a ceramide lipid anchor with one or more sialic acids attached to a neutral sugar backbone...
September 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Shumaila Arooj, Arfanul Haq, Zafar Amin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in differentiating causes of acute right lower quadrant pain in women of child-bearing age by taking surgical outcome as the gold standard. METHODS: The descriptive analytical study was conducted at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2008, and comprised female patients of child-bearing age who presented with acute right lower quadrant pain and underwent surgery after ultrasonography...
September 2015: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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