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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934584/principles-and-benefits-of-explicitly-designed-medical-device-safety-architecture
#1
Brian R Larson, Paul Jones, Yi Zhang, John Hatcliff
The complexity of medical devices and the processes by which they are developed pose considerable challenges to producing safe designs and regulatory submissions that are amenable to effective reviews. Designing an appropriate and clearly documented architecture can be an important step in addressing this complexity. Best practices in medical device design embrace the notion of a safety architecture organized around distinct operation and safety requirements. By explicitly separating many safety-related monitoring and mitigation functions from operational functionality, the aspects of a device most critical to safety can be localized into a smaller and simpler safety subsystem, thereby enabling easier verification and more effective reviews of claims that causes of hazardous situations are detected and handled properly...
2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932930/understanding-and-resolving-conflicting-traditions-a-macintyrean-approach-to-shared-deliberation-in-medical-ethics
#2
Jessica Adkins
The position of clinical ethicist exists to help resolve conflicts in the hospital. Sometimes these conflicts arise because of fundamental cultural differences between the patient and the medical team, and such cases present special challenges. Should the ideology of modern medicine reject the wishes of those who hold ideologies from differing cultures? How can the medical ethicist help resolve such conflicts? To answer these questions, I rely on the works of Alasdair MacIntyre. Using MacIntyre's philosophy, we can better understand why traditions exist, how conflicts arise, and how opposing traditions can collaborate in shared decision making...
September 20, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931484/partnership-for-development-a-peer-mentorship-model-for-phd-students
#3
Allison A Lewinski, Tara Mann, Dalmacio Flores, Ashlee Vance, Janet Prvu Bettger, Rachel Hirschey
Formal mentoring relationships socialize Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) students to their current and future roles as nursing scholars. Despite formal mentoring, some students may desire or benefit from additional mentoring in an informal setting. Informal mentoring complements the one-to-one relationship students develop with a primary faculty mentor or dissertation chair. This manuscript describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a student-driven, peer mentorship model, titled Partnership for Development...
September 2017: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930714/vaccine-exemptions-and-the-church-state-problem
#4
Dena S Davis
All of the 50 states of the United States have laws governing childhood vaccinations; 48 allow for religious exemptions, while 19 also offer exemptions based on some sort of personal philosophy. Recent disease outbreaks have caused these states to reconsider philosophical exemptions. However, we cannot, consistent with the U.S. Constitution, give preference to religion by creating religious exemptions only. The Constitution requires states to put religious and nonreligious claims on equal footing. Given the ubiquity of nonreligious objections to vaccination, I conclude that the best response is to remove all exemptions, as two states have already done...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929876/le-leadership-en-sant%C3%A3-et-la-philosophie-appliqu%C3%A3-e-une-ressource-essentielle
#5
Elizabeth Fistein, David Cruise Malloy
En qualité de professionnels de la santé, nous sommes déterminés à assurer l'exploitation efficiente et efficace de nos établissements. Les outils dont nous disposons sont les structures bureaucratiques, les règles, les règlements, les politiques et, bien sûr, les mesures. Il n'y a rien de foncièrement pernicieux à avoir des établissements efficients, efficaces et mesurés, mais nous soutenons que l'humanité et l'authenticité manquent cruellement dans cet environnement, au prix d'un travail significatif...
July 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929874/healthcare-leadership-and-applied-philosophy-an-essential-resource
#6
Elizabeth Fistein, David Cruise Malloy
As healthcare professionals we are committed to the efficient and effective operation of our institutions. Bureaucratic structures, rules, regulations, policies, and of course, measurements, are the tools-at-hand. While there is nothing inherently pernicious about efficient, effective, and measured institutions, we argue what is critically missing in this environment is humanity and authenticity at the cost of meaningful work. The solutions we offer are found in the realm of philosophy and in particular that branch of philosophy that deals with first principles - what is a nurse; what is a patient; what is a hospital?...
July 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929858/partnering-to-develop-a-talent-pipeline-for-emerging-health-leaders-in-operations-research
#7
Alfred Ng, Carly Henshaw, Michael Carter
In initiating its first central office for Quality Improvement (QI), The Scarborough Hospital (TSH) sought to accelerate momentum towards achieving its "Quality and Sustainability" strategic priority by building internal capacity in the emerging QI specialty of operations research. The Scarborough Hospital reviewed existing models of talent management in conjunction with Lean and improvement philosophies. Through simple guiding principles and in collaboration with the University of Toronto's Centre for Healthcare Engineering, TSH developed a targeted approach to talent management for Operations Research (OR) in the Office of Innovation and Performance Improvement, reduced the time from staffing need to onboarding, accelerated the development of new staff in delivering QI and OR projects, and defined new structures and processes to retain and develop this group of new emerging health leaders...
May 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928679/determinants-of-judgments-of-explanatory-power-credibility-generality-and-statistical-relevance
#8
Matteo Colombo, Leandra Bucher, Jan Sprenger
Explanation is a central concept in human psychology. Drawing upon philosophical theories of explanation, psychologists have recently begun to examine the relationship between explanation, probability and causality. Our study advances this growing literature at the intersection of psychology and philosophy of science by systematically investigating how judgments of explanatory power are affected by (i) the prior credibility of an explanatory hypothesis, (ii) the causal framing of the hypothesis, (iii) the perceived generalizability of the explanation, and (iv) the relation of statistical relevance between hypothesis and evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925960/curvature-continuous-and-bounded-path-planning-for-fixed-wing-uavs
#9
Xiaoliang Wang, Peng Jiang, Deshi Li, Tao Sun
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) play an important role in applications such as data collection and target reconnaissance. An accurate and optimal path can effectively increase the mission success rate in the case of small UAVs. Although path planning for UAVs is similar to that for traditional mobile robots, the special kinematic characteristics of UAVs (such as their minimum turning radius) have not been taken into account in previous studies. In this paper, we propose a locally-adjustable, continuous-curvature, bounded path-planning algorithm for fixed-wing UAVs...
September 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923126/-drawing-aside-the-curtain-natural-childbirth-on-screen-in-1950s-britain
#10
Salim Al-Gailani
This article recovers the importance of film, and its relations to other media, in communicating the philosophies and methods of 'natural childbirth' in the post-war period. It focuses on an educational film made in South Africa around 1950 by controversial British physician Grantly Dick-Read, who had achieved international fame with bestselling books arguing that relaxation and education, not drugs, were the keys to freeing women from pain in childbirth. But he soon came to regard the 'vivid' medium of film as a more effective means of disseminating the 'truth of [his] mission' to audiences who might never have read his books...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922907/organ-vouchers-and-barter-markets-saving-lives-reducing-suffering-and-trading-in-human-organs
#11
Mark J Cherry
The essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy explore an innovative voucher program for encouraging kidney donation. Discussions cluster around a number of central moral and political/theoretical themes: (1) What are the direct and indirect health care costs and benefits of such a voucher system in human organs? (2) Do vouchers lead to more effective and efficient organ procurement and allocation or contribute to greater inequalities and inefficiencies in the transplantation system? (3) Do vouchers contribute to the inappropriate commodification of human body parts? (4) Is there a significant moral difference between such a voucher system and a market in human organs for transplantation? This paper argues that while kidney vouchers constitute a step in the right direction, fuller utilization of market-based incentives, including, but not limited to, barter exchanges (e...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922473/children-s-theories-of-the-self
#12
Christina Starmans
This article provides a theoretical review of the developmental origins of children's "folk theories" about the nature of the self, linking theoretical developments in philosophy with empirical discoveries from developmental psychology. The article first reviews children's views about the material nature of the self, outlining evidence that children naturally think about the self as distinct from the body. It then discusses children's understanding of the persistence of the self over time and, finally, explores children's views about conflict within the self...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922416/multi-level-computational-methods-for-interdisciplinary-research-in-the-hathitrust-digital-library
#13
Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen, Katy Börner, Robert Light, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, Robert Rose, Doori Rose, Jun Otsuka, David Bourget, John Lawrence, Chris Reed
We show how faceted search using a combination of traditional classification systems and mixed-membership topic models can go beyond keyword search to inform resource discovery, hypothesis formulation, and argument extraction for interdisciplinary research. Our test domain is the history and philosophy of scientific work on animal mind and cognition. The methods can be generalized to other research areas and ultimately support a system for semi-automatic identification of argument structures. We provide a case study for the application of the methods to the problem of identifying and extracting arguments about anthropomorphism during a critical period in the development of comparative psychology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918826/islamic-medicine-in-the-middle-ages
#14
EDITORIAL
Hawa Edriss, Brittany N Rosales, Connie Nugent, Christian Conrad, Kenneth Nugent
The Islamic culture flourished between the 9th and 13th centuries. Scholars from this era made significant contributions in mathematics, science and medicine. Caliphs and physicians built hospitals that provided universal care and the foundation for medical education. Physician-scientists made significant advances in medical care, surgery and pharmacology. Notable authorities include al-Razi (865-925 CE) who wrote the Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine), a 23-volume textbook that provided the main medical curriculum for European schools into the 14th century...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916330/brains-language-and-the-argumentative-mind-in-western-and-eastern-societies-the-fertile-differences-between-western-eastern-argumentative-traditions
#15
REVIEW
Jordi Vallverdú
The philosophical differences between Western and Eastern philosophy not only derive from general cultural ideas about reality, but as Nisbet writes (2003), are also methodological, ontological, and cognitively driven. Thus, we can see that strategies of thought and theory-generation are constrained and enabled by conceptual levels, and that the existence of differences and within these levels may be pragmatically combined in fruitful ways. At this point, I remark that there is not a single way to connect biology and culture, but at least we need to admit that brains allow the existence of minds and that these create languages, which also organize the world symbolically following a long set of (sometimes interconnected) heuristics...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916329/ecological-extension-of-the-theory-of-evolution-by-natural-selection-from-a-perspective-of-western-and-eastern-holistic-philosophy
#16
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Nakajima
Evolution by natural selection requires the following conditions: (1) a particular selective environment, (2) variation of traits in the population; (3) differential survival/reproduction among types of organisms; and (4) heritable traits. However, the traditional (standard) model does not unclearly explain how and why these conditions are generated or determined. What generates a selective environment? What generates new types? How does a certain type replace, or coexist, with others? In this paper, based on the holistic philosophy in Western and Eastern traditions, I focus on the ecosystem as a higher-level system and generator of conditions that induce the evolution of local populations; I also aim to identify the ecosystem processes that generate those conditions...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914621/ce-original-research-exploring-how-nursing-schools-handle-student-errors-and-near-misses
#17
Joanne Disch, Jane Barnsteiner, Susan Connor, Fabiana Brogren
This study, part 1 of a two-part series, reports survey findings that indicate areas for improvement. ABSTRACT: Background: Little attention has been paid to how nursing students learn about quality and safety, and to the tools and policies that guide nursing schools in helping students respond to errors and near misses. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine whether prelicensure nursing programs have a policy for reporting and following up on student clinical errors and near misses, a tool for such reporting, a tool or process (or both) for identifying trends, strategies for follow-up with students after errors and near misses, and strategies for follow-up with clinical agencies and individual faculty members...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914076/integrative-review-of-the-literature-on-hispanics-and-hospice
#18
Margaret L Rising, Dena S Hassouneh, Kristin F Lutz, Chris S Lee, Pat Berry
The provision of optimal end-of-life care to Hispanics receiving hospice care requires familiarity with hospice-specific variables. For example, a preference for nondisclosure of terminal prognosis in some Hispanics is incongruous with traditional hospice practice. In addition, the Spanish word for hospice, "hospicio," has negative connotations about abandonment of loved ones. Added to cultural considerations are socioeconomic considerations. Many marginalized Hispanic individuals may experience distinct challenges when enrolling in hospice due to socioeconomic hardships relating to poverty, citizenship, and lack of insurance...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901918/enhancing-the-relationship-between-regulators-and-their-profession
#19
Zubin Austin
Regulators face unique pressures to balance competing priorities related to patient safety, public accountability, and practitioners' expectations. Historically, the collegial model of self-regulation has been used as a tool for risk management, to recognize the importance of profession- and context-specific judgment in complex, ambiguous clinical situations. Increasingly, as public accountability concerns have grown dominant within regulatory bodies, this collegial model has shifted toward a more antagonistic relationship between the regulators and the regulated...
2017: HealthcarePapers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901871/citizenship-and-learning-disabled-people-the-mental-health-charity-mind-s-1970s-campaign-in-historical%C3%A2-context
#20
Jonathan Toms
Current policy and practice directed towards people with learning disabilities originates in the deinstitutionalisation processes, civil rights concerns and integrationist philosophies of the 1970s and 1980s. However, historians know little about the specific contexts within which these were mobilised. Although it is rarely acknowledged in the secondary literature, MIND was prominent in campaigning for rights-based services for learning disabled people during this time. This article sets MIND's campaign within the wider historical context of the organisation's origins as a main institution of the inter-war mental hygiene movement...
October 2017: Medical History
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