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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327213/are-stereotypes-accurate-a-perspective-from-the-cognitive-science-of-concepts
#1
Lin Bian, Andrei Cimpian
In his 2012 book, Jussim suggests that people's beliefs about various groups (i.e., their stereotypes) are largely accurate. We unpack this claim using the distinction between generic and statistical beliefs - a distinction supported by extensive evidence in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and philosophy. Regardless of whether one understands stereotypes as generic or statistical beliefs about groups, skepticism remains about the rationality of social judgments.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323517/differences-in-adolescent-emotion-regulation-and-impulsivity-a-group-comparison-study-of-school-based-recovery-students
#2
Beth S Russell, Anne Thompson Heller, Morica Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Recovery high schools (RHS) vary in organization and operating philosophy, but are designed to support the unique needs of students struggling with substance use disorders (SUD). Previous research on youth risk taking behaviors suggests emotion regulation is a key predictor of outcomes. Specifically, the ability to respond in adaptive rather than maladaptive ways is often associated with challenges of impulsivity, poor distress tolerance, and adolescent substance use. OBJECTIVES: The current study considers data from RHS students in order to answer research questions concerning impulsivity and emotion regulation of youth working to change their risk trajectories in comparison to group of typically developing youth...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321865/inching-towards-wholeness-c-g-jung-and-his-relationship-to-judaism
#3
Steve Zemmelman
The evolution of Jung's relationship with Judaism is interpreted as reflecting aspects of the individuation journey over the course of a long life. The progress and limitations of his public positions and personal relationships are explored through his published work and correspondence. Perspectives from relational psychoanalysis and Jewish philosophy are used to amplify Jung's understanding of Jewish, and specifically Kabbalistic, text and image. Dimensions of the author's own journey toward greater acceptance of his own Jewish soul is also considered, along with the wider contemporary relevance of these themes...
April 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320337/barriers-and-facilitators-to-use-of-non-pharmacological-treatments-in-chronic-pain
#4
William C Becker, Lindsey Dorflinger, Sara N Edmond, Leila Islam, Alicia A Heapy, Liana Fraenkel
BACKGROUND: Consensus guidelines recommend multi-modal chronic pain treatment with increased uptake of non-pharmacological pain treatment modalities (NPMs). We aimed to identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of evidence-based NPMs from the perspectives of patients, nurses and primary care providers (PCPs). METHODS: We convened eight separate groups and engaged each in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT) in which participants: (1) created an individual list of barriers (and, in a subsequent round, facilitators) to uptake of NPMs; (2) compiled a group list from the individual lists; and (3) anonymously voted on the top three most important barriers and facilitators...
March 20, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316635/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-integrative-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Riya R Kanherkar, Susan E Stair, Naina Bhatia-Dey, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra, Antonei B Csoka
Since time immemorial humans have utilized natural products and therapies for their healing properties. Even now, in the age of genomics and on the cusp of regenerative medicine, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches represents a popular branch of health care. Furthermore, there is a trend towards a unified medical philosophy referred to as Integrative Medicine (IM) that represents the convergence of CAM and conventional medicine. The IM model not only considers the holistic perspective of the physiological components of the individual, but also includes psychological and mind-body aspects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304000/outcome-based-approach-to-medical-education-towards-academic-programmes-accreditation-a-review-article
#6
Abdelmarouf H Mohieldein
The rapid change worldwide, as a consequence of advances in science and technology, necessitates the graduation of well-qualified graduates who have the appropriate knowledge and skills to fulfill specific work requirements. Hence, redesigning academic models by focusing on educational outcomes became the target and priority for universities around the world. In this systematic review we collected and retrieved literature using a selection of electronic databases. The objectives of this report is to: 1) provide an overview of the evolution of outcome-based education (OBE), (2) illustrate the philosophy and principle of OBE, (3) list the OBE advantages and benefits, (4) describe the assessment strategies used in OBE, and (5) discuss the role of teachers and students as key elements...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303232/scandinavian-exceptionalism-civic-integration-and-labour-market-activation-for-newly-arrived-immigrants
#7
Karen N Breidahl
Since the late 1990s, a wide range of so-called new civic integration policies aimed at civilizing or disciplining newcomers have been introduced. Consequently, migration scholars have discussed whether a converging restrictive 'civic turn' has taken place in Western Europe or whether national models have been resilient: Based on an in-depth historical and comparative analysis of labour market activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark since the early 1990s, the article contributes to the overall question: To what extent do the institutional pathways of the Scandinavian welfare states prevail when confronted with newcomers? Activation policies targeting newly arrived immigrants exemplifies how the ambition of states to promote functional, individual autonomy is also an important, ongoing process in diverse policy areas of the welfare state and not restricted to early integration instruments...
2017: Comp Migr Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302745/current-status-and-future-potential-of-transcatheter-interventions-in-congenital-heart-disease
#8
Damien P Kenny, Ziyad M Hijazi
Percutaneous therapies for congenital heart disease have evolved rapidly in the past 3 decades. This has occurred despite limited investment from industry and support from regulatory bodies resulting in a lack of specific device development. Indeed, many devices remain off-label with a best-fit approach often required, spurning an innovative culture within the subspecialty, which had arguably laid the foundation for many of the current and evolving structural heart interventions. Challenges remain, not least encouraging device design focused on smaller infants and the inevitable consequences of somatic growth...
March 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300480/impossible-decision-an-investigation-of-risk-trade-offs-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#9
Tom W Reader, Geetha Reddy, Stephen J Brett
In the intensive care unit (ICU), clinicians must often make risk trade-offs on patient care. For example, on deciding whether to discharge a patient before they have fully recovered in order to create a bed for another, sicker, patient. When misjudged, these decisions can negatively influence patient outcomes: yet it can be difficult, if not impossible, for clinicians to evaluate with certainty the safest course of action. Using a vignette-based interview methodology, a naturalistic decision-making approach was utilised to study this phenomena...
March 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293181/from-anomalies-to-essential-scientific-revolution-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-the-light-of-kuhn-s-philosophy-of-science
#10
REVIEW
Marek Havlík
The first step toward a modern understanding of fMRI resting brain activity was made by Bharat Biswal in 1995. This surprising, and at first rejected, discovery is now associated with many resting state networks, notably the famous default mode network (DMN). Resting state activity and DMN significantly reassessed our traditional beliefs and conventions about the functioning of the brain. For the majority of the twentieth century, neuroscientists assumed that the brain is mainly the "reactive engine" to the environment operating mostly through stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292691/models-theory-structure-and-mechanisms-in-biochemistry-the-case-of-allosterism
#11
Karina Alleva, José Díez, Lucia Federico
From the perspective of the new mechanistic philosophy, it has been argued that explanatory causal mechanisms in some special sciences such as biochemistry and neurobiology cannot be captured by any useful notion of theory, or at least by any standard notion. The goal of this paper is to show that a model-theoretic notion of theory, and in particular the structuralist notion of a theory-net already applied to other unified explanatory theories, adequately suits the MWC allosteric mechanism explanatory set-up...
March 11, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292291/traditional-arabic-islamic-medicine-validation-and-empirical-assessment-of-a-conceptual-model-in-qatar
#12
Sara N AlRawi, Amal Khidir, Maha S Elnashar, Huda A Abdelrahim, Amal K Killawi, Maya M Hammoud, Michael D Fetters
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates traditional medicine is no longer only used for the healthcare of the poor, its prevalence is also increasing in countries where allopathic medicine is predominant in the healthcare system. While these healing practices have been utilized for thousands of years in the Arabian Gulf, only recently has a theoretical model been developed illustrating the linkages and components of such practices articulated as Traditional Arabic & Islamic Medicine (TAIM). Despite previous theoretical work presenting development of the TAIM model, empirical support has been lacking...
March 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290273/from-the-ebm-pyramid-to-the-greek-temple-a-new-conceptual-approach-to-guidelines-as-implementation-tools-in-mental-health
#13
L Salvador-Carulla, S Lukersmith, W Sullivan
Guideline methods to develop recommendations dedicate most effort around organising discovery and corroboration knowledge following the evidence-based medicine (EBM) framework. Guidelines typically use a single dimension of information, and generally discard contextual evidence and formal expert knowledge and consumer's experiences in the process. In recognition of the limitations of guidelines in complex cases, complex interventions and systems research, there has been significant effort to develop new tools, guides, resources and structures to use alongside EBM methods of guideline development...
April 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287370/a-comparative-analysis-of-center-for-independent-living-staff-and-board-of-directors-regarding-cil-services-and-consumer-participation
#14
Craig Ravesloot, Glen W White, Chiaki Gonda-Kotani, Kelsey Shinnick
Community living of people with disabilities spans independent living and community engagement. Consumer choice and control of their level of community participation requires community accessibility, resources and supports. Some people with disabilities have difficulties procuring and maintaining these resources. Centers for Independent Living (CIL) are advocacy and service agencies that have been empowering consumers to meet their needs for over 40 years. Despite this history, little is known about the value of CIL services for increasing community participation of people with disabilities...
April 2017: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286645/a-treatise-for-a-new-philosophy-of-chiropractic-medicine
#15
Timothy A Mirtz
BACKGROUND: The philosophy of chiropractic has been a much debated entity throughout the existence of the chiropractic profession. Much criticism has been passed upon the historical philosophy of chiropractic and propagated by contemporary adherents. To date, a new philosophy has not been detailed nor presented that demonstrates principles by which to follow. AIM: The purpose of this paper is to expand upon the work of Russell Kirk (b.1918, d. 1994), an American political theorist, as a basis for principles to guide the formation of a philosophy of chiropractic medicine (PCM)...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283052/silent-performances-are-repertoires-really-post-kuhnian
#16
Matthew Sample
Ankeny and Leonelli (2016) propose "repertoires" as a new way to understand the stability of certain research programs as well as scientific change in general. By bringing a more complete range of social, material, and epistemic elements into one framework, they position their work as a correction to the Kuhnian impulse in philosophy of science and other areas of science studies. I argue that this "post-Kuhnian" move is not complete, and that repertoires maintain an internalist perspective. Comparison with an alternative framework, the "sociotechnical imaginaries" of Jasanoff and Kim (2015), illustrates precisely which elements of practice are externalized by Ankeny and Leonelli...
February 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283051/the-many-encounters-of-thomas-kuhn-and-french-epistemology
#17
Massimiliano Simons
The work of Thomas Kuhn has been very influential in Anglo-American philosophy of science and it is claimed that it has initiated the historical turn. Although this might be the case for English speaking countries, in France an historical approach has always been the rule. This article aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Kuhn and French philosophy of science or 'French epistemology'. The first part will argue that he is influenced by French epistemologists, but by lesser known authors than often thought...
February 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282195/conformal-bootstrap-in-mellin-space
#18
Rajesh Gopakumar, Apratim Kaviraj, Kallol Sen, Aninda Sinha
We propose a new approach towards analytically solving for the dynamical content of conformal field theories (CFTs) using the bootstrap philosophy. This combines the original bootstrap idea of Polyakov with the modern technology of the Mellin representation of CFT amplitudes. We employ exchange Witten diagrams with built-in crossing symmetry as our basic building blocks rather than the conventional conformal blocks in a particular channel. Demanding consistency with the operator product expansion (OPE) implies an infinite set of constraints on operator dimensions and OPE coefficients...
February 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281354/integrated-opioid-substitution-therapy-and-hiv-care-a-qualitative-systematic-review-and-synthesis-of-client-and-provider-experiences
#19
Andy Guise, Maureen Seguin, Gitau Mburu, Susie McLean, Pippa Grenfell, Zahed Islam, Sergii Filippovych, Happy Assan, Andrea Low, Peter Vickerman, Tim Rhodes
People who use drugs in many contexts have limited access to opioid substitution therapy and HIV care. Service integration is one strategy identified to support increased access. We reviewed and synthesized literature exploring client and provider experiences of integrated opioid substitution therapy and HIV care to identify acceptable approaches to care delivery. We systematically reviewed qualitative literature. We searched nine bibliographic databases, supplemented by manual searches of reference lists of articles from the database search, relevant journals, conferences, key organizations and consultation with experts...
March 10, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278566/posttraumatic-growth-inventory-factor-structure-in-spanish-speaking-people-living-with-hiv
#20
Helena Garrido-Hernansaiz, Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, Jesús Alonso-Tapia
This cross-sectional study analyzed the factorial structure of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) in a sample of 304 Spanish-speaking HIV-positive adults. Participants completed the PTGI and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out through structural equations modeling, with a Varimax rotation. Factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 were extracted, and items with loadings higher than .5 on a factor and lower than .4 on the rest were retained. Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed to test a hierarchical model and a bifactor model...
February 14, 2017: AIDS Care
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