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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640199/the-role-of-peripheral-cns-directed-antibodies-in-promoting-inflammatory-cns-demyelination
#1
REVIEW
Silke Kinzel, Martin S Weber
In central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and related NMO-spectrum disorders (NMO-SD), a pathogenic role for antibodies is primarily projected into enhancing ongoing CNS inflammation by directly binding to target antigens within the CNS. This scenario is supported at least in part, by antibodies in conjunction with complement activation in the majority of MS lesions and by deposition of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) antibodies in areas of astrocyte loss in patients with classical NMO...
June 22, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599876/effects-of-different-musical-frequencies-on-npy-and-ghrelin-secretion-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#2
Cristina Russo, Antonella Russo, Rosario Gulino, Rosalia Pellitteri, Stefania Stanzani
It is known that exists a relationship between listening to music and food intake. Hypothalamus appears to integrate the orexigenic properties of a novel peptide, ghrelin (Ghre) that induces food intake through neuropeptide Y (NPY). Ghre stimulates appetite by acting on the ventral hypothalamus, which controls food intake. Ghre is secreted from the stomach and circulates in the bloodstream under fasting conditions, sending a hunger signal from the periphery to the Central Nervous System. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the rat, the effects of different musical frequencies (432 and 440Hz) on the Ghre and NPY expression in the hypothalamic neurons through immunohistochemistry; in addition, we investigated on the different production of Ghre in the serum through Western blot assay (Wb), in relation to the body weight of animals...
June 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589165/effects-of-fumarates-on-inflammatory-human-astrocyte-responses-and-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#3
Dylan A Galloway, John B Williams, Craig S Moore
OBJECTIVE: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a fumaric acid ester approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In both the brain and periphery, DMF and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our aim was to compare the effects of DMF and MMF on inflammatory and antioxidant pathways within astrocytes, a critical supporting glial cell in the central nervous system (CNS). Direct effects of fumarates on neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation toward the oligodendrocyte lineage were also assessed...
June 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589164/cns-aquaporin-4-specific-b-cells-connect-with-multiple-b-cell-compartments-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#4
Markus C Kowarik, David Astling, Christiane Gasperi, Scott Wemlinger, Hannah Schumann, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Alanna M Ritchie, Bernhard Hemmer, Gregory P Owens, Jeffrey L Bennett
OBJECTIVES: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a severe inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) targeted against aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The origin and trafficking of AQP4-specific B cells in NMOSD remains unknown. METHODS: Peripheral (n = 7) and splenic B cells (n = 1) recovered from seven NMOSD patients were sorted into plasmablasts, naïve, memory, and CD27-IgD- double negative (DN) B cells, and variable heavy chain (VH) transcriptome sequences were generated by deep sequencing...
June 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576065/-chitosan-g-glycidyl-methacrylate-xanthan-hydrogel-implant-in-wistar-rats-for-spinal-cord-regeneration
#5
E A Elizalde-Peña, I A Quintero-Ortega, D G Zárate-Triviño, A Nuño-Licona, J Gough, I C Sanchez, D I Medina, G Luna-Barcenas
This work reports the results of in vivo assays of an implant composed of the hydrogel Chitosan-g-Glycidyl Methacrylate-Xanthan [(CTS-g-GMA)-X] in Wistar rats. Degradation kinetics of hydrogels was assessed by lysozyme assays. Wistar rats were subjected to laminectomy by cutting the spinal cord with a scalpel. After the surgical procedure, hydrogels were implanted in the injured zone (level T8). Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) obtained by electric stimulation onto periphery nerves were registered in the corresponding central nervous system (CNS) areas...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556374/oncogenic-role-of-neurotensin-and-neurotensin-receptors-in-various-cancers
#6
REVIEW
Qing Ouyang, Ji Zhou, Wei Yang, Hongjuan Cui, Minhui Xu, Liang Yi
Neurotensin (NTS) has long been recognized as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system and as an endocrine agent in the periphery via actions mediated through neurotensin receptors (NTSRs). Many studies support a role for NTS in the endocrine, autocrine and paracrine growth stimulation of cancer, with oncogenic actions described for NTS in different types of cancers and cancer cell lines at each step of cancer progression, ranging from tumor growth and survival to metastatic spread...
May 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528772/early-interleukin-6-enhances-hepatic-ketogenesis-in-appswe-psen1de9-mice-via-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coa-synthase-2-signaling-activation-by-p38-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65
#7
Le Shi, Daina Zhao, Chen Hou, Yunhua Peng, Jing Liu, Shuangxi Zhang, Jiankang Liu, Jiangang Long
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered a multifactorial disease that affects the central nervous system and periphery. A decline in brain glucose metabolism is an early feature of AD and is accompanied by a phenotypic shift from aerobic glycolysis to ketogenesis. The liver is responsible for the generation of the ketone body. However, the mechanism that underlies hepatic ketogenesis in AD remains unclear. Here, we investigated hepatic ketogenesis during the early stage of AD pathogenesis in amyloid precursor protein (APPSWE) and presenilin (PSEN1dE9) (APP/PS1) mice...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525332/distribution-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-cocaine-and-amphetamineregulated-transcript-positive-nerve-elements-in-the-pelvic-ganglia-of-the-female-pig
#8
A Zacharko-Siembida, M Matysek, R Szalak, A Radlińska, K Obszańska, M B Arciszewski
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are widely expressed not only in the brain but also in numerous endocrine/neuroendocrine cells as well as in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The present study investigated the distribution patterns of CART-like immunoreactivity in the pelvic plexus (PP) of the female pig. The co-expression of CART with principal neurotransmitter markers: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin (5-HT) or biologically active neuropeptides: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), substance P (SP), calbindin was analyzed using double immunohistochemical stainings...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519900/type-i-interferon-pathway-in-cns-homeostasis-and-neurological-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Blank, Marco Prinz
Type I interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and IFN-β, represent the major effector cytokines of the host immune response against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. These cytokines are produced via activation of numerous pattern recognition receptors, including the Toll-like receptor signaling network, retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-1), melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5) and interferon gamma-inducible protein-16 (IFI-16). Whilst the contribution of type I IFNs to peripheral immunity is well documented, they can also be produced by almost every cell in the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518122/dorsal-root-ganglion-injection-and-dorsal-root-crush-injury-as-a-model-for-sensory-axon-regeneration
#10
Menghon Cheah, James W Fawcett, Melissa R Andrews
Achieving axon regeneration after nervous system injury is a challenging task. As different parts of the central nervous system (CNS) differ from each other anatomically, it is important to identify an appropriate model to use for the study of axon regeneration. By using a suitable model, we can formulate a specific treatment based on the severity of injury, the neuronal cell type of interest, and the desired spinal tract for assessing regeneration. Within the sensory pathway, DRG neurons are responsible for relaying sensory information from the periphery to the CNS...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495860/p2x7-receptor-crosstalk-regulates-atp-induced-pannexin-1-internalization
#11
Andrew K J Boyce, Leigh A Swayne
In the nervous system, extracellular ATP levels transiently increase in physiological and pathophysiological circumstances, effecting key signalling pathways in plasticity and inflammation through purinergic receptors. Pannexin 1 (Panx1) forms ion and metabolite-permeable channels that mediate ATP release and are particularly enriched in the nervous system. Our recent study demonstrated that elevation of extracellular ATP triggers Panx1 internalization in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Notably, this effect was sensitive to inhibition of ionotropic P2X7 purinergic receptors (P2X7Rs)...
May 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483796/imaging-of-viral-neuroinvasion-in-the-zebrafish-reveals-that-sindbis-and-chikungunya-viruses-favour-different-entry-routes
#12
Gabriella Passoni, Christelle Langevin, Nuno Palha, Bryan C Mounce, Valérie Briolat, Pierre Affaticati, Elodie De Job, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Marco Vignuzzi, Maria-Carla Saleh, Philippe Herbomel, Pierre Boudinot, Jean-Pierre Levraud
Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya (CHIKV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), are vector‑borne pathogens that cause acute illnesses in humans and are sometimes associated with neuropathies, especially in infants and elderly patients. Little is known about their entry mechanism in the central nervous system (CNS), even for SINV, which has been used extensively as a model for viral encephalopathies. We previously established a CHIKV infection model in the optically transparent zebrafish larva; here we describe a new SINV infection model in this host...
May 8, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478826/novel-aspects-of-defensins-involvement-in-virus-induced-autoimmunity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#13
Evangelos I Kazakos, Jannis Kountouras, Stergios A Polyzos, Georgia Deretzi
Recent research on re-circulation of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma to the periphery and its inferred importance in immune surveillance dysregulation are changing our conceptualization of the pathophysiology of virus-induced autoimmunity. In this context, it is necessary to reassess the immunomodulatory properties of human defensins that are variably expressed by cerebral microglia, astrocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells and exhibit complex and often confounding roles in neuroinflammatory processes...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468993/trpv3-modulates-nociceptive-signaling-through-peripheral-and-supraspinal-sites-in-rats
#14
Steve McGaraughty, Katharine L Chu, Jun Xu, Laura Leys, Rich J Radek, Michael J Dart, Arthur Gomtsyan, Robert G Schmidt, Philip R Kym, Jill-Desiree Brederson
TRPV3 is a non-selective cation channel activated by temperatures above 33oC, and is reported localized in keratinocytes and nervous tissue. In order to investigate a role for TRPV3 in pain modulation, we conducted a series of in vivo electrophysiological studies on spinal and brain nociceptive neurons. Structurally diverse TRPV3 receptor antagonists reduced responses of spinal WDR neurons to low-intensity mechanical stimulation in neuropathic rats, but only CNS penetrant antagonists decreased elevated spontaneous firing...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467926/a-specific-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-induces-glp-1-resistance-through-an-enteric-no-dependent-and-gut-brain-axis-mechanism
#15
Estelle Grasset, Anthony Puel, Julie Charpentier, Xavier Collet, Jeffrey E Christensen, François Tercé, Rémy Burcelin
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies control glycemia in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. However, in some patients the treatment must be discontinued, defining a state of GLP-1 resistance. In animal models we identified a specific set of ileum bacteria impairing the GLP-1-activated gut-brain axis for the control of insulin secretion and gastric emptying. Using prediction algorithms, we identified bacterial pathways related to amino acid metabolism and transport system modules associated to GLP-1 resistance...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417264/branched-chain-amino-acids-and-brain-metabolism
#16
Justin E Sperringer, Adele Addington, Susan M Hutson
This review aims to provide a historical reference of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism and provide a link between peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) metabolism of BCAAs. Leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu, Ile, and Val) are unlike most other essential amino acids (AA), being transaminated initially in extrahepatic tissues, and requiring interorgan or intertissue shuttling for complete catabolism. Within the periphery, BCAAs are essential AAs and are required for protein synthesis, and are key nitrogen donors in the form of Glu, Gln, and Ala...
June 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389474/perineurial-glial-plasticity-and-the-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-in-the-development-of-the-blood-nerve-barrier
#17
Angela D Morris, Gwendolyn M Lewis, Sarah Kucenas
Precisely orchestrated interactions between spinal motor axons and their ensheathing glia are vital for forming and maintaining functional spinal motor nerves. Following perturbations to peripheral myelinating glial cells, centrally derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) ectopically exit the spinal cord and myelinate peripheral nerves in myelin with CNS characteristics. However, whether remaining peripheral ensheathing glia, such as perineurial glia, properly encase the motor nerve despite this change in glial cell and myelin composition, remains unknown...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385186/untreated-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-show-antibody-production-against-latent-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-antigens-mainly-in-the-periphery-and-innate-immune-il-8-responses-preferentially-in-the-cns
#18
Sofia Sisay, Lorena Lopez-Lozano, Marius Mickunas, Antonio Quiroga-Fernández, Jacqueline Palace, Gary Warnes, Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente, Priyamvada Dua, Ute-Christiane Meier
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Reliable biomarkers are urgently needed for its diagnosis and management, and as clues to its pathogenesis, in which EBV is implicated. OBJECTIVE: To measure IgG antibodies against EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and innate inflammation status in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from untreated relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385180/the-role-of-exosomes-in-cns-inflammation-and-their-involvement-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Igor Selmaj, Marcin P Mycko, Cedric S Raine, Krzysztof W Selmaj
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which autoreactive immune cells recognizing myelin antigens lead to demyelination and axonal injury. Mechanisms relevant to the pathogenesis of MS have not been fully elucidated, particularly those underlying initiation of immune system dysfunction. For example, it is not known how reactivity against CNS components is generated within the peripheral immune system. In this review, we propose that a significant contribution to the immunoregulatory events may derive from a cell-to-cell communication system involving the production, secretion and transfer of extracellular vesicles known as exosomes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379965/tnfa-tnfr2-signaling-is-required-for-glial-ensheathment-at-the-dorsal-root-entry-zone
#20
Cody J Smith, Michael A Wheeler, Lindsay Marjoram, Michel Bagnat, Christopher D Deppmann, Sarah Kucenas
Somatosensory information from the periphery is routed to the spinal cord through centrally-projecting sensory axons that cross into the central nervous system (CNS) via the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ). The glial cells that ensheath these axons ensure rapid propagation of this information. Despite the importance of this glial-axon arrangement, how this afferent nerve is assembled during development is unknown. Using in vivo, time-lapse imaging we show that as centrally-projecting pioneer axons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) enter the spinal cord, they initiate expression of the cytokine TNFalpha...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
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