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Peripherial nervous system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328416/endotoxin-tolerance-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-preconditioning-protects-against-surgery%C3%A2-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-aging-mice
#1
Zhijie Zhang, Muhuo Ji, Yanlin Liao, Jianjun Yang, Jun Gao
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by varying degrees of cognitive functional decline in patients following major surgery. Inflammation and a dysregulated innate immune system exert broad effects in the periphery and central nervous system, yet the mechanisms underlying POCD remain poorly understood and without effective therapy. It has been reported that modulation of the dysregulated inflammatory response with low‑dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a phenomenon additionally referred to as endotoxin tolerance, has the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, blood‑brain barrier disruption, and cognitive impairment in a number of disease states...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319226/discovery-of-novel-muscarinic-receptor-modulators-by-integrating-natural-product-framework-with-bioactive-molecule
#2
Rajesh Varkhedkar, Shalini Dogra, Divya Tiwari, Yusuf Hussain, Prem Narayan Yadav, Ganesh Pandey
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are important therapeutic targets for several diseases of central nervous system and periphery. However, lack of subtype selective ligands of these receptors is a major challenge. A novel approach of integrating natural product framework with bioactive molecule (iNPBM) by utilizing the Gephyrotoxin and isoindoline framework, is demonstrated for discovery of new and selective mAChR modulators. We established a scalable and versatile synthetic scheme to enable synthesis of various analogues that provided the first SAR study of this class of compounds...
January 10, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317289/baroreflex-stimulation-attenuates-central-but-not-peripheral-inflammation-in-conscious-endotoxemic-rats
#3
Fernanda Brognara, Jaci A Castania, Daniel P M Dias, Alexandre H Lopes, Rubens Fazan, Alexandre Kanashiro, Luis Ulloa, Helio C Salgado
We previously reported that activation of the baroreflex, a critical physiological mechanism controlling cardiovascular homeostasis, through electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve attenuates joint inflammation in experimental arthritis. However, it is unknown whether baroreflex activation can control systemic inflammation. Here, we investigate whether baroreflex activation controls systemic inflammation in conscious endotoxemic rats. Animals underwent sham or electrical aortic depressor nerve stimulation initiated 10 min prior to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, while inflammatory cytokine levels were measured in the blood, spleen, heart and hypothalamus 90 min after LPS treatment...
January 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280965/the-glutamatergic-system-in-primary-somatosensory-neurons-and-its-involvement-in-sensory-input-dependent-plasticity
#4
REVIEW
Julia Fernández-Montoya, Carlos Avendaño, Pilar Negredo
Glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter in both the central and the peripheral nervous system. Glutamate is present in all types of neurons in sensory ganglia, and is released not only from their peripheral and central axon terminals but also from their cell bodies. Consistently, these neurons express ionotropic and metabotropic receptors, as well as other molecules involved in the synthesis, transport and release of the neurotransmitter. Primary sensory neurons are the first neurons in the sensory channels, which receive information from the periphery, and are thus key players in the sensory transduction and in the transmission of this information to higher centers in the pathway...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273951/neuroinflammatory-responses-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Cira Dansokho, Michael Thomas Heneka
Neuroinflammatory responses in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are complex and not fully understood. They involve various cellular and molecular players and associate interaction between the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. Amyloid peptides within the senile plaques and abnormally phosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles are able to initiate inflammatory responses, in brain of AD patients and in mouse models of this disease. The outcome of these responses on the pathophysiology of AD depends on several factors and can be either beneficial or detrimental...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261232/a-mouse-model-of-west-nile-virus-infection
#6
Jessica B Graham, Jessica L Swarts, Jennifer M Lund
The use of a mouse model to study the breadth of symptoms and disease severity seen in human West Nile virus (WNV) infection can provide insight into the kinetics of the immune response and the specific pathways responsible for control of WNV infection and viral clearance. Here, we provide protocols for performing WNV infection of mice, as well as complete immunophenotyping analysis of the cellular immune response to infection in both the periphery and the central nervous system in a mouse model of WNV infection...
December 20, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259119/neural-induction-by-the-node-and-placode-induction-by-head-mesoderm-share-an-initial-state-resembling-neural-plate-border-and-es-cells
#7
Katherine E Trevers, Ravindra S Prajapati, Mark Hintze, Matthew J Stower, Anna C Strobl, Monica Tambalo, Ramya Ranganathan, Natalia Moncaut, Mohsin A F Khan, Claudio D Stern, Andrea Streit
Around the time of gastrulation in higher vertebrate embryos, inductive interactions direct cells to form central nervous system (neural plate) or sensory placodes. Grafts of different tissues into the periphery of a chicken embryo elicit different responses: Hensen's node induces a neural plate whereas the head mesoderm induces placodes. How different are these processes? Transcriptome analysis in time course reveals that both processes start by induction of a common set of genes, which later diverge. These genes are remarkably similar to those induced by an extraembryonic tissue, the hypoblast, and are normally expressed in the pregastrulation stage epiblast...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258853/drosophila-active-zones-from-molecules-to-behaviour
#8
REVIEW
Nadine Ehmann, David Owald, Robert J Kittel
In a constantly changing environment, neuronal circuits need to be updated and adjusted to elicit directed actions. Synaptic plasticity plays an important role in modulating such globally and locally acting networks. The active zone (AZ) is a protein-rich compartment of chemical synapses, where precisely orchestrated molecular interactions control synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion with the presynaptic membrane. The subsequent release of neurotransmitter substances onto postsynaptic receptor fields forms the basis of neuronal communication...
December 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242992/dynamic-adaptation-in-neurosteroid-networks-in-response-to-alcohol
#9
Deborah A Finn, Vanessa A Jimenez
The term neurosteroid refers to rapid membrane actions of steroid hormones and their derivatives that can modulate physiological functions and behavior via their interactions with ligand-gated ion channels. This chapter will highlight recent advances pertaining to the modulatory effects of a select group of neurosteroids that are primarily potent positive allosteric modulators of γ-aminobutyric acidA receptors (GABAARs). Nanomolar concentrations of neurosteroids, which occur in vivo, potentiate phasic and tonic forms of GABAAR-mediated inhibition, indicating that both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs possess sensitivity to neurosteroids and contribute to the overall ability of neurosteroids to modulate central nervous system excitability...
December 15, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#10
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215752/familial-tauopathy-with-p364s-mapt-mutation-clinical-course-neuropathology-and-ultrastructure-of-neuronal-tau-inclusions
#11
Peter Štrafela, Jerica Pleško, Jožef Magdič, Blaž Koritnik, Andrej Zupan, Damjan Glavač, Mara Bresjanac, Mara Popović
AIMS: This report presents the clinical course, neuropathology and ultrastructure of neuronal tau inclusions of four Slovene relatives with P364S MAPT mutation. METHODS: The clinical history of three out of four P364S MAPT mutation carriers was taken. After formalin fixation, thorough sampling of the central nervous system was followed by paraffin embedding, H&E, Gallyas, Bielschowsky, and immunostaining with AT8, anti-3R, anti-4R tau, anti-Amyloid-β, anti-TDP43, and anti-alpha-synuclein antibodies...
December 7, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203425/tgf%C3%AE-1-transduction-enhances-immunomodulatory-capacity-of-neural-stem-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Chong Xie, Xing Li, Xiajun Zhou, Zezhi Li, Yuan Zhang, Li Zhao, Yong Hao, Guang-Xian Zhang, Yangtai Guan
Bone marrow-derived neural stem cells (BM-NSCs) have therapeutic effect on EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, the beneficial effect is suboptimal due to the limited immunomodulatory capacity of these cells. In this study, we engineered BM-NSCs with inducible TGFβ1, a potent immunosuppressive cytokine, to enhance their anti-inflammatory capacity. We found that i.v. injected TGFβ1-BM-NSCs more effectively suppressed clinical severity, inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system of EAE mice...
December 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201438/pathomorphological-peculiarities-of-tuberculous-meningoencephalitis-associated-with-hiv-infection
#13
Volodymyr M Kozko, Andriy V Bondarenko, Anatoliy V Gavrylov, Olga S Shevchenko, Vitalii V Gargin
Background and aims: One of the most severe manifestation displays of tuberculosis (TB) generalization is meningitis/meningoencephalitis. The purpose of this work was to improve the diagnostic efficiency of TB central nervous system (CNS) affection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Materials and methods: Meninges and cerebral tissues, taken from died patients, who were HIV-infected and dead from TB of CNS affection, were investigated histologically...
September 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186011/using-biomaterials-to-promote-pro-regenerative-glial-phenotypes-after-nervous-system-injuries
#14
Russell E Thompson, Shelly Sakiyama-Elbert
Trauma to either the central or peripheral nervous system often leads to significant loss of function and disability in patients. This high rate of long-term disability is due to the overall limited regenerative potential of nervous tissue, even though the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has more regenerative potential than the central nervous system (CNS). The supporting glial cells in the periphery, Schwann cells, are part of the reason for the improved recovery observed in the PNS. In the CNS, the glial populations, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, do not have as much potential to promote regeneration and are at times inhibitory to neuronal growth...
November 29, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185473/the-systemic-response-to-topical-aldara-treatment-is-mediated-through-direct-tlr7-stimulation-as-imiquimod-enters-the-circulation
#15
Louis Nerurkar, Alison McColl, Gerard Graham, Jonathan Cavanagh
Topical application of Aldara cream, containing the Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist Imiquimod, is a widely used mouse model for investigating the pathogenesis of psoriasis. We have previously used this model to study the effects of peripheral inflammation on the brain, and reported a brain-specific response characterised by increased transcription, infiltration of immune cells and anhedonic-like behavior. Here, we perform a more robust characterisation of the systemic response to Aldara application and find a potent but transient response in the periphery, followed by a prolonged response in the brain...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173188/innate-immune-surveillance-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-legionella-pneumophila-infection
#16
Pasqualina Lagana, Luca Soraci, Maria Elsa Gambuzza, Santi Delia
Innate immune response represents a common event in many neuroinflammatory diseases. The resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of sensing and reacting to both infections and sterile trauma. Peripheral immune cell migration into CNS is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), although peripheral immune cells can invade CNS through meninges, choroid plexus, perivascular spaces, and cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, in the brain immune reactions can be mediated by both resident and peripheral immune cells...
November 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163240/interleukin-6-in-schizophrenia-is-there-a-therapeutic-relevance
#17
REVIEW
Milica Milovan Borovcanin, Ivan Jovanovic, Gordana Radosavljevic, Jelena Pantic, Slavica Minic Janicijevic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic
Renewing interest in immune aspects of schizophrenia and new findings about the brain-fat axis encourage us to discuss the possible role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in schizophrenia. Previously, it was suggested that a primary alteration of the innate immune system may be relevant in schizophrenia. Functional dichotomy of IL-6 suggests that this chemical messenger may be responsible for regulating the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, with tissue-specific properties at the periphery and in the central nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158162/the-gelatinases-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-as-fine-tuners-of-neuroinflammatory-processes
#18
REVIEW
M-J Hannocks, X Zhang, H Gerwien, A Chashchina, M Burmeister, E Korpos, J Song, L Sorokin
This review focuses on the complementary roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in leukocyte migration into the brain in neuroinflammation, studied mainly in a murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that has similarity to the human disease multiple sclerosis. We discuss the cellular sources of MMP-2/MMP-9 in EAE, their sites of activity, and how cleavage of the to-date identified MMP-2/MMP-9 substrates at the blood-brain barrier facilitate leukocyte filtration of the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 17, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141189/role-of-cyclooxygenase-inhibitors-in-diminution-of-dissimilar-stress-induced-depressive-behavior-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#19
Tahira Perveen, Shaista Emad, Saida Haider, Sana Sadaf, Sara Qadeer, Zehra Batool, Yousra Sarfaraz, Sheeza Sheikh
Memory functions can be considerably affected by various life events and stress has shown to be a chief regulator. Different stress patterns have distinct effects on the overall functioning of the brain. Stress provokes inflammation not only in the periphery but also in the brain. Neuroinflammation causes alterations in neuronal structure and function, which eventually progress to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Inflammatory reactions are modulated through communication between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138290/developing-a-sense-of-touch
#20
REVIEW
Blair A Jenkins, Ellen A Lumpkin
The sensation of touch is mediated by mechanosensory neurons that are embedded in skin and relay signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. During embryogenesis, axons elongate from these neurons to make contact with the developing skin. Concurrently, the epithelium of skin transforms from a homogeneous tissue into a heterogeneous organ that is made up of distinct layers and microdomains. Throughout this process, each neuronal terminal must form connections with an appropriate skin region to serve its function...
November 15, 2017: Development
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