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Peripherial nervous system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060678/canine-central-nervous-system-neoplasm-phenotyping-using-tissue-microarray-technique
#1
I Spitzbarth, F Heinrich, V Herder, T Recker, P Wohlsein, W Baumgärtner
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034626/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-is-associated-with-upregulated-nadph-oxidase-expression-in-peripheral-t-cells-of-children-with-autism
#2
Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Saleh A Bakheet, Naif O Al-Harbi, Laila Y Al-Ayadhi, Sabry M Attia, Khairy M A Zoheir
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect millions of children worldwide, and are characterized by impairment in social interaction and communication, and specific repetitive behavioral patterns. Growing evidence highlights a role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of ASD. Specifically, TLR-4 activation has been shown to be associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as autistic symptoms in offspring. NADPH oxidase (NOX-2) derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) have also been shown to play pathogenic role under inflammatory conditions...
December 27, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033683/snare-proteins-play-a-role-in-motor-axon-guidance-in-vertebrates-and-invertebrates
#3
Pablo José Barrecheguren, Oriol Ros, Tiziana Cotrufo, Beat Kunz, Eduardo Soriano, Fausto Ulloa, Esther T Stoeckli, Sofia J Araújo
Axonal growth and guidance rely on correct growth cone responses to guidance cues, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the periphery. Unlike the signaling cascades that link axonal growth to cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about the crosstalk mechanisms between guidance and membrane dynamics and turnover in the axon. Our studies have shown that Netrin-1/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) signaling triggers exocytosis through the SNARE Syntaxin-1 (STX-1) during the formation of commissural pathways...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030334/trichuris-suis-secrete-products-that-reduce-disease-severity-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-model
#4
Christine Søholm Hansen, Henrik Hasseldam, Idahella Hyldgaard Bacher, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Helene Kringel
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disease, which affects about 1 in 1000 individuals in the western world. It has been suggested that this relatively high prevalence is linked to a high level of hygiene, i.e. a reduced exposure to various microorganisms, including parasites. Parasites are known to employ different immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory strategies, which enable them to evade destruction by the immune system. We have investigated the immunomodulation by the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis, by measuring the impact of oral administration of T...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029023/brain-regulation-of-energy-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Eun Roh, Min Seon Kim
In healthy individuals, energy intake is in balance with energy expenditure, which helps to maintain a normal body weight. The brain's inability to control energy homeostasis underlies the pathology of hyperphagia and obesity. The brain detects body energy excess and deficit by sensing the levels of circulating metabolic hormones and nutrients and by receiving metabolic information from the periphery via the autonomic nervous system. A specialized neuronal network coordinates energy intake behavior and the metabolic processes affecting energy expenditure...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003162/amygdalar-and-hippocampal-connections-with-brainstem-and-spinal-cord-a-diffusion-mri-study-in-human-brain
#6
Alessandro Arrigo, Enricomaria Mormina, Alessandro Calamuneri, Michele Gaeta, Silvia Marino, Demetrio Milardi, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone
The limbic system has a central role for the integration of several cognitive and visceral functions through an extended network of connections involving the hippocampus and the amygdala. A number of studies performed in humans have been dedicated to the investigation of supratentorial limbic pathways by means of non-invasive MRI approaches, such as DTI. However, detection of possible limbic connections involving the brainstem and the spinal cord is still missing. Subtentorial limbic pathways have been previously studied in animals by means of invasive approaches, including viral tracing...
December 18, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974451/muscle-afferent-excitability-testing-in-spinal-root-intact-rats-dissociating-peripheral-afferent-and-efferent-volleys-generated-by-intraspinal-microstimulation
#7
Saeka Tomatsu, Geehee Kim, Joachim Confais, Kazuhiko Seki
Presynaptic inhibition of the sensory input from the periphery to the spinal cord can be evaluated directly by intra-axonal recording of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) or indirectly by intraspinal microstimulation (excitability testing). Excitability testing is superior for use in normal behaving animals, as this methodology bypasses the technically challenging intra-axonal recording. However, use of excitability testing on the muscle or joint afferent in intact animals presents its own technical challenges...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958390/prevalence-and-treatment-of-luts-in-patients-with-parkinson-disease-or-multiple-system-atrophy
#8
REVIEW
Teruyuki Ogawa, Ryuji Sakakibara, Sadako Kuno, Osamu Ishizuka, Takeya Kitta, Naoki Yoshimura
The lower urinary tract is controlled by complex neural mechanisms not only in the periphery, but also in the central nervous systems (CNS). Thus, patients with a wide variety of neurological diseases often also have lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including those with Parkinson disease (PD) or multiple system atrophy (MSA). LUTS are common comorbidities associated with both of these neurodegenerative diseases and are likely to impair patients' quality of life. The motor symptoms of PD and MSA often seem similar; however, the pathophysiology, and thus the treatment of LUTS differs considerably...
December 13, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927032/emerging-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#9
Christoffer Martinussen, Kirstine Nyvold Bojsen-Moller, Maria Saur Svane, Thomas Fremming Dejgaard, Sten Madsbad
The increasing prevalence of obesity represents a huge threat to public health and the current pharmacological treatment options are limited. Bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for severe obesity, highlighting the urgent need for new and improved drug therapies. Areas covered: Based on the physiological regulation of energy homeostasis, pharmacological strategies to treat obesity are evaluated with focus on drugs in phase 2 and 3 clinical development. The potential impact of these drugs on current treatment standards and the barriers for development are discussed and set in a historical perspective of previous antiobesity medications...
December 16, 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926868/cmyc-regulates-the-size-of-the-premigratory-neural-crest-stem-cell-pool
#10
Laura Kerosuo, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is a transient embryonic population that originates within the central nervous system (CNS) and then migrates into the periphery and differentiates into multiple cell types. The mechanisms that govern neural crest stem-like characteristics and self-renewal ability are poorly understood. Here, we show that the proto-oncogene cMyc is a critical factor in the chick dorsal neural tube, where it regulates the size of the premigratory neural crest stem cell pool. Loss of cMyc dramatically decreases the number of emigrating neural crest cells due to reduced self-renewal capacity, increased cell death, and shorter duration of the emigration process...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918464/checkpoints-to-the-brain-directing-myeloid-cell-migration-to-the-central-nervous-system
#11
REVIEW
Meredith Harrison-Brown, Guo-Jun Liu, Richard Banati
Myeloid cells are a unique subset of leukocytes with a diverse array of functions within the central nervous system during health and disease. Advances in understanding of the unique properties of these cells have inspired interest in their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes, proteins, and drugs, or as "assistants" in the clean-up of aggregated proteins and other molecules when existing drainage systems are no longer adequate. The trafficking of myeloid cells from the periphery to the central nervous system is subject to complex cellular and molecular controls with several 'checkpoints' from the blood to their destination in the brain parenchyma...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909097/induction-of-migraine-like-photophobic-behavior-in-mice-by-both-peripheral-and-central-cgrp-mechanisms
#12
Bianca N Mason, Eric A Kaiser, Adisa Kuburas, Maria-Cristina M Loomis, John A Latham, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Andrew F Russo
: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. While migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the central nervous system, we used CGRP-induced light aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) injection of CGRP resulted in light aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion previously seen following central (intracerebroventricular, ICV) injection...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#13
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites both clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903432/antigen-presentation-for-priming-t-cells-in-central-system
#14
Shaoni Dasgupta, Subhajit Dasgupta
Generation of myelin antigen-specific T cells is a major event in neuroimmune responses that causes demyelination. The antigen-priming of T cells and its location is important in chronic and acute inflammation. In autoimmune multiple sclerosis, the effector T cells are considered to generate in periphery. However, the reasons for chronic relapsing-remitting events are obscure. Considering mechanisms, a feasible aim of research is to investigate the role of antigen-primed T cells in lupus cerebritis. Last thirty years of investigations emphasize the relevance of microglia and infiltrated dendritic cells/macrophages as antigen presenting cells in the central nervous system...
January 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898590/reactivation-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoirs-in-the-brain-of-virally-suppressed-macaques
#15
Lucio Gama, Celina M Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Sarah L Price, Ming Li, Greg M Laird, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Shelby L O'Connor, Luiz Pianowski, Ashley T Haase, Carine Van Lint, Robert F Siliciano, Janice E Clements
OBJECTIVE: Resting CD4 T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. DESIGN: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious central nervous system-penetrant ART...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898074/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-choroid-plexus-in-schizophrenia
#16
S Kim, Y Hwang, D Lee, M J Webster
The choroid plexus (CP) has a key role in maintaining brain homeostasis by producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), by mediating transport of nutrients and removing metabolic products from the central nervous system and by responding to peripheral inflammatory signals. Although abnormal markers of immune response and inflammation are apparent in individuals with schizophrenia, the CP of these individuals has not been characterized. We therefore sequenced mRNA from the CP from two independent collections of individuals with schizophrenia and unaffected controls...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894360/the-relationship-of-endotoxaemia-to-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-inflammatory-responses-in-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#17
Lorna Maclean, Eltayb A Aboubaker, Peter G E Kennedy, Jeremy M Sternberg
Endotoxaemia has been described in cases of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), but it is unclear if this phenomenon influences inflammatory pathology either in the periphery or central nervous system (CNS). We studied endotoxin concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients using the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte lysate assay. The relationship of endotoxin concentration to the presentation of gross signs of inflammation and the inflammatory/counter-inflammatory cytokine profile of the relevant compartments were analysed...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881137/balancing-the-immune-response-in-the-brain-il-10-and-its-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Diogo Lobo-Silva, Guilhermina M Carriche, A Gil Castro, Susana Roque, Margarida Saraiva
BACKGROUND: The inflammatory response is critical to fight insults, such as pathogen invasion or tissue damage, but if not resolved often becomes detrimental to the host. A growing body of evidence places non-resolved inflammation at the core of various pathologies, from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases. It is therefore not surprising that the immune system has evolved several regulatory mechanisms to achieve maximum protection in the absence of pathology. MAIN BODY: The production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 is one of the most important mechanisms evolved by many immune cells to counteract damage driven by excessive inflammation...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878389/spleen-atrophy-related-immune-system-changes-attributed-to-infection-of-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-in-mouse-model
#19
Zhen Liu, Yu Wu, Ying Feng, Feng Wu, Rui-Feng Liu, Li-Fu Wang, Jin-Yi Liang, Jia-Hua Liu, Xi Sun, Zhong-Dao Wu
The spleen is one of the most important peripheral immune organs, which is frequently affected in infectious diseases. Infectious diseases can induce splenic alterations including splenic atrophy and functional alteration, while splenic atrophy may in turn interferes with recovery of infectious diseases. Angiostrongyliasis is an infectious disease by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis), which invade non-permissive hosts, such as humans and mice, to cause severe damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and acute inflammatory response...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867383/environmental-toxicants-induced-immune-responses-in-the-olfactory-mucosa
#20
REVIEW
Fumiaki Imamura, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are the receptor cells for the sense of smell. Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory bulb (OB) that is a component of the central nervous system (CNS). Because of this direct and short connection from this peripheral tissue to the CNS, the olfactory system has attracted attention as a port-of-entry for environmental toxicants that may cause neurological dysfunction. Selected viruses can enter the OB via the OM and directly affect the CNS...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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