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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916046/inflammatory-response-and-long-term-behavioral-assessment-after-neonatal-co2-pneumothorax-study-in-a-rodent-model
#1
Alice Miranda, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, José Miguel Pêgo, Jorge Correia-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Carbon-dioxide (CO2)-pneumothorax during minimally invasive surgery induces well-known metabolic changes. However, little is known about its impact on the central nervous system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the acute impact of CO2-pneumothorax over central cytokine response and its long-term effect on animal behavior. METHODS: This is an experimental study where neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats are submitted to CO2-pneumothorax. Peripheral and central cytokine response was evaluated 24h after insufflation, and peripheral immune cell phenotyping was evaluated 24h and 4weeks post-insufflation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903781/transmission-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-containing-erythrocyte-derived-extracellular-vesicles-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-via-adsorptive-mediated-transcytosis-another-mechanism-for-initiation-and-progression-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Junichi Matsumoto, Tessandra Stewart, Lifu Sheng, Na Li, Kristin Bullock, Ning Song, Min Shi, William A Banks, Jing Zhang
Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology develops in part from the formation, transmission, and aggregation of toxic species of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn). Recent evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) may play a vital role in the transport of toxic α-syn between brain regions. Moreover, increasing evidence has highlighted the participation of peripheral molecules, particularly inflammatory species, which may influence or exacerbate the development of PD-related changes to the central nervous system (CNS), although detailed characterization of these species remains to be completed...
September 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894751/peripheral-inhibitor-of-ache-neostigmine-prevents-the-inflammatory-dependent-suppression-of-gnrh-lh-secretion-during-the-follicular-phase-of-the-estrous-cycle
#3
Andrzej P Herman, Janina Skipor, Agata Krawczyńska, Joanna Bochenek, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Hanna Antushevich, Anna Herman, Kamila Paczesna, Katarzyna Romanowicz, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the periphery by Neostigmine (0.5 mg/animal) will be sufficient to prevent inflammatory dependent suppression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinising hormone (LH) secretion in ewes in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, and this effect will be comparable with the systemic AChE inhibitor, Donepezil (2.5 mg/animal). An immune/inflammatory challenge was induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889335/morphological-and-functional-diversity-of-first-order-somatosensory-neurons
#4
REVIEW
Eder Ricardo de Moraes, Christopher Kushmerick, Lígia Araujo Naves
First-order somatosensory neurons transduce and convey information about the external or internal environment of the body to the central nervous system. They are pseudo unipolar neurons with cell bodies residing in one of several ganglia located near the central nervous system, with the short branch of the axon connecting to the spinal cord or the brain stem and the long branch extending towards the peripheral organ they innervate. Besides their sensory transducer and conductive role, somatosensory neurons also have trophic functions in the tissue they innervate and participate in local reflexes in the periphery...
September 9, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887885/unveiling-neural-coupling-within-the-sensorimotor-system-directionality-and-nonlinearity
#5
Yuan Yang, Julius P A Dewald, Frans C T van der Helm, Alfred C Schouten
Neural coupling between the central nervous system and the periphery is essential for the neural control of movement. Corticomuscular coherence is a popular linear technique to assess synchronized oscillatory activity in the sensorimotor system. This oscillatory coupling originates from ascending somatosensory feedback and descending motor commands. However, corticomuscular coherence cannot separate this bi-directionality. Furthermore, the sensorimotor system is nonlinear, resulting in cross-frequency coupling...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887225/substance-p-and-neurotensin-in-the-limbic-system-their-roles-in-reinforcement-and-memory-consolidation
#6
REVIEW
L Lénárd, K László, E Kertes, T Ollmann, L Péczely, A Kovács, V Kállai, O Zagorácz, R Gálosi, Z Karádi
Substance P (SP) and neurotensin (NT) are neuropeptides isolated in the periphery and in the central nervous system. They are involved in various regulatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract, in the circulatory and respiratory systems, kidney and endocrine system. In addition to the peripheral effects, SP and NT act as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system, regulating various behavioural actions, such as general and motor activity, pain, food and water intake, anxiety, reward/reinforcement and memory consolidation...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851597/intraspinal-tlr4-activation-promotes-iron-storage-but-does-not-protect-neurons-or-oligodendrocytes-from-progressive-iron-mediated-damage
#7
Evan Z Goldstein, Jamie S Church, Nicole Pukos, Manoj K Gottipati, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Iron is essential for basic cellular functions but in excess is highly toxic. For this reason, free iron and iron storage are controlled in the periphery by elaborate regulatory mechanisms. In contrast, iron regulation in the central nervous system (CNS) is not well defined. Given that excess iron is present after trauma, hemorrhagic stroke and neurodegeneration, understanding normal iron regulation and promoting iron uptake in CNS pathology is crucial. Peripherally, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation promotes iron sequestration by macrophages...
August 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844905/arginyltransferase-ate1-is-targeted-to-the-neuronal-growth-cones-and-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-during-brain-development
#8
Junling Wang, Iuliia Pavlyk, Pavan Vedula, Stephanie Sterling, N Adrian Leu, Dawei W Dong, Anna Kashina
Arginylation is an emerging protein modification mediated by arginyltransferase ATE1, shown to regulate embryogenesis and actin cytoskeleton, however its functions in different physiological systems are not well understood. Here we analyzed the role of ATE1 in brain development and neuronal growth by producing a conditional mouse knockout with Ate1 deletion in the nervous system driven by Nestin promoter (Nes-Ate1 mice). These mice were weaker than wild type, resulting in low postnatal survival rates, and had abnormalities in the brain that suggested defects in neuronal migration...
August 26, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839522/the-thermoregulation-of-healthy-individuals-overweight-obese-and-diabetic-from-the-plantar-skin-thermogram-a-clue-to-predict-the-diabetic-foot
#9
REVIEW
Francisco-J Renero-C
Background: Thermoregulation is a complex autonomic process to keep or to dissipate heat in the human body. Methods: In this work, by means of the thermogram of the plantar skin, the thermoregulation of healthy individuals, overweight-obese, and diabetic is discussed. Results: The thermograms of the plantar skin, for the healthy individuals, are: (1) symmetrical, the temperature distribution of the right foot being a mirror image of that of the left foot ; (2) the thermograms of women, on average, are 3°C colder than those of the men; and (3) the temperature distributions decrease distally from the medial longitudinal arch...
2017: Diabetic Foot & Ankle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817239/novel-dissection-of-the-central-nervous-system-to-bridge-gross-anatomy-and-neuroscience-for-an-integrated-medical-curriculum
#10
Rebecca J Hlavac, Rachel Klaus, Kourtney Betts, Shilo M Smith, Maureen E Stabio
Medical schools in the United States continue to undergo curricular change, reorganization, and reformation as more schools transition to an integrated curriculum. Anatomy educators must find novel approaches to teach in a way that will bridge multiple disciplines. The cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (CNS) provides an opportunity to bridge gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and clinical neurology. In this dissection, the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cauda equina, optic nerve/tract, and eyes are removed in one piece so that the entire CNS and its gateway to the periphery through the spinal roots can be appreciated...
August 17, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815590/juxtanodin-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-expression-and-biological-activities-in-regulating-cell-morphology-and-actin-cytoskeleton-organization
#11
Fengyi Liang, Ji Hyun Hwang, Nicholas Weiwei Tang, Walter Hunziker
Juxtanodin (also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined juxtanodin expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology and cell culture. Prominent juxtanodin expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801931/immunomodulatory-effects-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-promote-alternative-activation-macrophages-to-repair-tissue-damage
#12
Annie C Bowles, Rachel M Wise, Brittany Y Gerstein, Robert C Thomas, Roberto Ogelman, Isabella Febbo, Bruce A Bunnell
The pathogenesis of many diseases is driven by the interactions between helper T (TH ) cells and macrophages. The phenotypes of these cells are functional dichotomies that are persuaded according to the surrounding milieu. In both multiple sclerosis and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, TH 1 and TH 17 cells propagate autoimmune signaling and inflammation in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. In turn, this proinflammatory repertoire promotes the classical activation, formerly the M1-type, macrophages...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790970/structural-and-functional-substitution-of-deleted-primary-sensory-neurons-by-new-growth-from-intrinsic-spinal-cord-nerve-cells-an-alternative-concept-in-reconstruction-of-spinal-cord-circuits
#13
Nicholas D James, Maria Angéria, Elizabeth J Bradbury, Peter Damberg, Stephen B McMahon, Mårten Risling, Thomas Carlstedt
In a recent clinical report, return of the tendon stretch reflex was demonstrated after spinal cord surgery in a case of total traumatic brachial plexus avulsion injury. Peripheral nerve grafts had been implanted into the spinal cord to reconnect to the peripheral nerves for motor and sensory function. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) containing the primary sensory nerve cells had been surgically removed in order for secondary or spinal cord sensory neurons to extend into the periphery and replace the deleted DRG neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780172/contribution-of-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpases-to-neuronal-maladaptive-responses-focus-on-spinal-nociceptive-mechanisms-and-neurodegeneration
#14
REVIEW
Veronika Khariv, Stella Elkabes
Plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) are ion pumps that expel Ca(2+) from cells and maintain Ca(2+) homeostasis. Four isoforms and multiple splice variants play important and non-overlapping roles in cellular function and integrity and have been implicated in diseases including disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, one of these isoforms, PMCA2, is critical for spinal cord (SC) neuronal function. PMCA2 expression is decreased in SC neurons at onset of symptoms in animal models of multiple sclerosis...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769867/changes-in-ionic-conductance-signature-of-nociceptive-neurons-underlying-fabry-disease-phenotype
#15
Barbara Namer, Kirstin Ørstavik, Roland Schmidt, Norbert Mair, Inge Petter Kleggetveit, Maximillian Zeidler, Theresa Martha, Ellen Jorum, Martin Schmelz, Theodora Kalpachidou, Michaela Kress, Michiel Langeslag
The first symptom arising in many Fabry patients is neuropathic pain due to changes in small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the periphery, which is subsequently followed by a loss of sensory perception. Here we studied changes in the peripheral nervous system of Fabry patients and a Fabry mouse model induced by deletion of α-galactosidase A (Gla(-/0)). The skin innervation of Gla(-/0) mice resembles that of the human Fabry patients. In Fabry diseased humans and Gla(-/0) mice, we observed similar sensory abnormalities, which were also observed in nerve fiber recordings in both patients and mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751218/brain-lipoprotein-lipase-as-a-regulator-of-energy-balance
#16
Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Christophe Magnan
The central nervous system is an essential actor in the control of the energy balance. Indeed, many signals of nervous (vagal afferent for example) or circulating (hormone, nutrients) origin converge towards the brain to inform it permanently of the energetic status of the organism. In turn, the brain sends information to the periphery (sympathetic vagal balance, thyroid or corticotropic axis) which allows a fine regulation of the energy fluxes by acting on the hepatic glucose production, the secretion of the pancreatic hormones (glucagon, insulin) or food behavior...
July 24, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738885/differential-effects-of-fty720-on-the-b-cell-compartment-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Kathrin Bail, Quirin Notz, Damiano M Rovituso, Andrea Schampel, Marie Wunsch, Tobias Koeniger, Verena Schropp, Richa Bharti, Claus-Juergen Scholz, Konrad U Foerstner, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Stefanie Kuerten
BACKGROUND: MP4-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), which enables targeted research on B cells, currently much discussed protagonists in MS pathogenesis. Here, we used this model to study the impact of the S1P1 receptor modulator FTY720 (fingolimod) on the autoreactive B cell and antibody response both in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: MP4-immunized mice were treated orally with FTY720 for 30 days at the peak of disease or 50 days after EAE onset...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736194/the-epigenetic-drug-trichostatin-a-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-via-t-cell-tolerance-induction-and-impaired-influx-of-t-cells-into-the-spinal-cord
#18
Arathi Jayaraman, Advait Soni, Bellur S Prabhakar, Mark Holterman, Sundararajan Jayaraman
Multiple sclerosis is a T cell mediated chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although currently available therapies reduce relapses, they do not facilitate tolerization of myelin antigen-specific T lymphocytes to ensure prolonged protection against multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that treatment of NOD mice with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A affords robust protection against myelin peptide induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis...
July 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717967/orexin-a-hypocretin-modulates-leptin-receptor-mediated-signaling-by-allosteric-modulations-mediated-by-the-ghrelin-ghs-r1a-receptor-in-hypothalamic-neurons
#19
Mireia Medrano, David Aguinaga, Irene Reyes-Resina, Enric I Canela, Josefa Mallol, Gemma Navarro, Rafael Franco
The hypothalamus is a key integrator of nutrient-seeking signals in the form of hormones and metabolites originated in both the central nervous system and the periphery. The main autocrine and paracrine target of orexinergic-related hormones such as leptin, orexin/hypocretin, and ghrelin are neuropeptide Y neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the molecular and functional relationships between leptin, orexin/hypocretin and ghrelin receptors...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705658/disturbance-of-redox-homeostasis-in-down-syndrome-role-of-iron-dysmetabolism
#20
REVIEW
Eugenio Barone, Andrea Arena, Elizabeth Head, D Allan Butterfield, Marzia Perluigi
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic form of intellectual disability that leads in the majority of cases to development of early-onset Alzheimer-like dementia (AD). The neuropathology of DS has several common features with AD including alteration of redox homeostasis, mitochondrial deficits, and inflammation among others. Interestingly, some of the genes encoded by chromosome 21 are responsible of increased oxidative stress (OS) conditions that are further exacerbated by decreased antioxidant defense...
July 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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