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Peripherial nervous system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817239/novel-dissection-of-the-central-nervous-system-to-bridge-gross-anatomy-and-neuroscience-for-an-integrated-medical-curriculum
#1
Rebecca J Hlavac, Rachel Klaus, Kourtney Betts, Shilo M Smith, Maureen E Stabio
Medical schools in the United States continue to undergo curricular change, reorganization, and reformation as more schools transition to an integrated curriculum. Anatomy educators must find novel approaches to teach in a way that will bridge multiple disciplines. The cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (CNS) provides an opportunity to bridge gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and clinical neurology. In this dissection, the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cauda equina, optic nerve/tract, and eyes are removed in one piece so that the entire CNS and its gateway to the periphery through the spinal roots can be appreciated...
August 17, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815590/juxtanodin-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-expression-and-biological-activities-in-regulating-cell-morphology-and-actin-cytoskeleton-organization
#2
Fengyi Liang, Ji Hyun Hwang, Nicholas Weiwei Tang, Walter Hunziker
Juxtanodin (also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined juxtanodin expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology and cell culture. Prominent juxtanodin expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801931/immunomodulatory-effects-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-promote-alternative-activation-macrophages-to-repair-tissue-damage
#3
Annie C Bowles, Rachel M Wise, Brittany Y Gerstein, Robert C Thomas, Roberto Ogelman, Isabella Febbo, Bruce A Bunnell
The pathogenesis of many diseases is driven by the interactions between helper T (TH ) cells and macrophages. The phenotypes of these cells are a functional dichotomy that are persuaded according to the surrounding milieu. In both multiple sclerosis (MS) and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, TH 1 and TH 17 cells propagate autoimmune signaling and inflammation in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. In turn, this pro-inflammatory repertoire promotes the classical activation, formerly the M1-type, macrophages...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790970/structural-and-functional-substitution-of-deleted-primary-sensory-neurons-by-new-growth-from-intrinsic-spinal-cord-nerve-cells-an-alternative-concept-in-reconstruction-of-spinal-cord-circuits
#4
Nicholas D James, Maria Angéria, Elizabeth J Bradbury, Peter Damberg, Stephen B McMahon, Mårten Risling, Thomas Carlstedt
In a recent clinical report, return of the tendon stretch reflex was demonstrated after spinal cord surgery in a case of total traumatic brachial plexus avulsion injury. Peripheral nerve grafts had been implanted into the spinal cord to reconnect to the peripheral nerves for motor and sensory function. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) containing the primary sensory nerve cells had been surgically removed in order for secondary or spinal cord sensory neurons to extend into the periphery and replace the deleted DRG neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780172/contribution-of-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpases-to-neuronal-maladaptive-responses-focus-on-spinal-nociceptive-mechanisms-and-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
Veronika Khariv, Stella Elkabes
Plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) are ion pumps that expel Ca(2+) from cells and maintain Ca(2+) homeostasis. Four isoforms and multiple splice variants play important and non-overlapping roles in cellular function and integrity and have been implicated in diseases including disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, one of these isoforms, PMCA2, is critical for spinal cord (SC) neuronal function. PMCA2 expression is decreased in SC neurons at onset of symptoms in animal models of multiple sclerosis...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769867/changes-in-ionic-conductance-signature-of-nociceptive-neurons-underlying-fabry-disease-phenotype
#6
Barbara Namer, Kirstin Ørstavik, Roland Schmidt, Norbert Mair, Inge Petter Kleggetveit, Maximillian Zeidler, Theresa Martha, Ellen Jorum, Martin Schmelz, Theodora Kalpachidou, Michaela Kress, Michiel Langeslag
The first symptom arising in many Fabry patients is neuropathic pain due to changes in small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the periphery, which is subsequently followed by a loss of sensory perception. Here we studied changes in the peripheral nervous system of Fabry patients and a Fabry mouse model induced by deletion of α-galactosidase A (Gla(-/0)). The skin innervation of Gla(-/0) mice resembles that of the human Fabry patients. In Fabry diseased humans and Gla(-/0) mice, we observed similar sensory abnormalities, which were also observed in nerve fiber recordings in both patients and mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751218/brain-lipoprotein-lipase-as-a-regulator-of-energy-balance
#7
Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Christophe Magnan
The central nervous system is an essential actor in the control of the energy balance. Indeed, many signals of nervous (vagal afferent for example) or circulating (hormone, nutrients) origin converge towards the brain to inform it permanently of the energetic status of the organism. In turn, the brain sends information to the periphery (sympathetic vagal balance, thyroid or corticotropic axis) which allows a fine regulation of the energy fluxes by acting on the hepatic glucose production, the secretion of the pancreatic hormones (glucagon, insulin) or food behavior...
July 24, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738885/differential-effects-of-fty720-on-the-b-cell-compartment-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Kathrin Bail, Quirin Notz, Damiano M Rovituso, Andrea Schampel, Marie Wunsch, Tobias Koeniger, Verena Schropp, Richa Bharti, Claus-Juergen Scholz, Konrad U Foerstner, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Stefanie Kuerten
BACKGROUND: MP4-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), which enables targeted research on B cells, currently much discussed protagonists in MS pathogenesis. Here, we used this model to study the impact of the S1P1 receptor modulator FTY720 (fingolimod) on the autoreactive B cell and antibody response both in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: MP4-immunized mice were treated orally with FTY720 for 30 days at the peak of disease or 50 days after EAE onset...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736194/the-epigenetic-drug-trichostatin-a-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-via-t-cell-tolerance-induction-and-impaired-influx-of-t-cells-into-the-spinal-cord
#9
Arathi Jayaraman, Advait Soni, Bellur S Prabhakar, Mark Holterman, Sundararajan Jayaraman
Multiple sclerosis is a T cell mediated chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although currently available therapies reduce relapses, they do not facilitate tolerization of myelin antigen-specific T lymphocytes to ensure prolonged protection against multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that treatment of NOD mice with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A affords robust protection against myelin peptide induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis...
July 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717967/orexin-a-hypocretin-modulates-leptin-receptor-mediated-signaling-by-allosteric-modulations-mediated-by-the-ghrelin-ghs-r1a-receptor-in-hypothalamic-neurons
#10
Mireia Medrano, David Aguinaga, Irene Reyes-Resina, Enric I Canela, Josefa Mallol, Gemma Navarro, Rafael Franco
The hypothalamus is a key integrator of nutrient-seeking signals in the form of hormones and metabolites originated in both the central nervous system and the periphery. The main autocrine and paracrine target of orexinergic-related hormones such as leptin, orexin/hypocretin, and ghrelin are neuropeptide Y neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the molecular and functional relationships between leptin, orexin/hypocretin and ghrelin receptors...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705658/disturbance-of-redox-homeostasis-in-down-syndrome-role-of-iron-dysmetabolism
#11
REVIEW
Eugenio Barone, Andrea Arena, Elizabeth Head, D Allan Butterfield, Marzia Perluigi
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic form of intellectual disability that leads in the majority of cases to development of early-onset Alzheimer-like dementia (AD). The neuropathology of DS has several common features with AD including alteration of redox homeostasis, mitochondrial deficits, and inflammation among others. Interestingly, some of the genes encoded by chromosome 21 are responsible of increased oxidative stress (OS) conditions that are further exacerbated by decreased antioxidant defense...
July 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691794/ligand-dependent-switch-from-rxr-homo-to-rxr-nurr1-heterodimerization
#12
Marcel Scheepstra, Sebastian A Andrei, Rens M J M de Vries, Femke A Meijer, Jian-Nong Ma, Ethan S Burstein, Roger Olsson, Christian Ottmann, Lech-Gustav Milroy, Luc Brunsveld
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) play key roles in many physiological processes in both the periphery and central nervous system. In addition, RXRs form heterodimers with other nuclear receptors to exert their physiological effects. The nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1) is particularly interesting because of its role in promoting differentiation and survival of dopamine neurons. However, only a small number of RXR-heterodimer selective modulators are available, with limited chemical diversity. This work describes the synthesis, biochemical evaluation, and structural elucidation of a novel series of RXR ligands with strongly biased interactions with RXRα-NURR1 heterodimers...
July 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680853/behavior-of-neutrophil-granulocytes-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system
#13
Aindrila Biswas, Timothy French, Henning P Düsedau, Nancy Mueller, Monika Riek-Burchardt, Anne Dudeck, Ute Bank, Thomas Schüler, Ildiko Rita Dunay
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is characterized by activation of brain resident cells and recruitment of specific immune cell subsets from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS). Our studies revealed that the rapidly invaded Ly6G(+) neutrophil granulocytes are an early non-lymphoid source of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), the cytokine known to be the major mediator of host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Upon selective depletion of Ly6G(+) neutrophils, we detected reduced IFN-γ production and increased parasite burden in the CNS...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679661/glucose-regulated-protein-78-autoantibody-associates-with-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-neuromyelitis-optica
#14
Fumitaka Shimizu, Kristin L Schaller, Gregory P Owens, Anne C Cotleur, Debra Kellner, Yukio Takeshita, Birgit Obermeier, Thomas J Kryzer, Yasuteru Sano, Takashi Kanda, Vanda A Lennon, Richard M Ransohoff, Jeffrey L Bennett
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disorder mediated by antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) with prominent blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in the acute phase of the disease. Anti-AQP4 antibodies are produced mainly in the periphery, yet they target the astrocyte perivascular end feet behind the BBB. We reasoned that an endothelial cell-targeted autoantibody might promote BBB transit of AQP4 antibodies and facilitate NMO attacks. Using monoclonal recombinant antibodies (rAbs) from patients with NMO, we identified two that strongly bound to the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs)...
July 5, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679106/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-a-multifaceted-cytokine-implicated-in-multiple-neurological-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Marcel F Leyton-Jaimes, Joy Kahn, Adrian Israelson
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a conserved cytokine found as a homotrimer protein. It is found in a wide spectrum of cell types in the body including neuronal and non-neuronal cells. MIF is implicated in several biological processes; chemo-attraction, cytokine activity, and receptor binding, among other functions. More recently, a chaperone-like activity has been added to its repertoire. In this review, we focus on the implication of MIF in the central nervous system and peripheries, its role in neurological disorders, and the mechanisms by which MIF is regulated...
July 2, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640199/the-role-of-peripheral-cns-directed-antibodies-in-promoting-inflammatory-cns-demyelination
#16
REVIEW
Silke Kinzel, Martin S Weber
In central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and related NMO-spectrum disorders (NMO-SD), a pathogenic role for antibodies is primarily projected into enhancing ongoing CNS inflammation by directly binding to target antigens within the CNS. This scenario is supported at least in part, by antibodies in conjunction with complement activation in the majority of MS lesions and by deposition of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) antibodies in areas of astrocyte loss in patients with classical NMO...
June 22, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599876/effects-of-different-musical-frequencies-on-npy-and-ghrelin-secretion-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#17
Cristina Russo, Antonella Russo, Rosario Gulino, Rosalia Pellitteri, Stefania Stanzani
It is known that exists a relationship between listening to music and food intake. Hypothalamus appears to integrate the orexigenic properties of a novel peptide, ghrelin (Ghre) that induces food intake through neuropeptide Y (NPY). Ghre stimulates appetite by acting on the ventral hypothalamus, which controls food intake. Ghre is secreted from the stomach and circulates in the bloodstream under fasting conditions, sending a hunger signal from the periphery to the Central Nervous System. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the rat, the effects of different musical frequencies (432 and 440Hz) on the Ghre and NPY expression in the hypothalamic neurons through immunohistochemistry; in addition, we investigated on the different production of Ghre in the serum through Western blot assay (Wb), in relation to the body weight of animals...
June 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589165/effects-of-fumarates-on-inflammatory-human-astrocyte-responses-and-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#18
Dylan A Galloway, John B Williams, Craig S Moore
OBJECTIVE: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a fumaric acid ester approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In both the brain and periphery, DMF and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our aim was to compare the effects of DMF and MMF on inflammatory and antioxidant pathways within astrocytes, a critical supporting glial cell in the central nervous system (CNS). Direct effects of fumarates on neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation toward the oligodendrocyte lineage were also assessed...
June 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589164/cns-aquaporin-4-specific-b-cells-connect-with-multiple-b-cell-compartments-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#19
Markus C Kowarik, David Astling, Christiane Gasperi, Scott Wemlinger, Hannah Schumann, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Alanna M Ritchie, Bernhard Hemmer, Gregory P Owens, Jeffrey L Bennett
OBJECTIVES: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a severe inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) targeted against aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The origin and trafficking of AQP4-specific B cells in NMOSD remains unknown. METHODS: Peripheral (n = 7) and splenic B cells (n = 1) recovered from seven NMOSD patients were sorted into plasmablasts, naïve, memory, and CD27-IgD- double negative (DN) B cells, and variable heavy chain (VH) transcriptome sequences were generated by deep sequencing...
June 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576065/-chitosan-g-glycidyl-methacrylate-xanthan-hydrogel-implant-in-wistar-rats-for-spinal-cord-regeneration
#20
E A Elizalde-Peña, I A Quintero-Ortega, D G Zárate-Triviño, A Nuño-Licona, J Gough, I C Sanchez, D I Medina, G Luna-Barcenas
This work reports the results of in vivo assays of an implant composed of the hydrogel Chitosan-g-Glycidyl Methacrylate-Xanthan [(CTS-g-GMA)-X] in Wistar rats. Degradation kinetics of hydrogels was assessed by lysozyme assays. Wistar rats were subjected to laminectomy by cutting the spinal cord with a scalpel. After the surgical procedure, hydrogels were implanted in the injured zone (level T8). Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) obtained by electric stimulation onto periphery nerves were registered in the corresponding central nervous system (CNS) areas...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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