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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329698/disarming-the-killers-brain-strikes-on-nk-cells
#1
Linda Quatrini, Sophie Ugolini
Brain ischemia induces profound systemic immunosuppression, leading to infectious complications. In this issue of Immunity, Liu et al. (2017) demonstrate that distinct neuroendocrine pathways differentially inhibit natural killer (NK) cell responses in the central nervous system and the periphery after cerebral infarction.
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303137/cellular-and-molecular-characterization-of-microglia-a-unique-immune-cell-population
#2
REVIEW
Carole Sousa, Knut Biber, Alessandro Michelucci
Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Microglia arise from erythro-myeloid precursors in the yolk sac and populate the brain rudiment early during development. Unlike monocytes that are constantly renewed from bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells throughout life, resident microglia in the healthy brain persist during adulthood via constant self-renewal. Their ontogeny, together with the absence of turnover from the periphery and the singular environment of the central nervous system, make microglia a unique cell population...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274759/insulin-deficiency-a-possible-link-between-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#3
Ghazaleh Nameni, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Ghazaleh Hajilouian, Parviz Shahabi, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies proposed a linear connection between developing dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and obesity. Adiposity, insulin resistance and dementia indicated probable mechanistic links in this process. Indeed, it has been known that optimum insulin action in the brain plays critical role in cognitive function; whereas, insulin resistance in obese individuals finally leads to insulin deficiency in central nervous system (CNS) and down regulation of the efficiency of insulin uptake from periphery into CSF...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259560/4-chlorophenylguanidine-is-an-asic3-agonist-and-positive-allosteric-modulator
#4
Amruta S Agharkar, Eric B Gonzales
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-sensitive sodium channels that open in response to lowered extracellular pH and are expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The ASIC3 subtype is found primarily in the periphery where the channel mediates pain signals caused by ischemia and inflammation. Here, we provide identify 4-chlorophenylguanidine (4-CPG) as an ASIC3 positive allosteric modulator and newest member of the growing group of guanidine modulators of ASICs. Furthermore, the 4-CPG reversed the effects of ASIC3 desensitization...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259169/role-of-neuroinflammation-in-neurodegeneration-new-insights
#5
REVIEW
Róisín M McManus, Michael T Heneka
Previously, the contribution of peripheral infection to cognitive decline was largely overlooked however, the past 15 years have established a key role for infectious pathogens in the progression of age-related neurodegeneration. It is now accepted that the immune privilege of the brain is not absolute, and that cells of the central nervous system are sensitive to both the inflammatory events occurring in the periphery and to the infiltration of peripheral immune cells. This is particularly relevant for the progression of Alzheimer's disease, in which it has been demonstrated that patients are more vulnerable to infection-related cognitive changes...
March 4, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247020/immunohistochemical-and-biochemical-evidence-for-the-presence-of-serotonin-containing-neurons-and-nerve-fibers-in-the-octopus-arm
#6
Jean-Pierre Bellier, Yu Xie, Sameh Mohamed Farouk, Yuko Sakaue, Ikuo Tooyama, Hiroshi Kimura
The octopus arm contains a tridimensional array of muscles with a massive sensory-motor system. We herein provide the first evidence for the existence of serotonin (5-HT) in the octopus arm nervous system and investigated its distribution using immunohistochemistry. 5-HT-like immunoreactive (5-HT-lir) nerve cell bodies were exclusively localized in the cellular layer of the axial nerve cord. Those cell bodies emitted 5-HT-lir nerve fibers in the direction of the sucker, the intramuscular nerves cords, the ganglion of the sucker, and the intrinsic musculature...
February 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215293/neuronal-roles-of-the-bicaudal-d-family-of-motor-adaptors
#7
M Budzinska, K B Wicher, M Terenzio
All cell types rely on active intracellular cargo transport to shuttle essential cellular components such as proteins, lipids, RNA, and even organelles from the center to the periphery and vice versa. Additionally, several signaling pathways take advantage of intracellular transport to propagate their signals by moving activated receptors and protein effectors to specific locations inside the cell. Neurons particularly, being a very polarized cell type, are highly dependent on molecular motors for the anterograde and retrograde delivery of essential cellular components and signaling molecules...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196601/cholinergic-signals-from-the-cns-regulate-g-csf-mediated-hsc-mobilization-from-bone-marrow-via-a-glucocorticoid-signaling-relay
#8
Halley Pierce, Dachuan Zhang, Claire Magnon, Daniel Lucas, John R Christin, Matthew Huggins, Gary J Schwartz, Paul S Frenette
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are mobilized from niches in the bone marrow (BM) to the blood circulation by the cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) through complex mechanisms. Among these, signals from the sympathetic nervous system regulate HSC egress via its niche, but how the brain communicates with the BM remains largely unknown. Here we show that muscarinic receptor type-1 (Chrm1) signaling in the hypothalamus promotes G-CSF-elicited HSC mobilization via hormonal priming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
February 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191693/gene-expression-profiles-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-correlate-with-salience-network-activity-in-chronic-visceral-pain-a-pilot-study
#9
A Gupta, S Cole, J S Labus, S Joshi, T J Nguyen, L A Kilpatrick, K Tillisch, B D Naliboff, L Chang, E A Mayer
BACKGROUND: Distinct gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) consistent with increased sympathetic nervous system activity have been described in different populations under chronic stress. Neuroinflammatory brain changes, possibly related to the migration of primed monocytes to the brain, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered brain-gut interactions and increased sympathetic/vagal tone and anxiety...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181561/peripheral-sensory-neuron-injury-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#10
I-Ching Wang, Chen-Yen Chung, Fang Liao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Cheng-Han Lee
Multiple sclerosis (MS)-induced neuropathic pain deteriorates quality of life in patients but is often refractory to treatment. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of MS, animals develop neuropathy and inflammation-induced tissue acidosis, which suggests the involvement of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Also, peripheral neuropathy is reported in MS patients. However, the involvement of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in MS neuropathic pain remains elusive. This study investigated the contribution of ASICs and peripheral neuropathy in MS-induced neuropathic pain...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177966/high-number-of-activated-cd8-t-cells-targeting-hiv-antigens-are-present-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-acute-hiv-infection
#11
Cari F Kessing, Serena Spudich, Victor Valcour, Pearline Cartwright, Thep Chalermchai, James L K Fletcher, Carmen Nichols, Benjamin J Josey, Bonnie Slike, Shelly J Krebs, Napapon Sailsuta, Sukalaya Lerdlum, Linda Jagodzinski, Somporn Tipsuk, Duanghathai Suttichom, Somprartthana Rattanamanee, Henrik Zetterberg, Joanna Hellmuth, Nittaya Phanuphak, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Jintanat Ananworanich, Lydie Trautmann
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infiltration by CD8+ T cells is associated with neuroinflammation in many neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-associated dementia. However, the role of CD8+ T cells in the CNS during acute HIV infection is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the phenotype, gene expression, TCR repertoire and HIV-specificity of CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a unique cohort captured during the earliest stages of acute HIV infection (AHI) (n=26), chronic (n=23), and uninfected (n=8)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164283/monocytes-microglia-and-cd200-cd200r1-signaling-are-essential-in-the-transmission-of-inflammation-from-the-periphery-to-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Xin Xie, Xiaoguang Luo, Na Liu, Xiaohong Li, Fan Lou, Yumin Zheng, Yan Ren
Peripheral inflammation is known to trigger neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease. However, the key components during the propagation of inflammation from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS) remain unclear. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats to induce peripheral inflammation. An intravenous injection and an intranigral injection of clodronate liposomes (CL) were given to deplete monocytes and microglia, respectively. Recombinant CD200 fusion protein (CD200Fc) or an anti-CD200R1 antibody was injected into the substantia nigra (SN) to manipulate the involvement of CD200 and CD200R1...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142205/reprogramming-postnatal-human-epidermal-keratinocytes-toward-functional-neural-crest-fates
#13
Vivek K Bajpai, Laura Kerosuo, Georgios Tseropoulos, Kirstie A Cummings, Xiaoyan Wang, Pedro Lei, Biao Liu, Song Liu, Gabriela Popescu, Marianne E Bronner, Stelios T Andreadis
During development, neural crest cells are induced by signaling events at the neural plate border of all vertebrate embryos. Initially arising within the central nervous system, neural crest cells subsequently undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition to migrate into the periphery, where they differentiate into diverse cell types. Here we provide evidence that postnatal human epidermal keratinocytes, in response to FGF2 and IGF1 signals, can be reprogrammed toward a neural crest fate. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses show that keratinocyte-derived neural crest cells are similar to those derived from human embryonic stem cells...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137426/scientific-familial-lessons-in-ingestive-behavior-research-2016-alan-n-epstein-research-award
#14
REVIEW
Matthew R Hayes
While energy balance is under the control of the central nervous system (CNS), a major source of neural regulation for the behavioral, physiological and endocrine processes governing energy balance originates in the periphery. Indeed, the organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, supporting organs of the peritoneal cavity and adipose tissue are the source of numerous neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine signals released from non-neuronal peripheral tissue that signal in a paracrine and endocrine fashion to regulate the physiological and behavioral processes that affect energy balance...
January 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125674/characterisation-of-immune-and-neuroinflammatory-changes-associated-with-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#15
Preet G S Makker, Samuel S Duffy, Justin G Lees, Chamini J Perera, Ryan S Tonkin, Oleg Butovsky, Susanna B Park, David Goldstein, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and associated neuropathic pain is a debilitating adverse effect of cancer treatment. Current understanding of the mechanisms underpinning CIPN is limited and there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we treated male C57BL/6J mice with 4 cycles of either Paclitaxel (PTX) or Oxaliplatin (OXA) over a week and tested pain hypersensitivity and changes in peripheral immune responses and neuroinflammation on days 7 and 13 post 1st injection. We found that both PTX and OXA caused significant mechanical allodynia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115479/o-glcnac-transferase-is-essential-for-sensory-neuron-survival-and-maintenance
#16
Cathy Su, Thomas L Schwarz
O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) regulates a wide range of cellular processes through the addition of the O-GlcNAc sugar moiety to thousands of protein substrates. Because nutrient availability affects the activity of OGT, its role has been broadly studied in metabolic tissues. OGT is enriched in the nervous system, but little is known about its importance in basic neuronal processes in vivo Here, we show that OGT is essential for sensory neuron survival and maintenance in mice. Sensory neuron-specific knock-out of OGT results in behavioral hyposensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli accompanied by decreased epidermal innervation and cell-body loss in the dorsal root ganglia...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112482/antihyperalgesic-antiallodynic-and-antinociceptive-effects-of-cebranopadol-a-novel-potent-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-and-opioid-receptor-agonist-after-peripheral-and-central-administration-in-rodent-models-of-neuropathic-pain
#17
Thomas M Tzschentke, Klaus Linz, Stefanie Frosch, Thomas Christoph
Cebranopadol is a novel and highly potent analgesic acting via nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) and opioid receptors. Since NOP and opioid receptors are expressed in the central nervous system as well as in the periphery, this study addressed the question of where cebranopadol exerts its effects in animal models of chronic neuropathic pain. Mechanical hypersensitivity in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats, cold allodynia in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rats, and heat hyperalgesia and nociception in STZ-treated diabetic and control mice was determined after intraplantar (i...
January 23, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108025/viral-induced-suppression-of-self-reactive-t-cells-lessons-from-neurotropic-coronavirus-induced-demyelination
#18
REVIEW
Carine Savarin, Cornelia C Bergmann
Genetic and environmental factors, i.e. infections, have been proposed to contribute to disease induction and relapsing events in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While research has mainly focused on virus associated autoimmune activation, less is known about prevention of autoimmunity, especially following resolving infections associated with CNS tissue damage. This review discusses novel insights on control of self-reactive (SR) T cells activated during neurotropic coronavirus-induced demyelination...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106546/a-common-variant-of-il-6r-is-associated-with-elevated-il-6-pathway-activity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-brains
#19
Patrick C G Haddick, Jessica L Larson, Nisha Rathore, Tushar R Bhangale, Qui T Phung, Karpagam Srinivasan, David V Hansen, Jennie R Lill, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Jonathan Haines, Lindsay A Farrer, John S Kauwe, Gerard D Schellenberg, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Timothy W Behrens, Ryan J Watts, Robert R Graham, Joshua S Kaminker, Marcel van der Brug
The common p.D358A variant (rs2228145) in IL-6R is associated with risk for multiple diseases and with increased levels of soluble IL-6R in the periphery and central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show that the p.D358A allele leads to increased proteolysis of membrane bound IL-6R and demonstrate that IL-6R peptides with A358 are more susceptible to cleavage by ADAM10 and ADAM17. IL-6 responsive genes were identified in primary astrocytes and microglia and an IL-6 gene signature was increased in the CNS of late onset Alzheimer's disease subjects in an IL6R allele dependent manner...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104800/frequency-channel-dependent-selectivity-for-temporal-call-characteristics-in-gray-treefrogs-hyla-versicolor
#20
Michael S Reichert, Gerlinde Höbel
Sensory receptors transmit information on multiple stimulus dimensions. Much remains to be understood about how the processing of different signal characteristics is partitioned and integrated in different areas of the nervous system. Amphibian hearing involves two morphologically distinct inner-ear organs that process different components of the frequency spectrum. Many anuran signals contain two frequency peaks, each one matching the sensitivity of one of these two organs. We hypothesized that the processing of temporal characteristics of acoustic signals would differ in these two frequency channels, perhaps because of differences in the response properties of the two inner-ear organs...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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