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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334553/post-treatment-controllers-after-treatment-interruption-in-chronically-hiv-infected-patients
#1
Franco Maggiolo, Elisa Di Filippo, Laura Comi, Annapaola Callegaro
OBJECTIVE: Control HIV replication requires continuous combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) as discontinuation of cART results in a rapid viral rebound. However, a few individuals exist who took cART for several years and did not show the expected viral rebound after treatment cessation. Most post-treatment controllers (PTCs) are early treated individuals. We report three cases who started cART during chronic infection. DESIGN: Patients were treated and monitored according to Italian guidelines...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334457/new-mechanism-for-ferroelectricity-in-the-perovskite-ca2-xmnxti2o6-synthesized-by-spark-plasma-sintering
#2
Zongyao Li, Yujin Cho, Xiang Li, Xinyu Li, Akihisa Aimi, Yoshiyuki Inaguma, Jose Antonio Alonso, Maria Teresa Fernandez-Diaz, Jiaqiang Yan, Michael C Downer, Graeme Henkelman, John B Goodenough, Jianshi Zhou
Perovskite oxides hosting ferroelectricity are particularly important materials for modern technologies. The ferroelectric transition in the well-known oxides BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 is realized by softening of a vibration mode in the cubic perovskite structure. For most perovskite oxides, octahedral-site tilting systems are developed to accommodate the bonding mismatch due to a geometric tolerance factor t = (A-O)/[√2(B-O)] < 1. In the absence of cations having lone-pair electrons, e.g. Bi3+ and Pb2+, all simple and complex A-site and B-site ordered perovskite oxides with a t < 1 show a variety of tilting systems and none of them become ferroelectric...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334374/transitory-presence-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-neonates-is-critical-for-control-of-inflammation
#3
Yu-Mei He, Xing Li, Michela Perego, Yulia Nefedova, Andrew V Kossenkov, Erik A Jensen, Valerian Kagan, Yu-Feng Liu, Shu-Yu Fu, Qing-Jian Ye, Yan-Hong Zhou, Lai Wei, Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Jie Zhou
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are pathologically activated and relatively immature myeloid cells that have been implicated in the immunological regulation of many pathologic conditions. Phenotypically and morphologically, MDSCs are similar to neutrophils (PMN-MDSCs) and monocytes (M-MDSCs). However, they have potent suppressive activity and distinct gene expression profiles and biochemical characteristics. No or very few MDSCs are observed in steady-state physiological conditions. Therefore, until recently, accumulation of MDSCs was considered a consequence of pathological processes or pregnancy...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334370/scaffolds-that-mimic-antigen-presenting-cells-enable-ex-vivo-expansion-of-primary-t-cells
#4
Alexander S Cheung, David K Y Zhang, Sandeep T Koshy, David J Mooney
Therapeutic ex vivo T-cell expansion is limited by low rates and T-cell products of limited functionality. Here we describe a system that mimics natural antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and consists of a fluid lipid bilayer supported by mesoporous silica micro-rods. The lipid bilayer presents membrane-bound cues for T-cell receptor stimulation and costimulation, while the micro-rods enable sustained release of soluble paracrine cues. Using anti-CD3, anti-CD28, and interleukin-2, we show that the APC-mimetic scaffolds (APC-ms) promote two- to tenfold greater polyclonal expansion of primary mouse and human T cells compared with commercial expansion beads (Dynabeads)...
January 15, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334088/chemically-accurate-adsorption-energies-for-methane-and-ethane-monolayers-on-the-mgo-001-surface
#5
Maristella Alessio, Florian A Bischoff, Joachim Sauer
A hybrid QM:QM method that combines MP2 as high-level method on cluster models with density functional theory (PBE+D2) as low-level method on periodic models is applied to adsorption of methane and ethane on the MgO(001) surface for which reliable experimental desorption enthalpies are available. Two coverages are considered, monolayer (every second Mg2+ ion occupied) and one quarter coverage (one of eight Mg2+ ions occupied). Structure optimizations are performed at the hybrid MP2:(PBE+D2) level, with the MP2 energies and forces counterpoise corrected for basis set superposition error and extrapolated to the complete basis set limit...
January 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333745/increased-sensitivity-and-high-specificity-of-indirect-immunofluorescence-in-detecting-igg-subclasses-for-diagnosis-of-bullous-pemphigoid
#6
J Jankásková, O N Horváth, R Varga, P Arenberger, E Schmidt, T Ruzicka, M Sárdy
BACKGROUND: Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) microscopy on monkey oesophagus is an important assay for the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid (BP). Its relatively low sensitivity (60-80%) may be partly due to insufficient detection of minor IgG subclasses. AIM: To determine the operating characteristics of an IgG subclass in IIF. METHODS: We designed a retrospective, dual-centre, controlled cohort study on sera from 64 BP sera that had been rated as false negatives by traditional IIF microscopy, and assessed circulating IgG1 , IgG3 and IgG4 autoantibodies...
January 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333646/examining-predictors-of-breakfast-skipping-and-breakfast-program-use-among-secondary-school-students-in-the-compass-study
#7
Katelyn M Godin, Karen A Patte, Scott T Leatherdale
BACKGROUND: Many Canadian schools offer breakfast programs; however, students' engagement in these programs is low, while breakfast skipping is highly prevalent among youth. This study examined whether the availability of breakfast programs supports adolescents' regular breakfast eating, and identified characteristics of breakfast skippers who are not using these programs. METHODS: Data from 30,771 secondary school students from Ontario and Alberta, Canada, participating in Year 3 (2014-2015) of the COMPASS study were used for descriptive and logistic regression analyses...
February 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333625/k3li3gd7-bo3-9-a-new-gadolinium-rich-orthoborate-for-cryogenic-magnetic-cooling
#8
Mingjun Xia, Shipeng Shen, Jun Lu, Young Sun, R K Li
Magnetic cooling technology based on magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has attracted great interest in obtaining extreme low temperature, e. g. for space exploration. Here we grew a new gadolinium-rich orthoborate K3Li3Gd7(BO3)9 (1) as a promising cryogenic magnetic coolant. It exhibits complicated three dimensional framework constructed from BO3 groups and gadolinium-oxygen chains. The Gd-O chain consists of two types of clusters of Gd3O20 and Gd3O19 interconncetion by Gd(4)O8 polyhydron. Thanks to its high gadolinium concentration, a large -Sm for 1 was obtained as 56...
January 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333577/prostate-cancer-patients-understanding-of-the-gleason-scoring-system-implications-for-shared-decision-making
#9
Erin K Tagai, Suzanne M Miller, Alexander Kutikov, Michael A Diefenbach, Ronak A Gor, Tahseen Al-Saleem, David Y T Chen, Sara Fleszar, Gem Roy
The Gleason scoring system is a key component of a prostate cancer diagnosis, since it indicates disease aggressiveness. It also serves as a risk communication tool that facilitates shared treatment decision-making. However, the system is highly complex and therefore difficult to communicate: factors which have been shown to undermine well-informed and high-quality shared treatment decision-making. To systematically explore prostate cancer patients' understanding of the Gleason scoring system (GSS), we assessed knowledge and perceived importance among men who had completed treatment (N = 50)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333575/a-phase-1-dose-escalation-study-of-pf-06664178-an-anti-trop-2-aur0101-antibody-drug-conjugate-in-patients-with-advanced-or-metastatic-solid-tumors
#10
Gentry T King, Keith D Eaton, Brandon R Beagle, Christopher J Zopf, Gilbert Y Wong, Heike I Krupka, Steven Y Hua, Wells A Messersmith, Anthony B El-Khoueiry
Purpose and Methods Trop-2 is a glycoprotein over-expressed in many solid tumors but at low levels in normal human tissue, providing a potential therapeutic target. We conducted a phase 1 dose-finding study of PF-06664178, an antibody-drug conjugate that targets Trop-2 for the selective delivery of the cytotoxic payload Aur0101. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose. Secondary objectives included further characterization of the safety profile, pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity...
January 15, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333341/preventive-effects-of-salvia-officinalis-leaf-extract-on-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-a-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-that-responds-to-rosiglitazone
#11
Mohamed R Ben Khedher, Mohamed Hammami, Jonathan R S Arch, David C Hislop, Dominic Eze, Edward T Wargent, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Mohamed S Zaibi
Background: Salvia officinalis (sage) is a native plant to the Mediterranean region and has been used for a long time in traditional medicine for various diseases. We investigated possible anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects of sage methanol (MetOH) extract in a nutritional mouse model of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as its effects on lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were treated for five weeks with sage methanol extract (100 and 400 mg kg-1/day bid), or rosiglitazone (3 mg kg-1/day bid), as a positive control...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333270/lessons-from-ten-years-of-genome-wide-association-studies-of-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Cristina T Vicente, Joana A Revez, Manuel A R Ferreira
Twenty-five genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of asthma were published between 2007 and 2016, the largest with a sample size of 157242 individuals. Across these studies, 39 genetic variants in low linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other were reported to associate with disease risk at a significance threshold of P<5 × 10-8, including 31 in populations of European ancestry. Results from analyses of the UK Biobank data (n=380 503) indicate that at least 28 of the 31 associations reported in Europeans represent true-positive findings, collectively explaining 2...
December 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333040/pharmacological-screening-of-trachyspermum-ammi-for-antihyperlipidemic-activity-in-triton-x-100-induced-hyperlipidemia-rat-model
#13
Uzma Saleem, Saba Riaz, Bashir Ahmad, Mohammad Saleem
Background: Mortality rate is increasing due to cardiovascular problems throughout the world. These cardiac problems are directly associated with dyslipidemia. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract and methanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi at 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg, and 5 g/kg dose levels in rats. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 45 male albino rats were used and randomly divided into nine equal groups (n = 5)...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332739/multifidus-muscle-size-in-adolescents-with-and-without-back-pain-using-ultrasonography
#14
Nahid Rahmani, Ali Kiani, Mohammad Ali Mohseni-Bandpei, Iraj Abdollahi
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were; a) to compare multifidus muscle cross sectional area (CSA) in male adolescents suffering from low back pain (LBP) with healthy male adolescents using ultrasonography (US), and b) to assess the correlation between multifidus muscle size and demographic variables. METHODS: A random sample of 40 healthy boys (as a control group) and 40 boys with LBP (as an experimental group) at the age range of 15-18 years was recruited in the present cohort study...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332705/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-management-of-advanced-and-high-stage-tumors
#15
REVIEW
Syril Keena T Que, Fiona O Zwald, Chrysalyne D Schmults
While the majority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) can be treated surgically, the additional work-up and treatments indicated for high-risk cSCC remain undefined. In recent years, improvements in tumor staging systems have allowed for the more accurate stratification of tumors into high- and low-risk categories. This insight, along with the publication of cSCC guidelines, brings us closer to the development of a consensus approach. The second article in this continuing medical education series addresses in question and answer format the most common questions related to advanced and high-stage cSCCs, with a simplified flowchart...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332704/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-incidence-risk-factors-diagnosis-and-staging
#16
REVIEW
Syril Keena T Que, Fiona O Zwald, Chrysalyne D Schmults
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), a malignant proliferation of cutaneous epithelium, represents 20% to 50% of skin cancers. Although the majority of cSCCs are successfully eradicated by surgical excision, a subset of cSCC possesses features associated with a higher likelihood of recurrence, metastasis, and death. The proper identification of these aggressive cSCCs can guide additional work-up and management. In the first article in this continuing medical education series, we discuss the incidence, recurrence rates, mortality rates, and risk factors associated with cSCC and review the staging systems used to stratify patients into high- and low-risk groups...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332618/online-market-research-panel-members-as-controls-in-case-control-studies-to-investigate-gastrointestinal-disease-outbreaks-early-experiences-and-lessons-learnt-from-the-uk
#17
P Mook, J McCormick, S Kanagarajah, G K Adak, P Cleary, R Elson, M Gobin, J Hawker, T Inns, C Sinclair, S C M Trienekens, R Vivancos, N D McCarthy
Established methods of recruiting population controls for case-control studies to investigate gastrointestinal disease outbreaks can be time consuming, resulting in delays in identifying the source or vehicle of infection. After an initial evaluation of using online market research panel members as controls in a case-control study to investigate a Salmonella outbreak in 2013, this method was applied in four further studies in the UK between 2014 and 2016. We used data from all five studies and interviews with members of each outbreak control team and market research panel provider to review operational issues, evaluate risk of bias in this approach and consider methods to reduce confounding and bias...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332575/protective-role-of-italian-juglans-regia-l-nut-ethanolic-extract-in-human-keratinocytes-under-oxidative-and-inflammatory-stress
#18
Cinzia Calcabrini, Umberto Mancini, Roberta De Bellis, Alessandra Frati, Anna Rita Mastrogiacomo, Giosue Annibalini, Piero Sestili, Luigi Cucchiarini, Vilberto Stocchi, Lucia Potenza
OBJECTIVE: In this research, fatty acid profile and polyphenolic content of an ethanolic extract of walnut from Juglans regia L. collected in Central Italy, were performed. The potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract were investigated in the human keratinocytes cell line. METHODS: Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for determination of total flavonoids...
January 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331844/assessing-the-risk-of-cmv-reactivation-and-reconstitution-of-antiviral-immune-response-post-bone-marrow-transplantation-by-the-quantiferon-cmv-assay-and-real-time-pcr
#19
Adalbert Krawczyk, Jessica Ackermann, Birgit Goitowski, Rudolf Trenschel, Markus Ditschkowski, Jörg Timm, Hellmut Ottinger, Dietrich W Beelen, Nico Grüner, Melanie Fiedler
BACKGROUND: CMV reactivation is a major cause of severe complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The risk of CMV reactivation depends on the serostatus (+/-) of the donor (D) and recipient (R). The reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell responses after transplantation is crucial for the control of CMV reactivation. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the cellular immune status correlating with protection from high-level CMV viremia (>5000 copies/ml) and disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331727/individual-variation-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-fear-extinction-performance
#20
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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