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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742961/solid-solid-phase-transitions-and-t-butyl-and-methyl-group-rotation-in-an-organic-solid-x-ray-diffractometry-differential-scanning-calorimetry-and-solid-state-1h-nuclear-spin-relaxation
#1
Peter A Beckmann, Andrew R McGhie, Arnold L Rheingold, Gilbert J Sloan, Steven T Szewczyk
Using solid state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation experiments, we have investigated the effects of several solid-solid phase transitions on t-butyl group and methyl group rotation in solid 1,3,5-tri-t-butylbenzene. The goal is to relate the dynamics of the t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups to properties of the solid determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). On cooling, the DSC experiments see a first-order, solid-solid phase transition at either 268 K or 155 K (but not both) depending on thermal history...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742946/the-association-between-obesity-and-academic-performance-in-youth-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
C C A Santana, J O Hill, L B Azevedo, T Gunnarsdottir, W L Prado
Previous studies have found that obesity could influence academic performance. The aim of this study was to systematically review the scientific evidence on the association between obesity and academic performance in school children. A systematic review of English articles was undertaken by using databases PubMed/Medline, ERIC, LILACS, SciELO and Web of Science. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies examining the association between obesity and academic performance in children and adolescents, published between January 1990 and December 2016, were included...
July 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742881/epiphytes-in-wooded-pastures-isolation-matters-for-lichen-but-not-for-bryophyte-species-richness
#3
Thomas Kiebacher, Christine Keller, Christoph Scheidegger, Ariel Bergamini
Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures) on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742106/epidemiology-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-infections-and-associated-outcomes-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#4
Elizabeth T Rogawski, Richard L Guerrant, Alexandre Havt, Ila F N Lima, Pedro H Q S Medeiros, Jessica C Seidman, Benjamin J J McCormick, Sudhir Babji, Dinesh Hariraju, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Jasmin Shrestha, Japhat Anania, Athanasia Maro, Amidou Samie, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Shahida Qureshi, Mustafa Mahfuz, Pascal O Bessong, Margaret N Kosek, Tahmeed Ahmed, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Eric R Houpt, Aldo A M Lima
BACKGROUND: Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) have been associated with mildly inflammatory diarrhea in outbreaks and in travelers and have been increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens in young children with and without overt diarrhea. We examined the risk factors for EAEC infections and their associations with environmental enteropathy biomarkers and growth outcomes over the first two years of life in eight low-resource settings of the MAL-ED study. METHODS: EAEC infections were detected by PCR gene probes for aatA and aaiC virulence traits in 27,094 non-diarrheal surveillance stools and 7,692 diarrheal stools from 2,092 children in the MAL-ED birth cohort...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742090/t-dna-genome-junctions-form-early-after-infection-and-are-influenced-by-the-chromatin-state-of-the-host-genome
#5
Shay Shilo, Pooja Tripathi, Cathy Melamed-Bessudo, Oren Tzfadia, Theodore R Muth, Avraham A Levy
Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated T-DNA integration is a common tool for plant genome manipulation. However, there is controversy regarding whether T-DNA integration is biased towards genes or randomly distributed throughout the genome. In order to address this question, we performed high-throughput mapping of T-DNA-genome junctions obtained in the absence of selection at several time points after infection. T-DNA-genome junctions were detected as early as 6 hours post-infection. T-DNA distribution was apparently uniform throughout the chromosomes, yet local biases toward AT-rich motifs and T-DNA border sequence micro-homology were detected...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742079/the-dcdc2-deletion-is-not-a-risk-factor-for-dyslexia
#6
T S Scerri, E Macpherson, A Martinelli, W C Wa, A P Monaco, J Stein, M Zheng, C Suk-Han Ho, C McBride, M Snowling, C Hulme, M E Hayiou-Thomas, M M Y Waye, J B Talcott, S Paracchini
Dyslexia is a specific impairment in learning to read and has strong heritability. An intronic deletion within the DCDC2 gene, with ~8% frequency in European populations, is increasingly used as a marker for dyslexia in neuroimaging and behavioral studies. At a mechanistic level, this deletion has been proposed to influence sensory processing capacity, and in particular sensitivity to visual coherent motion. Our re-assessment of the literature, however, did not reveal strong support for a role of this specific deletion in dyslexia...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741937/lanthanide-organophosphate-spiro-polymers-synthesis-structure-and-magnetocaloric-effect-in-the-gadolinium-polymer
#7
Sandeep K Gupta, Gulzar A Bhat, Ramaswamy Murugavel
Spirocyclic lanthanide organophosphate polymers, {[Ln(dipp)(dippH)(CH3OH)(H2O)2](CH3OH)2}n [Ln = La (1), Ce (2), Pr (3), Nd (4), Sm (5), Eu (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9), Ho (10), Er (11)], have been prepared from the reaction of Ln(NO3)3·xH2O with sterically hindered 2,6-diisopropylphenyl phosphate (dippH2) using aqueous NaOH as the base. The one-dimensional chainlike lanthanide (III) organophosphate coordination polymers have been characterized with the aid of analytical and spectroscopic methods. The single crystal structure determination of polymers (2-5 and 7-11) reveals that in these compounds the hydrophobic organic groups of the phosphate provide a protective coating for the inorganic lanthanide phosphate polymeric chain...
July 25, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741923/codelivery-of-trichosanthin-and-albendazole-by-nano-self-assembly-for-overcoming-tumor-multidrug-resistance-and-metastasis
#8
Yisi Tang, Jianming Liang, Aihua Wu, Yingzhi Chen, Pengfei Zhao, Tingting Lin, Meng Zhang, Qin Xu, Jianxin Wang, Yongzhuo Huang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) and metastasis are the major obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Nanotechnology-based combination therapy is a useful strategy. Recently, the combination of biologics and small drugs has attracted much attention in cancer therapy. Yet, the treatment outcomes are often compromised by the different pharmacokinetics profiles of the co-administered drugs, thus leading to inconsistent drug uptake and suboptimal drug combination at the tumor sites. Nanotechnology-based codelivery offers a promising method to address this problem, which is well demonstrated in the use of small drugs combination...
July 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741898/development-of-a-new-structural-class-of-broadly-acting-hcv-non-nucleoside-inhibitors-leading-to-the-discovery-of-mk-8876
#9
Casey C McComas, Anandan Palani, Wei Chang, M Katharine Holloway, Charles A Lesburg, Peng Li, Nigel Liverton, Peter T Meinke, David B Olsen, Xuanjia Peng, Richard M Soll, Ajay Ummat, Jie Wu, Jin Wu, Nicolas Zorn, Steven W Ludmerer
Studies directed at developing a broadly acting non-nucleoside inhibitor of HCV NS5B led to the discovery of a novel structural class of 5-aryl benzofurans that simultaneously interact with both the palm I and palm II binding regions. An initial candidate was potent in vitro against HCV GT1a and GT1b replicons, and induced multi-log reductions in HCV viral load when orally dosed to chronic GT1 infected chimpanzees. However, in vitro potency losses against clinically relevant GT1a variants prompted a further effort to develop compounds with sustained potency across a broader array of HCV genotypes and mutants...
July 25, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741731/the-evolutionary-history-of-the-dmrt3-gait-keeper-haplotype
#10
E A Staiger, M S Almén, M Promerová, S Brooks, E G Cothran, F Imsland, K Jäderkvist Fegraeus, G Lindgren, H Mehrabani Yeganeh, S Mikko, J L Vega-Pla, T Tozaki, C J Rubin, L Andersson
A previous study revealed a strong association between the DMRT3:Ser301STOP mutation in horses and alternate gaits as well as performance in harness racing. Several follow-up studies have confirmed a high frequency of the mutation in gaited horse breeds and an effect on gait quality. The aim of this study was to determine when and where the mutation arose, to identify additional potential causal mutations and to determine the coalescence time for contemporary haplotypes carrying the stop mutation. We utilized sequences from 89 horses representing 26 breeds to identify 102 SNPs encompassing the DMRT3 gene that are in strong linkage disequilibrium with the stop mutation...
July 25, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741283/caring-for-young-children-with-asthma-perspectives-from-urban-community-health-centers
#11
Ellen Childs, Margaret A Laws, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Anjali Nath, Margaret J Reid, Megan Sandel, Robyn T Cohen
Asthma disproportionately affects low-income, minority youth, with notable disparities among children <5 years of age. Understanding the perceptions of urban community health centers (CHCs) regarding treating young children with asthma could improve care for these patients. This study uses data from semi-structured focus groups with staff from eight urban CHCs. Themes emerged in three domains. Within the parent/family domain, providers noted low rates of follow-up visits, low health literacy, and-for young children specifically-misunderstanding about the diagnosis...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741074/concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-with-weekly-nedaplatin-versus-radiotherapy-alone-in-elderly-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
F Chen, P Hu, N Liang, J Xie, S Yu, T Tian, Jingxin Zhang, G Deng, Jiandong Zhang
PURPOSE: We conduct this study to compare the efficacy and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) concurrent weekly nedaplatin (NDP) versus IMRT alone in the stage III/IV non-surgical elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: 117 patients were enrolled into our study. The patients were assigned into two different groups: radiotherapy (RT) group and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) group. Patients in RT group were treated with IMRT at a single daily dose of 2 Gy for 5 days per week, totally 52-66 Gy...
July 24, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740934/patient-reported-distress-and-survival-among-patients-receiving-definitive-radiation-therapy
#13
Yacob Habboush, Robert P Shannon, Shehzad K Niazi, Laeticia Hollant, Megan Single, Katherine Gaines, Bridget Smart, Nicolette T Chimato, Michael G Heckman, Steven J Buskirk, Laura A Vallow, Katherine S Tzou, Stephen J Ko, Jennifer L Peterson, Heather A Biers, Atiya B Day, Kimberly A Nelson, Jeff A Sloan, Michele Y Halyard, Robert C Miller
OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported distress (PRD) has not been well assessed in association with survival after radiation therapy (RT). The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between PRD level and survival after definitive RT and to identify the main causes of distress in definitive RT patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 678 consecutive patients receiving definitive RT at our institution from April 2012 through May 2015 were included. All patients answered a PRD questionnaire that contained 30 items related to possible causes of distress, which could be rated from 1 (no distress) to 5 (high distress)...
April 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740928/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-reirradiation-of-recurrent-and-second-primary-head-and-neck-cancer
#14
Allen M Chen, Minsong Cao, Sophia Hsu, James Lamb, Argin Mikaeilian, Yingli Yang, Nzhde Agazaryan, Daniel A Low, Michael L Steinberg
PURPOSE: To report a single-institutional experience using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided radiation therapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between October 2014 and August 2016, 13 consecutive patients with recurrent or new primary cancers of the head and neck that occurred in a previously irradiated field were prospectively enrolled in an institutional registry trial to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of MRI guided radiation therapy using a 0...
April 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740924/sociodemographic-disparities-in-the-utilization-of-proton-therapy-for-prostate-cancer-at-an-urban-academic-center
#15
Kristina D Woodhouse, Wei-Ting Hwang, Neha Vapiwala, Akansha Jain, Xingmei Wang, Stefan Both, Meera Shah, Marquise Frazier, Peter Gabriel, John P Christodouleas, Zelig Tochner, Curtiland Deville
PURPOSE: Despite increasing use, proton therapy (PT) remains a relatively limited resource. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical and demographic differences in PT use for prostate cancer compared to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) at a single institution. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (N = 633) who underwent definitive radiation therapy between 2010 and 2015 were divided into PT (n = 508) and IMRT (n = 125) comparison groups and compared using χ(2) and independent sample t tests...
April 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740903/hypofractionated-image-guided-radiation-therapy-followed-by-prostate-seed-implant-boost-for-men-with-newly-diagnosed-intermediate-and-high-risk-adenocarcinoma-of-the-prostate-preliminary-results-of-a-phase-2-prospective-study
#16
Steven Gresswell, Rodney E Wegner, Day Werts, Ralph Miller, Russell Fuhrer
PURPOSE: A phase 2 protocol was designed and implemented to assess the toxicity and efficacy of hypofractionated image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) combined with low-dose rate (103)Pd prostate seed implant for treatment of localized intermediate- and high-risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This is a report of an interim analysis on 24 patients enrolled on an institutional review board-approved phase 2 single-institution study of patients with intermediate- and high-risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate...
October 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740732/low-molecular-weight-ngf-mimetic-corrects-the-cognitive-deficit-and-depression-like-behavior-in-experimental-diabetes
#17
R U Ostrovskaya, S S Yagubova, T A Gudasheva, S B Seredenin
Based on the comorbidity of diabetes, depression, and dementia and recognizing that a deficiency of the nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in all of these kinds of pathologies, we studied the effect of the mimetic of dimeric dipeptide NGF loop 4, GK-2, on a model of streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in C57Bl/6 mice. GK-2 [hexamethylenediamide bis-(N-monosuccinyl-glutamyl-lysine)] was synthesized at the V.V. Zakusov Scientific Research Institute of Pharmacology. The study revealed the ability of GK-2 to ameliorate hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocine (STZ 100 mg/kg i...
April 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740585/testosterone-and-the-heart
#18
Travis Goodale, Archana Sadhu, Steven Petak, Richard Robbins
Testosterone (T) has a number of important effects on the cardiovascular system. In men, T levels begin to decrease after age 40, and this decrease has been associated with an increase in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) risk. Low T levels in men may increase their risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Reduced T levels in men with congestive heart failure (CHF) portends a poor prognosis and is associated with increased mortality. Studies have reported a reduced CV risk with higher endogenous T concentration, improvement of known CV risk factors with T therapy, and reduced mortality in T-deficient men who underwent T replacement therapy versus untreated men...
April 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740563/the-impact-of-ti-and-temperature-on-the-stability-of-nb5si3-phases-a-first-principles-study
#19
Ioannis Papadimitriou, Claire Utton, Panos Tsakiropoulos
Nb-silicide based alloys could be used at T > 1423 K in future aero-engines. Titanium is an important additive to these new alloys where it improves oxidation, fracture toughness and reduces density. The microstructures of the new alloys consist of an Nb solid solution, and silicides and other intermetallics can be present. Three Nb5Si3 polymorphs are known, namely αNb5Si3 (tI32 Cr5B3-type, D8l), βNb5Si3 (tI32 W5Si3-type, D8m) and γNb5Si3 (hP16 Mn5Si3-type, D88). In these 5-3 silicides Nb atoms can be substituted by Ti atoms...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740525/the-use-of-cholecalciferol-in-patients-with-hip-fracture
#20
Luisella Cianferotti, Simone Parri, Giorgio Gronchi, Roberto Civinini, Maria Luisa Brandi
INTRODUCTION: Major osteoporotic fractures are steadily increasing due to population aging. Programs of secondary prevention against refracture are essential to decrease morbidity and mortality and the cost for individuals and the society. Vitamin D supplementation and optimization of calcium intake are of a pivotal importance to start specific osteoporosis treatment and for its safety and efficacy. Cholecalciferol is the most widely employed drug for vitamin D supplementation. PURPOSE: Aim of this study was to assess the trends in the use of vitamin D supplements containing cholecalciferol in the population of hip fracture patients older than 65 years, resident in the region of Tuscany (Italy) in the years 2011-2015 and to describe vitamin D status in a subgroup of this individuals directly referred to a bone clinic for further evaluation after hip osteoporotic fracture...
January 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
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