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psychedelics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095732/an-online-survey-of-tobacco-smoking-cessation-associated-with-naturalistic-psychedelic-use
#1
Matthew W Johnson, Albert Garcia-Romeu, Patrick S Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Data suggest psychedelics such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of addictions, including tobacco dependence. This retrospective cross-sectional anonymous online survey characterized 358 individuals (52 females) who reported having quit or reduced smoking after ingesting a psychedelic in a non-laboratory setting ⩾1 year ago. On average, participants smoked 14 cigarettes/day for 8 years, and had five previous quit attempts before their psychedelic experience...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#2
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027403/accurate-measurement-of-jhh-in-overlapped-signals-by-a-tocsy-edited-serf-experiment
#3
Pau Nolis André Fredi, Teodor Parella
Selective Refocusing (GSERF or the recent PSYCHEDELIC) experiments were originally designed to determine all proton-proton coupling constants (JHH ) for a selected proton resonance. They work for isolated signals on which selective excitation can be successfully applied but, as happens in other selective experiments, fail for overlapped signals. To circumvent this limitation, a doubly-selective TOCSY-GSERF scheme is presented for the measurement of JHH in protons resonating in crowded regions. This new experiment takes advantage of the editing features of an initial TOCSY transfer to uncover hidden resonances that become accessible to perform the subsequent frequency-selective refocusing...
December 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025814/phenomenology-structure-and-dynamic-of-psychedelic-states
#4
Katrin H Preller, Franz X Vollenweider
Classic serotonergic hallucinogens or psychedelics produce an Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by profound alterations in sensory perception, mood, thought including the perception of reality, and the sense of self. Over the past years, there has been considerable progress in the search for invariant and common features of psychedelic states. In the first part of this review, we outline contemporary approaches to characterize the structure of ASCs by means of three primary etiology-independent dimensions including Oceanic Boundlessness, Anxious Ego Dissolution, and Visionary Restructuralization as well as by 11 lower order factors, all of which can be reliably measured by the Altered State of Consciousness questionnaire (APZ-OAV)...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019026/psychedelics-as-medicines-an-emerging-new-paradigm
#5
D E Nichols, M W Johnson, C D Nichols
Scientific interest in serotonergic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD; 5-HT2A receptor agonists) has dramatically increased within the last decade. Clinical studies administering psychedelics with psychotherapy have shown preliminary evidence of robust efficacy in treating anxiety and depression, as well as addiction to tobacco and alcohol. Moreover, recent research has suggested that these compounds have potential efficacy against inflammatory diseases through novel mechanisms, with potential advantages over existing antiinflammatory agents...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931907/return-of-the-psychedelics-psilocybin-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#6
Suravi Patra
Psilocybin, the clinically most researched classic psychedelic has recently been tested for its safety and efficacy in a clinical population of treatment resistant depression. The efficacy of psilocybin in clinical depression previously demonstrated in the elecrophysiologic and neuroimaging findings as also in neuropsychological assessments is further validated by the findings of this rigorously conducted randomized trial. Mechanism of action of psilocybin and efficacy in treatment resistant depression are discussed in this paper...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909173/the-role-of-psychedelics-in-palliative-care-reconsidered-a-case-for-psilocybin
#7
Benjamin Kelmendi, Philip Corlett, Mohini Ranganathan, Cyril D'Souza, John H Krystal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909172/the-successful-return-of-psychedelics-to-psychiatry
#8
Herbert D Kleber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909166/back-to-the-future-research-renewed-on-the-clinical-utility-of-psychedelic-drugs
#9
Jeffrey A Lieberman, Daniel Shalev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888525/breaking-sad-unleashing-the-breakthrough-potential-of-ketamine-s-rapid-antidepressant-effects
#10
David Feifel
Preclinical Research The surprising results of a small clinical trial on the effects of low dose ketamine, a 65-year old anesthetic drug that is also used off-label for chronic pain and recreationally as a club drug, in eight depressed subjects unleashed the most significant advance in antidepressant drug development in decades. That study and subsequent ones have demonstrated that low dose, infused ketamine is able to induce a remission of depression in patients who have failed conventional medications, within 24 h...
December 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856684/psychedelics-in-the-treatment-of-unipolar-mood-disorders-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
James Jh Rucker, Luke A Jelen, Sarah Flynn, Kyle D Frowde, Allan H Young
Unipolar mood disorders, including major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), confer high rates of disability and mortality and a very high socioeconomic burden. Current treatment is suboptimal in most cases and there is little of note in the pharmaceutical development pipeline. The psychedelic drugs, including lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin, were used extensively in the treatment of mood disorders, and other psychiatric conditions, before their prohibition in the late 1960s...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852960/set-and-setting-psychedelics-and-the-placebo-response-an-extra-pharmacological-perspective-on-psychopharmacology
#12
REVIEW
Ido Hartogsohn
Placebo response theory and set and setting theory are two fields which examine how non-biological factors shape the response to therapy. Both consider factors such as expectancy, preparation and beliefs to be crucial for understanding the extra-pharmacological processes which shape the response to drugs. Yet there are also fundamental differences between the two theories. Set and setting concerns itself with response to psychoactive drugs only; placebo theory relates to all therapeutic interventions. Placebo theory is aimed at medical professionals; set and setting theory is aimed at professionals and drug users alike...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834144/evolutionary-considerations-on-the-emerging-subculture-of-the-e-psychonauts-and-the-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-comeback-to-the-shamanism
#13
Laura Orsolini, Paul St John-Smith, Daniel McQueen, Duccio Papanti, John Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary research on drug abuse has hitherto been restricted to proximate studies, considering aetiology, mechanism, and ontogeny. However, in order to explain the recent emergency of a new behavioral pattern (e.g. 'the e-psychonaut style') of novel psychoactive substances' (NPS) intake, a complementary evolutionary model may be needed. OBJECTIVE: A range of evolutionary interpretations on the 'psychonaut style' and the recent emergency of NPS was here considered...
November 11, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719438/the-associations-of-naturalistic-classic-psychedelic-use-mystical-experience-and-creative-problem-solving
#14
Noah W Sweat, Larry W Bates, Peter S Hendricks
Developing methods for improving creativity is of broad interest. Classic psychedelics may enhance creativity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. This study was designed to assess whether a relationship exists between naturalistic classic psychedelic use and heightened creative problem-solving ability and if so, whether this is mediated by lifetime mystical experience. Participants (N = 68) completed a survey battery assessing lifetime mystical experience and circumstances surrounding the most memorable experience...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687776/australia-should-be-initiating-a-psychedelic-research-program-what-are-the-barriers
#15
Nigel Strauss, Stephen J Bright, Martin L Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649637/psychedelics-recruit-multiple-cellular-types-and-produce-complex-transcriptional-responses-within-the-brain
#16
David A Martin, Charles D Nichols
There has recently been a resurgence of interest in psychedelics, substances that profoundly alter perception and cognition and have recently demonstrated therapeutic efficacy to treat anxiety, depression, and addiction in the clinic. The receptor mechanisms that drive their molecular and behavioral effects involve activation of cortical serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, but the responses of specific cellular populations remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that a small subset of 5-HT2A-expressing excitatory neurons is directly activated by psychedelics and subsequently recruits other select cell types including subpopulations of inhibitory somatostatin and parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons, as well as astrocytes, to produce distinct and regional responses...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631575/multivariate-optimization-of-the-hollow-fibre-liquid-phase-microextraction-of-muscimol-in-human-urine-samples
#17
Somandla Ncube, Anna Poliwoda, Hlanganani Tutu, Piotr Wieczorek, Luke Chimuka
A liquid phase microextraction based on hollow fibre followed by liquid chromatographic determination was developed for the extraction and quantitation of the hallucinogenic muscimol from urine samples. Method applicability on polar hallucinogens was also tested on two alkaloids, a psychedelic hallucinogen, tryptamine and a polar amino acid, tryptophan which exists in its charged state in the entire pH range. A multivariate design of experiments was used in which a half fractional factorial approach was applied to screen six factors (donor phase pH, acceptor phase HCl concentration, carrier composition, stirring rate, extraction time and salt content) for their extent of vitality in carrier mediated liquid microextractions...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624312/commentary-the-entropic-brain-a-theory-of-conscious-states-informed-by-neuroimaging-research-with-psychedelic-drugs
#18
COMMENT
David Papo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503452/treating-addiction-perspectives-from-eeg-and-imaging-studies-on-psychedelics
#19
L F Tófoli, D B de Araujo
Despite reports of apparent benefits, social and political pressure beginning in the late 1960s effectively banned scientific inquiry into psychedelic substances. Covert examination of psychedelics persisted through the 1990s; the turn of the century and especially the past 10 years, however, has seen a resurgent interest in psychedelic substances (eg, LSD, ayahuasca, psilocybin). This chapter outlines relevant EEG and brain imaging studies evaluating the effects of psychedelics on the brain. This chapter also reviews evidence of the use of psychedelics as adjunct therapy for a number of psychiatric and addictive disorders...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499488/acid-brothers-henry-beecher-timothy-leary-and-the-psychedelic-of-the-century
#20
Jonathan D Moreno
Henry Knowles Beecher, an icon of human research ethics, and Timothy Francis Leary, a guru of the counterculture, are bound together in history by the synthetic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Both were associated with Harvard University during a critical period in their careers and of drastic social change. To all appearances the first was a paragon of the establishment and a constructive if complex hero, the second a rebel and a criminal, a rogue and a scoundrel. Although there is no evidence they ever met, Beecher's indirect struggle with Leary over control of the 20th century's most celebrated psychedelic was at the very heart of his views about the legitimate, responsible investigator...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
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