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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432902/ayahuasca-s-entwined-efficacy-an-ethnographic-study-of-ritual-healing-from-addiction
#1
Piera Talin, Emilia Sanabria
BACKGROUND: A range of studies has demonstrated the efficacy of the psychoactive Amazonian brew ayahuasca in addressing substance addiction. These have revealed that physiological and psychological mechanisms are deeply enmeshed. This article focuses on how interactive ritual contexts support the healing effort. The study of psychedelic-assisted treatments for addiction has much to gain from ethnographic analyses of healing experiences within the particular ecologies of use and care, where these interventions are rendered efficacious...
April 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432376/mdma-does-not-alter-responses-to-the-trier-social-stress-test-in-humans
#2
Anya K Bershad, Melissa A Miller, Harriet de Wit
RATIONALE: ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task...
April 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422113/increased-spontaneous-meg-signal-diversity-for-psychoactive-doses-of-ketamine-lsd-and-psilocybin
#3
Michael M Schartner, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Adam B Barrett, Anil K Seth, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
What is the level of consciousness of the psychedelic state? Empirically, measures of neural signal diversity such as entropy and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity score higher for wakeful rest than for states with lower conscious level like propofol-induced anesthesia. Here we compute these measures for spontaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from humans during altered states of consciousness induced by three psychedelic substances: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD. For all three, we find reliably higher spontaneous signal diversity, even when controlling for spectral changes...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401525/new-world-tryptamine-hallucinogens-and-the-neuroscience-of-ayahuasca
#4
Dennis McKenna, Jordi Riba
New World indigenous peoples are noted for their sophisticated use of psychedelic plants in shamanic and ethnomedical practices. The use of psychedelic plant preparations among New World tribes is far more prevalent than in the Old World. Yet, although these preparations are botanically diverse, almost all are chemically similar in that their active principles are tryptamine derivatives, either DMT or related constituents. Part 1 of this paper provides an ethnopharmacological overview of the major tryptamine-containing New World hallucinogens...
April 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401524/chemistry-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-psychedelics
#5
David E Nichols
This chapter will summarize structure-activity relationships (SAR) that are known for the classic serotonergic hallucinogens (aka psychedelics), focusing on the three chemical types: tryptamines, ergolines, and phenethylamines. In the brain, the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor plays a key role in regulation of cortical function and cognition, and also appears to be the principal target for hallucinogenic/psychedelic drugs such as LSD. It is one of the most extensively studied of the 14 known types of serotonin receptors...
March 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397321/should-addiction-researchers-be-interested-in-psychedelic-science
#6
EDITORIAL
Stephen Bright, Martin Williams, David Caldicott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382834/psychedelic-research-in-australia-breaking-through-the-stigma
#7
Prashanth Puspanathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360333/detailed-characterization-of-the-in-vitro-pharmacological-and-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-n-2-hydroxybenzyl-2-5-dimethoxy-4-cyanophenylethylamine-25cn-nboh-a-highly-selective-and-brain-penetrant-5-ht2a-receptor-agonist
#8
Anders A Jensen, John D McCorvy, Sebastian Leth Petersen, Christoffer Bundgaard, Gudrun Liebscher, Terry P Kenakin, Hans Brauner-Osborne, Jan Kehler, Jesper L Kristensen
Therapeutic interest in augmentation of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptor signaling has been renewed by the effectiveness of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of various psychiatric conditions. In this study, we have further characterized the pharmacological properties of the recently developed 5-HT2 receptor agonist 2-hydroxybenzyl)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyanophenylethylamine (25CN-NBOH) and three structural analogs at recombinant 5-HT2A, 5- HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors and investigated the pharmacokinetic properties of the compound...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353056/pharmacokinetics-of-escalating-doses-of-oral-psilocybin-in-healthy-adults
#9
Randall T Brown, Christopher R Nicholas, Nicholas V Cozzi, Michele C Gassman, Karen M Cooper, Daniel Muller, Chantelle D Thomas, Scott J Hetzel, Kelsey M Henriquez, Alexandra S Ribaudo, Paul R Hutson
INTRODUCTION: Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. METHODS: Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266890/examination-of-the-phenomenology-of-the-ibogaine-treatment-experience-role-of-altered-states-of-consciousness-and-psychedelic-experiences
#10
Annamarie Heink, Steve Katsikas, Tiffany Lange-Altman
Psychedelic drugs have historically been used for ritualistic purposes and to help individuals gain insight. Ibogaine, a naturally occurring psychoactive substance, has been reported to have anti-addictive properties that aid in the treatment of substance use disorders. An online survey obtained retrospective data from individuals who used ibogaine in the past. Individuals who used ibogaine tended to describe thematically similar experiences post-treatment. This study adds to the literature by using the 5d-ASC, a psychometrically sound measure of altered states of consciousness (ASCs), to examine the ASCs induced by ibogaine and discusses the demographic characteristics of those who seek ibogaine treatment (N = 27)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249943/psychedelics-and-the-science-of-self-experience
#11
EDITORIAL
Matthew M Nour, Robin L Carhart-Harris
Altered self-experiences arise in certain psychiatric conditions, and may be induced by psychoactive drugs and spiritual/religious practices. Recently, a neuroscience of self-experience has begun to crystallise, drawing upon findings from functional neuroimaging and altered states of consciousness occasioned by psychedelic drugs. This advance may be of great importance for psychiatry.
March 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236857/disrupted-integration-of-sensory-stimuli-with-information-about-the-movement-of-the-body-as-a-mechanism-explaining-lsd-induced-experience
#12
Grzegorz R Juszczak
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) is a model psychedelic drug used to study mechanism underlying the effects induced by hallucinogens. However, despite advanced knowledge about molecular mechanism responsible for the effects induced by LSD and other related substances acting at serotonergic 5-HT2a receptors, we still do not understand how these drugs trigger specific sensory experiences. LSD-induced experience is characterised by perception of movement in the environment and by presence of various bodily sensations such as floating in space, merging into surroundings and movement out of the physical body (the out-of-body experience)...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236848/the-fibrinolytic-system-a-new-target-for-treatment-of-depression-with-psychedelics
#13
R D Idell, G Florova, A A Komissarov, S Shetty, R B S Girard, S Idell
Current understanding of the neurobiology of depression has grown over the past few years beyond the traditional monoamine theory of depression to include chronic stress, inflammation and disrupted synaptic plasticity. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key factor that not only promotes fibrinolysis via the activation of plasminogen, but also contributes to regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis through plasmin-mediated activation of a probrain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to mature BDNF...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222297/hallucinogenic-drugs-a-new-study-answers-old-questions-about-lsd
#14
Adam L Halberstadt
LSD induces profound psychedelic effects, including changes in the meaning of percepts. The subjective effects of LSD are fully blocked by a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. LSD may alter meaningfulness by increasing activity in cortical regions responsible for processing personal attribution.
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196428/the-association-of-psychedelic-use-and-opioid-use-disorders-among-illicit-users-in-the-united-states
#15
Vincent D Pisano, Nathaniel P Putnam, Hannah M Kramer, Kevin J Franciotti, John H Halpern, Selma C Holden
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies show psychedelic compounds administered with psychotherapy are potentially effective and durable substance misuse interventions. However, little is known about the association between psychedelic use and substance misuse in the general population. This study investigated the association between psychedelic use and past year opioid use disorders within illicit opioid users. METHODS: While controlling for socio-demographic covariates and the use of other substances, the relationship between classic psychedelic use and past year opioid use disorders was analyzed within 44,000 illicit opioid users who completed the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2008 to 2013...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176400/effect-of-a-hallucinogenic-serotonin-5-ht2a-receptor-agonist-on-visually-guided-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-cognition-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#16
Gongliang Zhang, David Cinalli, Robert W Stackman
By acting on serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A Rs), serotonergic psychedelic drugs induce perceptual and visual hallucinations by increasing neuronal excitability and altering visual-evoked neuronal responses. The present study was designed to examine whether the perceptual alterations induced by a serotonergic psychedelic drug would affect the integrity of hippocampal-dependent, visually guided spatial cognition. phenylalkylamine hallucinogen TCB-2 is a selective agonist of 5-HT2A Rs. Mice received TCB-2 (1...
May 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129534/a-receptor-on-acid
#17
Qiuyan Chen, John J G Tesmer
Wacker et al. report the crystal structure of LSD in complex with one of its major targets in the brain, the 5-HT2B receptor, the first such structure for any psychedelic drug. The results shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying its ability to induce hallucinations with greater duration and potency than closely related compounds.
January 26, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095732/an-online-survey-of-tobacco-smoking-cessation-associated-with-naturalistic-psychedelic-use
#18
Matthew W Johnson, Albert Garcia-Romeu, Patrick S Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Data suggest psychedelics such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of addictions, including tobacco dependence. This retrospective cross-sectional anonymous online survey characterized 358 individuals (52 females) who reported having quit or reduced smoking after ingesting a psychedelic in a non-laboratory setting ⩾1 year ago. On average, participants smoked 14 cigarettes/day for 8 years, and had five previous quit attempts before their psychedelic experience...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#19
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027403/accurate-measurement-of-jhh-in-overlapped-signals-by-a-tocsy-edited-serf-experiment
#20
André Fredi, Pau Nolis, Teodor Parella
Selective refocusing (GSERF or the recent PSYCHEDELIC) experiments were originally designed to determine all proton-proton coupling constants (JHH ) for a selected proton resonance. They work for isolated signals on which selective excitation can be successfully applied but, as it happens in other selective experiments, fail for overlapped signals. To circumvent this limitation, a doubly-selective TOCSY-GSERF scheme is presented for the measurement of JHH in protons resonating in crowded regions. This new experiment takes advantage of the editing features of an initial TOCSY transfer to uncover hidden resonances that become accessible to perform the subsequent frequency-selective refocusing...
December 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
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