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Noah W Sweat, Larry W Bates, Peter S Hendricks
Developing methods for improving creativity is of broad interest. Classic psychedelics may enhance creativity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. This study was designed to assess whether a relationship exists between naturalistic classic psychedelic use and heightened creative problem-solving ability and if so, whether this is mediated by lifetime mystical experience. Participants (N = 68) completed a survey battery assessing lifetime mystical experience and circumstances surrounding the most memorable experience...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Nigel Strauss, Stephen J Bright, Martin L Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
David A Martin, Charles D Nichols
There has recently been a resurgence of interest in psychedelics, substances that profoundly alter perception and cognition and have recently demonstrated therapeutic efficacy to treat anxiety, depression, and addiction in the clinic. The receptor mechanisms that drive their molecular and behavioral effects involve activation of cortical serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, but the responses of specific cellular populations remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that a small subset of 5-HT2A-expressing excitatory neurons is directly activated by psychedelics and subsequently recruits other select cell types including subpopulations of inhibitory somatostatin and parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons, as well as astrocytes, to produce distinct and regional responses...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
Somandla Ncube, Anna Poliwoda, Hlanganani Tutu, Piotr Wieczorek, Luke Chimuka
A liquid phase microextraction based on hollow fibre followed by liquid chromatographic determination was developed for the extraction and quantitation of the hallucinogenic muscimol from urine samples. Method applicability on polar hallucinogens was also tested on two alkaloids, a psychedelic hallucinogen, tryptamine and a polar amino acid, tryptophan which exists in its charged state in the entire pH range. A multivariate design of experiments was used in which a half fractional factorial approach was applied to screen six factors (donor phase pH, acceptor phase HCl concentration, carrier composition, stirring rate, extraction time and salt content) for their extent of vitality in carrier mediated liquid microextractions...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
David Papo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
L F Tófoli, D B de Araujo
Despite reports of apparent benefits, social and political pressure beginning in the late 1960s effectively banned scientific inquiry into psychedelic substances. Covert examination of psychedelics persisted through the 1990s; the turn of the century and especially the past 10 years, however, has seen a resurgent interest in psychedelic substances (eg, LSD, ayahuasca, psilocybin). This chapter outlines relevant EEG and brain imaging studies evaluating the effects of psychedelics on the brain. This chapter also reviews evidence of the use of psychedelics as adjunct therapy for a number of psychiatric and addictive disorders...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Jonathan D Moreno
Henry Knowles Beecher, an icon of human research ethics, and Timothy Francis Leary, a guru of the counterculture, are bound together in history by the synthetic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Both were associated with Harvard University during a critical period in their careers and of drastic social change. To all appearances the first was a paragon of the establishment and a constructive if complex hero, the second a rebel and a criminal, a rogue and a scoundrel. Although there is no evidence they ever met, Beecher's indirect struggle with Leary over control of the 20th century's most celebrated psychedelic was at the very heart of his views about the legitimate, responsible investigator...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Vincent Bonhomme, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Athena Demertzi, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Oceane Jaquet, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Alain Plenevaux, Melanie Boly, Pierre Boveroux, Andrea Soddu, Jean François Brichant, Pierre Maquet, Steven Laureys
BACKGROUND: Consciousness-altering anesthetic agents disturb connectivity between brain regions composing the resting-state consciousness networks (RSNs). The default mode network (DMn), executive control network, salience network (SALn), auditory network, sensorimotor network (SMn), and visual network sustain mentation. Ketamine modifies consciousness differently from other agents, producing psychedelic dreaming and no apparent interaction with the environment. The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore ketamine-induced changes in RSNs connectivity...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
Andrew R Gallimore, Rick J Strassman
The state of consciousness induced by N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is one of the most extraordinary of any naturally-occurring psychedelic substance. Users consistently report the complete replacement of normal subjective experience with a novel "alternate universe," often densely populated with a variety of strange objects and other highly complex visual content, including what appear to be sentient "beings." The phenomenology of the DMT state is of great interest to psychology and calls for rigorous academic enquiry...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
José Carlos Bouso, Eduardo José Pedrero-Pérez, Sam Gandy, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we explored the psychometric properties of three widely used questionnaires to assess the subjective effects of hallucinogens: the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI). METHODS: These three questionnaires were administered to a sample of 158 subjects (100 men) after taking ayahuasca, a hallucinogen whose main active component is N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
September 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Albert Garcia-Romeu, Brennan Kersgaard, Peter H Addy
Hallucinogens fall into several different classes, as broadly defined by pharmacological mechanism of action, and chemical structure. These include psychedelics, entactogens, dissociatives, and other atypical hallucinogens. Although these classes do not share a common primary mechanism of action, they do exhibit important similarities in their ability to occasion temporary but profound alterations of consciousness, involving acute changes in somatic, perceptual, cognitive, and affective processes. Such effects likely contribute to their recreational use...
August 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Matthew W Johnson, Albert Garcia-Romeu, Roland R Griffiths
BACKGROUND: A recent open-label pilot study (N = 15) found that two to three moderate to high doses (20 and 30 mg/70 kg) of the serotonin 2A receptor agonist, psilocybin, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, resulted in substantially higher 6-month smoking abstinence rates than are typically observed with other medications or CBT alone. OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term effects of a psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation program at ≥12 months after psilocybin administration...
July 21, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
K P C Kuypers, J Riba, M de la Fuente Revenga, S Barker, E L Theunissen, J G Ramaekers
INTRODUCTION: Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
Mark Haden, Brian Emerson, Kenneth W Tupper
The Health Officers Council of British Columbia has proposed post-prohibition regulatory models for currently illegal drugs based on public health principles, and this article continues this work by proposing a model for the regulation and management of psychedelics. This article outlines recent research on psychedelic substances and the key determinants of benefit and harm from their use. It then describes a public-health-based model for the regulation of psychedelics, which includes governance, supervision, set and setting controls, youth access, supply control, demand limitation, and evaluation...
September 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Joseph J Palamar, Monica J Barratt, Jason A Ferris, Adam R Winstock
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although new psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge at a rapid rate, US national surveys only measure the use of non-specific categories of NPS and are not designed to access high-risk populations. In this paper we report lifetime use of specific NPS (of 58) and examine correlates of use among a high-risk population: nightlife attendees. METHODS: The self-selected sample from the Global Drug Survey (2013) consisted of 2,282 respondents in the US, aged 16-60 years, who reported nightclub attendance in the last year...
August 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Hermann A M Mucke
Among the psychedelic drugs that enjoyed a period of popularity in psychiatric research during the 1950s and 1960s, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the most prominent one. Psychiatrists of that time had seen LSD not only as a tool for psychotherapy but also as a potential therapeutic for anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, autism, and even schizophrenia. When it became a quasi-religious epitome of the Hippie counterculture in the mid 1960s, and cases of what we now call hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and acute psychotic "flashbacks" mounted, authorities moved to make LSD illegal...
July 8, 2016: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
Matthew M Nour, Lisa Evans, David Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
AIMS: The experience of a compromised sense of "self", termed ego-dissolution, is a key feature of the psychedelic experience. This study aimed to validate the Ego-Dissolution Inventory (EDI), a new 8-item self-report scale designed to measure ego-dissolution. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the relationship between psychedelics and ego-dissolution. METHOD: Sixteen items relating to altered ego-consciousness were included in an internet questionnaire; eight relating to the experience of ego-dissolution (comprising the EDI), and eight relating to the antithetical experience of increased self-assuredness, termed ego-inflation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jipeng Li, Jia Fu, Xing Huang, Diannan Lu, Jianzhong Wu
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are a group of incitation and psychedelic drugs affecting the central nervous system. Physicochemical data for these compounds are essential for understanding the stimulating mechanism, for assessing their environmental impacts, and for developing new drug detection methods. However, experimental data are scarce due to tight regulation of such illicit drugs, yet conventional methods to estimate their properties are often unreliable. Here we introduce a tailor-made multiscale procedure for predicting the hydration free energies and the solvation structures of ATS molecules by a combination of first principles calculations and the classical density functional theory...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Saibal Das, Preeti Barnwal, Anand Ramasamy, Sumalya Sen, Somnath Mondal
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), described as a classical hallucinogen, began its journey from the middle of the last century following an accidental discovery. Since then, it was used as a popular and notorious substance of abuse in various parts of the world. Its beneficial role as an adjunct to psychotherapy was much unknown, until some 'benevolent' experiments were carried out over time to explore some of its potential uses. But, many of its effects were unclear and seemed to be a psychedelic enigma. In this review article, we have described the receptor pharmacology, mechanism of action, effects and adverse effects of LSD on the normal body system...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Ruth Cameron
The World Health Organization recommends that anxiety, depression, agitation and delirium at end of life should be treated with drugs such as lorazepam, diazepam, midazolam and haloperidol.
June 29, 2016: Nursing Standard
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