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Rafael Vitor Lima da Cruz, Thiago C Moulin, Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Richardson N Leão
The subgranular zone (SGZ) of dentate gyrus (DG) is one of the few regions in which neurogenesis is maintained throughout adulthood. It is believed that newborn neurons in this region encode temporal information about partially overlapping contextual memories. The 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a naturally occurring compound capable of inducing a powerful psychedelic state. Recently, it has been suggested that DMT analogs may be used in the treatment of mood disorders. Due to the strong link between altered neurogenesis and mood disorders, we tested whether 5-MeO-DMT is capable of increasing DG cell proliferation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Michael Wasko, Paula A Witt-Enderby, Christopher K Surratt
The West African iboga plant has been used for centuries by the Bwiti and Mbiri tribes to induce hallucinations during religious ceremonies. Ibogaine, the principal alkaloid responsible for iboga's psychedelic properties, was isolated and sold as an antidepressant in France for decades before its adverse effects precipitated its removal from the market. An ibogaine resurgence in the 1960s was driven by U.S. heroin addicts who claimed that ibogaine cured their opiate addictions. Behavioral pharmacologic studies in animal models provided evidence that ibogaine could blunt self-administration of not only opiates but cocaine, amphetamines, and nicotine...
September 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ann E Klega, Jennifer Tickal Keehbauch
Approximately 10% of the U.S. population 12 years and older reported using illicit substances in 2015. This article reviews the clinical effects and treatment of persons who use cocaine, methamphetamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), synthetic cannabinoids, and synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"). Cocaine blocks the reuptake of the monoamine transporters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Immediate clinical effects include increased energy and euphoria, as well as hypertension and arrhythmias...
July 15, 2018: American Family Physician
Bruno Lobao-Soares, Paulianny Eduardo-da-Silva, Hugo Amarilha, Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Priscila F Silva, Ana Carolina Luchiari
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive brew traditionally used in shamanistic and vegetalistic rituals and has recently received lot of attention due to potential cognitive benefits. Ayahuasca effects are caused by the synergistic interaction of β-carbolines (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroarmine) contained in Banisteriopsis caapi stalks combined with the N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis leaves, a potent agonist to serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The present study approaches the effects of chronic and acute exposure to two Ayahuasca concentrations (0...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Robin L Carhart-Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Christopher Timmermann, Leor Roseman, Luke Williams, David Erritzoe, Charlotte Martial, Héléna Cassol, Steven Laureys, David Nutt, Robin Carhart-Harris
Near-death experiences (NDEs) are complex subjective experiences, which have been previously associated with the psychedelic experience and more specifically with the experience induced by the potent serotonergic, N , N -Dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Potential similarities between both subjective states have been noted previously, including the subjective feeling of transcending one's body and entering an alternative realm, perceiving and communicating with sentient 'entities' and themes related to death and dying...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
David J Heal, Jack Henningfield, Bruno G Frenguelli, David J Nutt, Sharon L Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Erika Dyck, Patrick Farrell
The decade of the 1950s is well known among historians of psychiatry for the unprecedented shift toward psychopharmacological solutions to mental health problems. More psychiatric medications were introduced than ever before or since (Healy, 2002). While psychiatric researchers later credited these drugs, in part, for controlling psychotic, depressive, and anxious symptoms-and subsequently for emptying decaying psychiatric institutions throughout the Western world-psychiatrists also produced a number of other theories that relied on a more delicate and nuanced blending of psychotherapy and psychopharmacology...
August 2018: History of Psychology
Joachim Keppler
This article presents a new interpretation of the consciousness-related neuroscientific findings using the framework of stochastic electrodynamics (SED), a branch of physics that sheds light on the basic principles underlying quantum systems. It is propounded that SED supplemented by two well-founded hypotheses leads to a satisfying explanation of the neural correlates of consciousness. The theoretical framework thus defined is based on the notion that all conceivable shades of phenomenal awareness are woven into the frequency spectrum of a universal background field, called zero-point field (ZPF), implying that the fundamental mechanism underlying conscious systems rests upon the access to information available in the ZPF...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephen Ross
Cancer is highly prevalent and one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Psychological and existential suffering is common in cancer patients, associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Promising early-phase clinical research (1960s to early 1970s) suggested a therapeutic signal for serotoninergic psychedelics (e.g. psilocybin, LSD) in treating cancer-related psychiatric distress. After several decades of quiescence, research on psychedelic-assisted therapy to treat psychiatric disorders in cancer patients has resumed within the last 2 decades in the US and Europe...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Thomas W Flanagan, Charles D Nichols
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)2A receptor agonists have recently emerged as promising new treatment options for a variety of disorders. The recent success of these agonists, also known as psychedelics, like psilocybin for the treatment of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction, has ushered in a renaissance in the way these compounds are perceived in the medical community and populace at large. One emerging therapeutic area that holds significant promise is their use as anti-inflammatory agents...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Rafael G Dos Santos, José Carlos Bouso, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Jaime E C Hallak
Mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the population. Although several pharmacological treatments are available, they are not effective for a significant proportion of patients and are associated with several adverse reactions. Therefore, new treatments should be explored. Recent studies suggest that serotonergic hallucinogens/psychedelics including ayahuasca, psilocybin, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have anxiolytic, antidepressive, and antiaddictive effects...
September 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Timothy I Michaels, Jennifer Purdon, Alexis Collins, Monnica T Williams
BACKGROUND: Despite renewed interest in studying the safety and efficacy of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of psychological disorders, the enrollment of racially diverse participants and the unique presentation of psychopathology in this population has not been a focus of this potentially ground-breaking area of research. In 1993, the United States National Institutes of Health issued a mandate that funded research must include participants of color and proposals must include methods for achieving diverse samples...
July 31, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Frederick S Barrett, Theresa M Carbonaro, Ethan Hurwitz, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: Classic psychedelics (serotonin 2A receptor agonists) and dissociative hallucinogens (NMDA receptor antagonists), though differing in pharmacology, may share neuropsychological effects. These drugs, however, have undergone limited direct comparison. This report presents data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study comparing the neuropsychological effects of multiple doses of the classic psychedelic psilocybin with the effects of a single high dose of the dissociative hallucinogen dextromethorphan (DXM)...
July 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jeffrey M Witkin, Daniel E Knutson, Gabriel J Rodriguez, Samuel Shi
BACKGROUND: Conventional antidepressants are thought to produce their impact on clinical symptoms by increasing the central availability of biogenic amine neurotransmitters (the monoamine hypothesis of depression). These drugs continue to be the primary medicines used in major depressive disorder. Although they have biological effects after acute dosing, full antidepressant response generally takes weeks of daily administration. Lack of rapid onset is a large limitation in antidepressant therapy (e...
July 29, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Logan Neitzke-Spruill, Carol Glasser
Psychedelic drugs, or entheogens, have been used for religious purposes among various cultures for thousands of years. Recently, these substances have caught the attention of Westerners for many reasons, including their propensity to induce mystical experiences. This study examined the relationship between religion and having mystical experiences. A total of 119 participants were drawn from psychedelic-related websites and asked to complete an anonymous online questionnaire containing items regarding history of psychedelic use, set and setting for psychedelic use, and a measure for mystical experiences...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Lindsay P Cameron, David E Olson
Though relatively obscure, N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is an important molecule in psychopharmacology as it is the archetype for all indole-containing serotonergic psychedelics. Its structure can be found embedded within those of better-known molecules such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin. Unlike the latter two compounds, DMT is ubiquitous, being produced by a wide variety of plant and animal species. It is one of the principal psychoactive components of ayahuasca, a tisane made from various plant sources that has been used for centuries...
July 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Eduardo Ekman Schenberg
Mental disorders are rising while development of novel psychiatric medications is declining. This stall in innovation has also been linked with intense debates on the current diagnostics and explanations for mental disorders, together constituting a paradigmatic crisis. A radical innovation is psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP): professionally supervised use of ketamine, MDMA, psilocybin, LSD and ibogaine as part of elaborated psychotherapy programs. Clinical results so far have shown safety and efficacy, even for "treatment resistant" conditions, and thus deserve increasing attention from medical, psychological and psychiatric professionals...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Daisuke Ibi, Justin M Saunders, Travis Cuddy, Maryum K Ijaz, Rudy Toneatti, Mitsumasa Kurita, Terrell Holloway, Li Shen, Jeremy Seto, Mikhail G Dozmorov, Javier González-Maeso
Antipsychotic drugs, including both typical such as haloperidol and atypical such as clozapine, remain the current standard for schizophrenia treatment. These agents are relatively effective in treating hallucinations and delusions. However, cognitive deficits are at present essentially either persistent or exacerbated following chronic antipsychotic drug exposure. This underlines the need of new therapeutic approaches to improve cognition in treated schizophrenia patients. Our previous findings suggested that upregulation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression upon chronic antipsychotic treatment may lead to negative effects on cognition and cortical synaptic structure...
September 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Lee E Dunlap, Anne M Andrews, David E Olson
Better known as "ecstasy", 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a small molecule that has played a prominent role in defining the ethos of today's teenagers and young adults, much like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) did in the 1960s. Though MDMA possesses structural similarities to compounds like amphetamine and mescaline, it produces subjective effects that are unlike any of the classical psychostimulants or hallucinogens and is one of the few compounds capable of reliably producing prosocial behavioral states...
July 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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