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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#1
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088209/pulmonary-embolism-in-non-brain-tumor-patients-after-surgery-a-retrospective-study-in-china
#2
Ren-Xiong Chen, Hong-Zhi Wang, Jun Dong, Hong Ren, Xiao-Jie Chen, Jia-Xuan Xu, Yong Yang, Guo-Dong Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of pulmonary emboli (PE) is high in tumor patients; however, the morbidity and mortality associated with the development of PE after tumor surgery are unknown. We studied the clinical profiles and outcomes of patients with PE after non-brain tumor surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively screened 55,967 patients who underwent non-brain tumor surgery at the Peking University Cancer Hospital from January 2008 to June 2015. Among them, 76 patients who were diagnosed with PE were enrolled in our study...
January 14, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079139/blood-occludin-level-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-early-blood-brain-barrier-damage-following-ischemic-stroke
#3
Rong Pan, Kewei Yu, Theodore Weatherwax, Handong Zheng, Wenlan Liu, Ke Jian Liu
Concern about intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the primary reason for withholding tPA therapy from patients with ischemic stroke. Early blood brain barrier (BBB) damage is the major risk factor for fatal post-thrombolysis ICH, but rapidly assessing BBB damage before tPA administration is highly challenging. We recently reported that ischemia induced rapid degradation of tight junction protein occludin in cerebromicrovessels. The present study investigates whether the cleaved occludin is released into the blood stream and how blood occludin levels correlate to the extent of BBB damage using a rat model of ischemic stroke...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078914/appropriate-patient-selection-for-carotid-revascularization-procedures-is-urgently-needed
#4
Kosmas I Paraskevas, Frank J Veith, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Christos D Liapis
The identification/selection of appropriate patient subgroups with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and the performance of prophylactic carotid endarterectomy (CEA)/carotid artery stenting (CAS) exclusively on these asymptomatic patient subgroups is currently one of the "hottest" topics in vascular surgery. It is now clear that offering CEA/CAS to asymptomatic carotid patients based only on the degree of carotid stenosis is unjustified and scientifically flawed. On the other hand, offering only best medical therapy to every asymptomatic patient, irrespective of certain high-risk criteria (such as the detection of microemboli by transcranial Doppler, intraplaque hemorrhage, silent embolic infarcts on brain computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, elevated biomarkers, family history), is equally wrong...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078351/outcomes-of-low-molecular-weight-heparin-treatment-for-venous-thromboembolism-in-patients-with-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumours
#5
Chatree Chai-Adisaksopha, Lori-Ann Linkins, Said Y ALKindi, Matthew Cheah, Mark A Crowther, Alfonso Iorio
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most common complications in patients with brain tumours. There is limited data available in the literature on VTE treatment in these patients. We conducted a matched retrospective cohort study of patients with primary or metastatic brain cancer who were diagnosed with cancer-associated VTE. Patients were selected after a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who were diagnosed with cancer-associated VTE between January 2010 and January 2014 at the Juravinski Thrombosis Clinic, Hamilton, Canada...
January 12, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077416/platelet-secretion-is-crucial-to-prevent-bleeding-in-the-ischemic-brain-but-not-in-the-inflamed-skin-or-lung-in-mice
#6
Carsten Deppermann, Peter Kraft, Julia Volz, Michael K Schuhmann, Sarah Beck, Karen Wolf, David Stegner, Guido Stoll, Bernhard Nieswandt
Platelets maintain hemostasis after injury, but also during inflammation. Recent studies have shown that platelets prevent inflammatory bleeding through (hem)ITAM-dependent mechanisms irrespective of aggregation during skin and lung inflammation. While the exact mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown, it was speculated that mediators released from platelet granules might be involved. Maintaining cerebral hemostasis during stroke treatment is of high clinical relevance as hemorrhage may aggravate the disease state and increase mortality...
January 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076834/risk-factors-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Shu Ou, Xi Liu, Jinxian Yuan, Hao Huang, Juan Yang, Liang He, Yangmei Chen
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to identify risk factors for posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). METHODS: Two electronic databases (Medline and Embase) were searched to identify studies with a cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional design reporting on epidemiologic evidence regarding risk factors for PTE. RESULTS: Men had a higher risk of developing PTE than women [relative ratio (RR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1...
January 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076020/structure-of-the-medullary-veins-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere-and-related-disorders
#8
Toshiaki Taoka, Akio Fukusumi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Shinji Naganawa
Deep medullary veins drain into subependymal veins with four convergence zones and show parallel distribution patterns adjacent to the body or inferior horn and a radial pattern in the frontal horn or trigon of the lateral ventricle. As white matter imaging develops such as diffusion tensor imaging or susceptibility-weighted imaging, requirements for understanding of white matter structures are increasing, not only for understanding of neuronal tracts but also for that of other structures including the fine anatomy of white matter vessels...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070885/barriers-toward-organ-donation-in-a-danish-university-hospital
#9
P Sørensen, S J Kousgaard
BACKGROUND: In Denmark, organ donation-rates are below the average in the western countries. We investigated the donor potential and identified barriers toward organ donation in a Danish university hospital. METHODS: All patients who died in Aalborg University Hospital in 2012 were retrospectively identified. Patients with a CT- or MRI-proven deadly brain-lesion were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients with deadly brain-lesions were included, and of these 47 patients died in the intensive care unit (ICU)...
January 10, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070456/a-simple-rat-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-device-to-reproduce-anatomical-and-neurological-changes-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Ho Jeong Kim, Soo Jeong Han
Mild traumatic brain injury typically involves temporary impairment of neurological function. Previous studies used water pressure or rotational injury for designing the device to make a rat a mild traumatic brain injury model. The objective of this study was to make a simple model of causing mild traumatic brain injury in rats. The device consisted of a free-fall impactor that was targeted onto the rat skull. The weight (175 g) was freely dropped 30 cm to rat's skull bregma. We installed a safety device made of acrylic panel...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069638/feasibility-and-predictors-of-early-discharge-after-percutaneous-edge-to-edge-mitral-valve-repair
#11
Corrado Tamburino, Sergio Buccheri, Antonio Popolo Rubbio, Salvatore Scandura, Maria Elena Di Salvo, Sarah Mangiafico, Sebastiano Immé, Giuseppe Caruso, Matteo Scalia, Antonio Condorelli, Marco Barbanti, Piera Capranzano, Davide Capodanno, Carmelo Grasso
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR) recently emerged as an effective treatment modality for patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Length of postprocedural hospital stay may represent a modifiable cost associated with percutaneous treatment. We looked at feasibility, predictors and safety of early discharge (ED), defined as hospital discharge within 72 hours, in patients undergoing PMVR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients treated with MitraClip from October 2008 to December 2015 were analysed...
January 9, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068754/intraventricular-cavernous-malformation-review-of-the-literature-and-report-of-three-cases-with-neuroendoscopic-resection
#12
Masoud Shirvani, Alireza Hajimirzabeigi
Intraventricular cavernomas (IVCs) are extremely infrequent and only occur in 2.8 to 10% of patients with cerebral cavernomas. We describe three IVC cases and briefly review previously documented IVC cases in PubMed. Among 136 IVC cases, the mean age of the patients was 36.5 years; the male-to-female ratio was 0.8. The most frequent location was the lateral ventricle (52.6%), and most of the clinical symptoms (74%) were related to mass effects on adjacent brain tissues. Intraventricular hemorrhage occurred in 22...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068236/cerebrovascular-diseases-in-childhood-cancer-survivors-role-of-the-radiation-dose-to-willis-circle-arteries
#13
Chiraz El-Fayech, Nadia Haddy, Rodrigue Sètchéou Allodji, Cristina Veres, Fara Diop, Amar Kahlouche, Damien Llanas, Angela Jackson, Carole Rubino, Catherine Guibout, Hélène Pacquement, Odile Oberlin, Cécile Thomas-Teinturier, Pierre-Yves Scarabin, Jean Chavaudra, Dimitry Lefkopoulos, Maurice Giroud, Yannick Bejot, Valérie Bernier, Christian Carrie, Ibrahima Diallo, Florent de Vathaire
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of radiation dose received to the circle of Willis (WC) during radiation therapy (RT) and of potential dose-response modifiers on the risk of stroke after treatment of childhood cancer. METHODS: We evaluated the risk factors for stroke in a cohort of 3172 5-year survivors of childhood cancer who were followed up for a median time of 26 years. Radiation doses to the WC and brain structures were estimated for each of the 2202 children who received RT...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067897/pathological-changes-in-basement-membranes-and-dermal-connective-tissue-of-skin-from-patients-with-hereditary-cystatin-c-amyloid-angiopathy
#14
Asbjorg Osk Snorradottir, Helgi J Isaksson, Saevar Ingthorsson, Elias Olafsson, Astridur Palsdottir, Birkir Thor Bragason
Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA) is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the cystatin C gene. Cystatin C is abundant in cerebrospinal fluid and the most prominent pathology in HCCAA is cerebral amyloid angiopathy due to mutant cystatin C amyloid deposition with associated cerebral hemorrhages, typically in young adult carriers. Analyses of post-mortem brain samples shows that pathological changes are limited to arteries and regions adjacent to arteries. The severity of pathological changes at post-mortem has precluded the elucidation of the evolution of histological changes...
January 9, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064406/up-regulation-of-vps4a-promotes-neuronal-apoptosis-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-adult-rats
#15
Jianbing Ren, Debin Yuan, Lili Xie, Xuelei Tao, Chenwei Duan, Yifeng Bao, Yunfeng He, Jianbin Ge, Hongjian Lu
Vps4, vacuolar protein sorting 4, belongs to ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities (AAA) protein family which is made up of Vps4A and Vps4B. Previous studies demonstrated that Vps4A plays vital roles in diverse aspects such as virus budding, the efficient transport of H-Ras to the PM (plasma membrane) and the involvement in the MVB (multivesiculate bodies) pathway. Interestingly, Vps4A is also expressed in the brain. However, the distribution and function of Vps4A in ICH diseases remain unclear...
January 7, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063856/effectiveness-of-deferoxamine-on-ferric-chloride-induced-epilepsy-in-rats
#16
Xiang Zou, Shize Jiang, Zehan Wu, Yimin Shi, Shengyong Cai, Renqing Zhu, Liang Chen
Iron overload has been regarded as a common cause for refractory epilepsies in patients after hemorrhagic strokes. This study is to examine the potential epilepsy control effect of deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, on a ferric chloride-induced epilepsy rat model. Twenty four rats were divided into 4 groups: group I is blank control group, group II is sham group with intracortical injection of saline, group III is epilepsy group with intracortical injection of iron and saline treatment, group IV is treatment group with intracortical injection of iron and DFO treatment...
January 4, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062861/incidence-locations-and-longitudinal-course-of-cerebral-microbleeds-in-european-moyamoya
#17
Holger Wenz, Ralf Wenz, Máté Maros, Gregory Ehrlich, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Christoph Groden, Alex Förster
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (cMBs) have previously been linked with especially high incidence in Asian patients with moyamoya together with high tendency to bleed. This, presumably, is characteristic of patients with moyamoya. Herein, we, therefore, investigate retrospectively the frequency, location, and longitudinal course of cMBs in a large German cohort. METHODS: We included all patients with moyamoya who underwent standard magnetic resonance imaging, including T2*-weighted images, in our department between 1998 and 2015...
January 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062218/mirna-144-induces-microglial-autophagy-and-inflammation-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#18
Anyong Yu, Tianxi Zhang, Wenyi Zhong, Haizhen Duan, Song Wang, Peng Ye, Juan Wang, Shanchuan Zhong, Zhao Yang
Autophagic activation mediated inflammation contributes to brain injury of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). MiRNAs play a key role in inflammation, which negatively and posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and function. Modulating the mTOR signal, a central regulator of autophagy, could be of great significance for ICH. However, the specific of miRNA is unknown. In the current study, we detected the miRNA-144 expression, autophagic activity and inflammation of microglia in ICH. We also knocked down endogenous miRNA-144 to regulate autophagy and inflammation in ICH...
January 3, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060076/epibulbar-plasmacytoma-masquerading-as-subconjunctival-hemorrhage-in-a-patient-with-multiple-myeloma
#19
Amanda Bradley, Amy Estes, Lane Ulrich, Dilip Thomas, David Gay
PURPOSE: We report a 75-year-old woman with a history of multiple myeloma immunoglobulin D (IgD) variant, who presented with an epibulbar plasmacytoma masquerading as a subconjunctival hemorrhage. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits with and without contrast was obtained and surgical biopsy of the subconjunctival lesion was performed; histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. RESULTS: Subconjunctival biopsy revealed a plasma cell neoplasm infiltrate in the episcleral layer...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059706/the-prevalence-of-malformations-of-cortical-development-in-a-pediatric-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia-population
#20
G J Palagallo, S R McWilliams, L A Sekarski, A Sharma, M S Goyal, A J White
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain AVM, cerebral abscess, and ischemic stroke are among the well known neurologic manifestations of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. However, recently reported data suggest an additional association with malformations of cortical development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malformations of cortical development in a population of pediatric patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of brain MRIs from 116 pediatric patients was performed...
November 10, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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