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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340081/retroocular-and-subdural-hemorrhage-or-hemosiderin-deposits-in-pediatric-autopsies
#1
Marc R Del Bigio, Susan M Phillips
The presence of hemosiderin in the optic nerve sheath and/or retina is sometimes used to estimate the timing of injury in infants or children with suspected non-accidental head trauma. To determine the prevalence of hemosiderin in deaths not associated with trauma, we performed a prospective study of retroocular orbital tissue, cranial convexity, and cervical spinal cord dura mater in infants and children <2.5 years age. In 53 cases of non-traumatic death, approximately 70% had blood or hemosiderin within the orbital fat, ocular muscles, and parasagittal cranial and/or cervical spinal subdural compartment...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331857/thrombosis-neuroinflammation-and-poststroke-infection-the-multifaceted-role-of-neutrophils-in-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Johanna Ruhnau, Juliane Schulze, Alexander Dressel, Antje Vogelgesang
Immune cells can significantly predict and affect the clinical outcome of stroke. In particular, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was shown to predict hemorrhagic transformation and the clinical outcome of stroke; however, the immunological mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Neutrophils are the first cells to invade injured tissue following focal brain ischemia. In these conditions, their proinflammatory properties enhance tissue damage and may promote ischemic incidences by inducing thrombus formation...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330942/primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-magnetic-resonance-imaging-spectrum-of-parenchymal-meningeal-and-vascular-lesions-at-baseline
#3
Grégoire Boulouis, Hubert de Boysson, Mathieu Zuber, Loïc Guillevin, Eric Meary, Vincent Costalat, Christian Pagnoux, Olivier Naggara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. METHODS: Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included...
March 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330417/involvement-of-nox2-and-nox4-nadph-oxidases-in-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
Li Zhang, Zhen Li, Dongxia Feng, Haitao Shen, Xiaodi Tian, Haiying Li, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Oxidative stress is responsible for a poor prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Nox2 has been shown to participate in SAH-induced early brain injury (EBI). Nox4 is another major subtype of Nox family widely expressed in CNS. Here, we investigated the role of Nox4 and whether there was a synergistic effect of Nox2 and Nox4 in SAH-induced EBI. Clinical brain biopsies of four patients with traumatic brain injury and perihematomal brain tissue from six subjects with SAH were examined. Gp91ds-tat (a specific inhibitor of Nox2), GKT137831 (a specific inhibitor of Nox4), and apocynin (a non-specific Nox inhibitor) were used to test the role of Nox2 and Nox4...
March 22, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328605/unusual-association-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-and-chiari-type-i-malformation
#5
Hayri Ogul, Mecit Kantarci
Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a common type of cerebral vascular malformation. The imaging findings are enlarged vessels, thrombosed sinuses, and hemorrhage or gliosis on adjacent brain parenchyma. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used safely for diagnosis. Chiari type I malformation is characterized by a caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsil. Coincidence of cerebral AVM and Chiari type I malformation is very rare. In this paper, the authors report MR imaging findings of a patient with coincidence of cerebral AVM and Chiari type I malformation...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327920/of-bubbles-and-layers-which-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-are-most-difficult-to-dissect-from-surrounding-eloquent-brain-tissue
#6
Philipp Dammann, Karsten Wrede, Ramazan Jabbarli, Oliver Müller, Christoph Mönninghoff, Michael Forsting, Ulrich Sure
BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) may lead to repetitive intracerebral hemorrhage. In selected cases, a surgical resection is indicated. OBJECTIVE: To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of CCM that correlate with the difficulty of dissection and postoperative outcome. METHODS: This study prospectively analyzed pre- and postoperative MRI features, intraoperative findings (surgical questionnaire), and postoperative outcome of 41 patients with eloquent CCM...
March 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327595/x-linked-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-inhibits-apoptosis-and-preserves-the-blood-brain-barrier-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#7
Cheng Gao, Hongwei Yu, Cong Yan, Wenyang Zhao, Yao Liu, Dongdong Zhang, Jingwei Li, Nan Liu
Early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) strongly determines the prognosis of patients suffering from an aneurysm rupture, and apoptosis is associated with early brain injury after SAH. This study was designed to explore the role of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) in early brain injury following SAH. The expression of XIAP was detected using western blotting and real-time RT-PCR in an autologous blood injection model of SAH. We also studied the role of XIAP in early brain injury and detected apoptosis-related proteins...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326034/the-presence-of-previous-cerebral-microbleeds-has-a-negative-effect-on-hypertensive-intracerebral-hemorrhage-recovery
#8
Kang Yang, Yulan Feng, JinJin Mu, Ningzhen Fu, Shufen Chen, Yi Fu
Background and Purpose: Cerebral microbleeds are an intracerebral microangiopathy with bleeding tendency found in intracerebral hemorrhage patients. However, studies about cerebral microbleed effects on the prognosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage patients are rare. We performed a prospective study to discuss not only the risk factors of cerebral microbleed incidence in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage patients but also the relevance of cerebral microbleeds with silent brain infarction, hemorrhage and prognosis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325846/soluble-flt1-gene-therapy-alleviates-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-severity
#9
Wan Zhu, Fanxia Shen, Lei Mao, Lei Zhan, Shuai Kang, Zhengda Sun, Jeffrey Nelson, Rui Zhang, Dingquan Zou, Cameron M McDougall, Michael T Lawton, Thiennu H Vu, Zhijian Wu, Abraham Scaria, Peter Colosi, John Forsayeth, Hua Su
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is an important risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage. Current therapies are associated with high morbidities. Excessive vascular endothelial growth factor has been implicated in bAVM pathophysiology. Because soluble FLT1 binds to vascular endothelial growth factor with high affinity, we tested intravenous delivery of an adeno-associated viral vector serotype-9 expressing soluble FLT1 (AAV9-sFLT1) to alleviate the bAVM phenotype...
March 21, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325461/neurocritical-care-of-acute-subdural-hemorrhage
#10
REVIEW
Fawaz Al-Mufti, Stephan A Mayer
Although urgent surgical hematoma evacuation is necessary for most patients with subdural hematoma (SDH), well-orchestrated, evidenced-based, multidisciplinary, postoperative critical care is essential to achieve the best possible outcome. Acute SDH complicates approximately 11% of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that require hospitalization, and approximately 20% of severe TBIs. Acute SDH usually is related to a clear traumatic event, but in some cases can occur spontaneously. Management of SDH in the setting of TBI typically conforms to the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol with airway taking priority, and management breathing and circulation occurring in parallel rather than sequence...
April 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324183/multimodality-management-and-outcomes-of-brain-arterio-venous-malformations-avms-in-children-personal-experience-and-review-of-the-literature-with-specific-emphasis-on-age-at-first-avm-bleed
#11
REVIEW
Anan Shtaya, John Millar, Owen Sparrow
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to study the presentation and analyse the results of multimodality treatment of brain arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) in children at our centre and review age at first AVM rupture in the literature. METHODS: Of 52 patients aged <18 years, 47 with brain AVMs (27 males and 20 females) aged 4-17 years (mean 12.2) were retrospectively reviewed. PubMed search revealed five additional studies including 267 patients where the prevalence of age-related AVMs rupture was analysed...
March 21, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323122/exome-analysis-of-the-evolutionary-path-of-hepatocellular-adenoma-carcinoma-transition-vascular-invasion-and-brain-dissemination
#12
Sílvia Vilarinho, Zeynep Erson-Omay, Kisha Mitchell-Richards, Charles Cha, Carol Nelson-Williams, Akdes Serin Harmancı, Katsuhito Yasuno, Murat Günel, Tamar H Taddei
Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare benign liver tumor, predominantly seen in young women. Its major complications are malignant transformation, spontaneous hemorrhage, and rupture. We describe a case of a young female with no underlying liver disease who presented with acute abdominal pain and was found to have a 17 cm heterogeneous mass in the left lobe of the liver. She underwent left hepatectomy and pathology revealed a 14 cm moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arising in a shell of a HCA...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323022/astrocyte-heme-oxygenase-1-reduces-mortality-and-improves-outcome-after-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#13
Jing Chen-Roetling, Pramod Kamalapathy, Yang Cao, Wei Song, Hyman M Schipper, Raymond F Regan
Pharmacotherapies that increase CNS expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and other antioxidant proteins have improved outcome in experimental models of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In order to more specifically investigate the relationship between HO-1 and ICH outcome, mice expressing human HO-1 driven by the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP·HMOX1 mice) were tested in a model of in situ parenchymal hemorrhage. Injection of collagenase into the striata of wild-type (WT) mice resulted in a 26...
March 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322975/a-polymeric-micelle-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-contrast-agent-reveals-blood-brain-barrier-bbb-permeability-for-macromolecules-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Kouichi Shiraishi, Zuojun Wang, Daisuke Kokuryo, Ichio Aoki, Masayuki Yokoyama
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening is a key phenomenon for understanding ischemia-reperfusion injuries that are directly linked to hemorrhagic transformation. The recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) increases the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages. Recent imaging technologies have advanced our understanding of pathological BBB disorders; however, an ongoing challenge in the pre-"rtPA treatment" stage is the task of developing a rigorous method for hemorrhage-risk assessments...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322870/painless-bilateral-visual-loss-in-a-33-year-old-woman-with-severe-arterial-hypotension
#15
Olaia Subirà, Silvia Muñoz, Juan José Sánchez, Paloma Puyalto, Andrew G Lee
A 32-year-old woman experienced dizziness and headache for 5 months. She also complained of painless, progressive bilateral visual loss for several weeks. Prior to developing the initial symptoms, she had an uncomplicated pregnancy except for dizziness and systemic hypotension during the first term. Fundus examination disclosed prominent retinal arteries, as well diffuse microaneurysms, widespread intraretinal hemorrhages, and hyperemic optic discs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple supratentorial white matter lesions suggestive of ischemic strokes...
March 16, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322077/enteral-nutrition-increases-interstitial-brain-glucose-levels-in-poor-grade-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-patients
#16
Mario Kofler, Alois J Schiefecker, Ronny Beer, Maxime Gaasch, Paul Rhomberg, John Stover, Bettina Pfausler, Claudius Thomé, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320134/post-hemorrhagic-hydrocephalus-recent-advances-and-new-therapeutic-insights
#17
REVIEW
Qianwei Chen, Zhou Feng, Qiang Tan, Jing Guo, Jun Tang, Liang Tan, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen
Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), also referred to as progressive ventricular dilatation, is caused by disturbances in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption following hemorrhage in the brain. As one of the most serious complications of neonatal/adult intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and traumatic brain injury (TBI), PHH is associated with increased morbidity and disability of these events. Common sequelae of PHH include neurocognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and growth impairment...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319946/rebleeding-and-outcome-in-patients-with-symptomatic-brain-stem-cavernomas
#18
Antonio Arauz, Hernán M Patiño-Rodriguez, Mónica Chavarria-Medina, Mayra Becerril, Gabriel Mauricio Longo, Edgar Nathal
PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the long-term functional outcomes and identify the potential risk factors for rebleeding in patients with brain stem cavernous malformations (BCMs) who presented with hemorrhages and were surgically or conservatively treated and prospectively monitored. METHODS: From January 1990 to July 2015, we included patients with first hemorrhagic episodes secondary to single BCMs. Modified Rankin score (mRS) was used for neurological status assessment...
March 21, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319470/symptomatic-acute-on-chronic-subdural-hematoma-a-clinicopathological-study
#19
Rudy J Castellani, Gruschenka Mojica-Sanchez, Gary Schwartzbauer, David S Hersh
The pathophysiology of acute-on-chronic subdural hematoma (ACSDH) is complex and incompletely understood. Evidence to date indicates that the overall process is initiated by rotational force with movement of the brain inside the skull, which exerts tensile strain and rupture of bridging veins, leading in turn to acute hemorrhage in the subdural potential space. This is followed by the proliferation of mesenchymal elements with angiogenesis and inflammation, which in turn becomes a substrate for repeated hemorrhage and expansion of the lesion...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316070/the-involvement-of-thrombin-in-the-pathogenesis-of-glioblastoma
#20
REVIEW
Harald Krenzlin, Viola Lorenz, Beat Alessandri
Prothrombin and its active derivative thrombin are key members of the coagulation system. The only site of extra-hepatic thrombin expression is the central nervous system (CNS), where it is involved in brain development, protection, and regeneration. Thrombin affects various degenerative and ischemic CNS diseases like Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and hemorrhage in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, the association of thrombin with various malignancies has recently become evident. Thrombin facilitates the interaction between tumor cells with platelets, endothelial cells, and the adhesion to matrix proteins in various tumor types...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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