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Methylation & HIV

Elaine Tseng, Gwendolyn D Fate, Gregory S Walker, Theunis C Goosen, R Scott Obach
Maraviroc (MVC) is an CCR5 co-receptor antagonist indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of CCR5-tropic human immunodefinciency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. In this study, the metabolism of MVC was investigated in human liver microsomes to delineate the relative roles of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. MVC is metabolized to five hydroxylated metabolites, all of which were biosynthesized and identified using mass and NMR spectroscopy. The sites of metabolism were the 2- and 3-positions of the 4,4-difluorocyclohexyl moiety and the methyl of the triazole moiety...
February 23, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Guochun Jiang, Don Nguyen, Nancie M Archin, Steven A Yukl, Gema Méndez-Lagares, Yuyang Tang, Maher M Elsheikh, George R Thompson, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor, David M Margolis, Joseph K Wong, Satya Dandekar
Eradication of HIV-1 (HIV) is hindered by stable viral reservoirs. Viral latency is epigenetically regulated. While the effects of histone acetylation and methylation at the HIV long-terminal repeat (LTR) have been described, our knowledge of the proviral epigenetic landscape is incomplete. We report that a previously unrecognized epigenetic modification of the HIV LTR, histone crotonylation, is a regulator of HIV latency. Reactivation of latent HIV was achieved following the induction of histone crotonylation through increased expression of the crotonyl-CoA-producing enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Roberta Nicoleta Bogoi, Alicia de Pablo, Eulalia Valencia, Luz Martín-Carbonero, Victoria Moreno, Helem Haydee Vilchez-Rueda, Victor Asensi, Rosa Rodriguez, Victor Toledano, Berta Rodés
Background: Integration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into the host genome causes global disruption of the chromatin environment. The abundance level of various chromatin-modifying enzymes produces these alterations and affects both the provirus and cellular gene expression. Here, we investigated potential changes in enzyme expression and global DNA methylation in chronically infected individuals with HIV-1 and compared these changes with non-HIV infected individuals...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Sheraz Khan, Mazhar Iqbal, Muhammad Tariq, Shahid M Baig, Wasim Abbas
HIV-1 latency allows the virus to persist until reactivation, in a transcriptionally silent form in its cellular reservoirs despite the presence of effective cART. Such viral persistence represents a major barrier to HIV eradication since treatment interruption leads to rebound plasma viremia. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have recently got a considerable attention in regulating HIV-1 post-integration latency as they are involved in the repression of proviral gene expression through the methylation of histones...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Jan Kramer, Veronika Désor, Steffen Brunst, Sandra K Wittmann, Jörn Lausen, Jan Heering, Anna Proschak, Ewgenij Proschak
The protein arginine N-methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is overexpressed in a variety of different cancer types and plays a role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Furthermore, the PRMT6 activity might also influence the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and cardiovascular diseases, whereby it becomes an interesting target for drug development. Previously reported activity assays for PRMT6 activity are either expensive, time-consuming or use radioactive substrates. To overcome these challenges, we developed a coupled fluorescence-based activity assay using recombinant PRMT6 expressed in E...
February 1, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Futoshi Taura, Miu Iijima, Fumiya Kurosaki
Daurichromenic acid (DCA) is a meroterpenoid with anti-HIV activities that is isolated from Rhododendron dauricum L. We recently reported that DCA is biosynthesized and accumulated in the apoplast of glandular scales attached on the surface of young leaves of R. dauricum. In the present study, we confirmed that a cell suspension culture of R. dauricum could not produce DCA and its precursor grifolic acid even after elicitation with methyl jasmonate and b-cyclodextrin. In addition, exogenous supplementation of DCA and grifolic acid effectively induced cell death in the same culture, with apoptosis-associated phenomena such as cytoplasmic shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and genomic DNA degradation...
December 29, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jolien Blokken, Jan De Rijck, Frauke Christ, Zeger Debyser
Lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), a transcriptional co-activator, plays an important role in tethering protein complexes to the chromatin. Through this tethering function LEDGF/p75 is implicated in a diverse set of human diseases including HIV infection and mixed lineage leukemia, an aggressive form of cancer with poor prognosis. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in resolving protein-protein and protein-chromatin interaction mechanisms of LEDGF/p75. This review will focus on two well-characterized domains, the PWWP domain and the integrase binding domain (IBD)...
June 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Jing Yin, Xin Li, Yaguang Zhan, Ying Li, Ziyue Qu, Lu Sun, Siyao Wang, Jie Yang, Jialei Xiao
BACKGROUND: Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) contains triterpenoids with anti-HIV and anti-tumor pharmacological activities. However, the natural abundance of these triterpenoids is low, and their chemical synthesis is costly. Transcription factors have the ability to regulate the metabolite pathways of triterpenoids via multi-gene control, thereby improving metabolite yield. Thus, transcription factors have the potential to facilitate the production of birch triterpenoids. Plant bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factors play important roles in stress response and secondary metabolism...
November 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Daniela Boehm, Melanie Ott
A successful HIV cure strategy may require reversing HIV latency to purge hidden viral reservoirs or enhancing HIV latency to permanently silence HIV transcription. Epigenetic modifying agents show promise as antilatency therapeutics in vitro and ex vivo, but also affect other steps in the viral life cycle. In this review, we summarize what we know about cellular DNA and protein methyltransferases (PMTs) as well as demethylases involved in HIV infection. We describe the biology and function of DNA methyltransferases, and their controversial role in HIV infection...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Ilaria Morbioli, Vanessa Porkolab, Andrea Magini, Alessandro Casnati, Franck Fieschi, Francesco Sansone
DC-SIGN is a receptor protruded from the membrane of immature dendritic cells (DCs) that participates in the activation of the immune response through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). On the other hand, HIV exploits the interaction between high-mannose structures of its envelope glycoprotein gp120 and DC-SIGN to be transported towards and infect T-cells. DC-SIGN is involved in the recognition process in the form of a tetramer and the multiple exposition of carbohydrate recognition sites (CRSs) is amplified by the formation on the DCs membrane of patches of tetramers...
October 31, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Ping Su, Hongyu Guan, Yifeng Zhang, Xing Wang, Linhui Gao, Yujun Zhao, Tianyuan Hu, Jiawei Zhou, Baowei Ma, Lichan Tu, Yuru Tong, Luqi Huang, Wei Gao
Tripterygium wilfordii produces not only ent-kaurene, which is an intermediate of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in flowering plants, but also 16α-hydroxy-ent-kaurane, whose physiological role has not been characterized. The two compounds are biosynthesized from the universal diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases, which have been discovered and functionally characterized in T. wilfordii. Here, we described the functional characterization of four cytochrome P450 reductases (TwCPR) and one ent-kaurene oxidase (TwKO)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Khethobole C Sekgota, Swarup Majumder, Michelle Isaacs, Dumisani Mnkandhla, Heinrich C Hoppe, Setshaba D Khanye, Frederik H Kriel, Judy Coates, Perry T Kaye
A practicable six-step synthetic pathway has been developed to access a library of novel 3-[(N-cycloalkylbenzamido)methyl]-2-quinolones using Morita-Baylis-Hillman methodology. These compounds and their 3-[(N-cycloalkylamino)methyl]-2-quinolone precursors have been screened as potential HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors. A concomitant survey of their activity against HIV-1 protease and reverse-transcriptase reveals selective inhibition of HIV-1 IN.
September 22, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
Jiulin Huang, Si-Ying Xiang, Min Lv, Liu-Meng Yang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yong-Tang Zheng, Hui Xu
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has always been the global health threat and the leading cause of deaths. However, due to the emergence of drug-resistant HIV, an inevitable consequence of increasing use of antiretroviral drugs posed a major threat to antiretroviral therapy success. OBJECTIVE: The discovery of anti-HIV-1 agents will be used for the effective treatment of HIV/AIDS. METHOD: In continuation of our program aimed to discover anti-HIV-1 agents, twelve matrine derivatives, such as 14-formyl-15-aryloxy/methoxymatrines (3a-j) and 14-aryloxymethylidenylmatrines (3k,l), were semi-prepared from matrine, and evaluated against HIV-1ⅢB replication in acutely infected C8166 cells in vitro...
October 2, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
Mümtaz Yılmaz, Deniz Gökengin, Osman Bozbıyık, Cüneyt Hoşcoşkun, Ayşe Uyan, Hüseyin Töz
End-stage renal disease in the human immunodeficiency virus-positive population is increasing. Kidney transplant is the optimal therapy for this population rather than dialysis modalities if some criteria are met. These include undetectable plasma human immunodeficiency virus RNA, CD4 cell count over 200 cells/μL, and the absence of any AIDS-defining illness. Here, we describe the first living-donor kidney transplant in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive recipient in Turkey. The patient, a 52-year-old male diagnosed as human immunodeficiency virus positive, was on antiretroviral therapy, which consisted of 400 mg twice daily darunavir, 100 mg/day ritonavir, and 50 mg/day dolutegravir...
September 30, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Matthew A Takata, Daniel Gonçalves-Carneiro, Trinity M Zang, Steven J Soll, Ashley York, Daniel Blanco-Melo, Paul D Bieniasz
Vertebrate genomes exhibit marked CG suppression-that is, lower than expected numbers of 5'-CG-3' dinucleotides. This feature is likely to be due to C-to-T mutations that have accumulated over hundreds of millions of years, driven by CG-specific DNA methyl transferases and spontaneous methyl-cytosine deamination. Many RNA viruses of vertebrates that are not substrates for DNA methyl transferases mimic the CG suppression of their hosts. This property of viral genomes is unexplained. Here we show, using synonymous mutagenesis, that CG suppression is essential for HIV-1 replication...
October 5, 2017: Nature
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Lakshminarayanapuram Gopal Viswanathan, Anupama Ramakanth Pai, Rahul Wahatule, Suvarna Alladi
BACKGROUND: Dementias are fairly slowly progressive degenerative diseases of brain for which treatment options are very less and carry a lot of burden on family and society. A small percentage of them are rapidly progressive and mostly carry a different course outcome. However, there are no definite criteria other than the time line for these patients. AIMS: The aim of this was to identify and categorize the causes and course of rapidly progressive dementias seen in our center...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Fohona S Coulibaly, Miezan J M Ezoulin, Sudhaunshu S Purohit, Navid J Ayon, Nathan A Oyler, Bi-Botti C Youan
The purpose of this study was to engineer a model anti-HIV microbicide (tenofovir) drug delivery system targeting HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 (HIV-1 g120) for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. HIV-1 g120 and mannose responsive particles (MRP) were prepared through the layer-by-layer coating of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) with concanavalin A (Con A) and glycogen. MRP average particle size ranged from 881.7 ± 15.45 nm to 1130 ± 15.72 nm, depending on the number of Con A layers. Tenofovir encapsulation efficiency in CaCO3 was 74...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Heng Li, Huimin Lu, Wei Tang, Jianping Zuo
Methionine cycle plays an essential role in regulating many cellular events, especially transmethylation reactions, incorporating the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). The transmethylations and substances involved in the cycle have shown complicated effects and mechanisms on immunocytes developments and activations, and exert crucial impacts on the pathological processes in immune disorders. Areas covered: Methionine cycle has been considered as an effective means of drug developments. This review discussed the role of methionine cycle in immune responses and summarized the potential therapeutic strategies based on the cycle, including SAM analogs, methyltransferase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) inhibitors, adenosine receptors specific agonists or antagonists and homocysteine (Hcy)-lowering reagents, in treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and other immune disorders...
August 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Xunhai Zheng, Geoffrey A Mueller, Kyungmin Kim, Lalith Perera, Eugene F DeRose, Robert E London
Recent structural characterizations of the p51 and p66 monomers have established an important starting point for understanding the maturation pathway of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 reverse transcriptase p66/p51 heterodimer. This process requires a metamorphic transition of the polymerase domain leading to formation of a p66/p66' homodimer that exists as a structural heterodimer. To better understand the drivers for this metamorphic transition, we have performed NMR studies of (15)N-labeled RT216 - a construct that includes the fingers and most of the palm domains...
September 24, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Adel A Rashad, Kriti Acharya, Ann Haftl, Rachna Aneja, Alexej Dick, Andrew P Holmes, Irwin Chaiken
HIV-1 entry inhibition remains an urgent need for AIDS drug discovery and development. We previously reported the discovery of cyclic peptide triazoles (cPTs) that retain the HIV-1 irreversible inactivation functions of the parent linear peptides (PTs) and have massively increased proteolytic resistance. Here, in an initial structure-activity relationship investigation, we evaluated the effects of variations in key structural and functional components of the cPT scaffold in order to produce a platform for developing next-generation cPTs...
September 26, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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