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Epigenerics or methylation or hypermethylation or hypomethylation or HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212554/afb1-hepatocarcinogenesis-is-via-lipid-peroxidation-that-inhibits-dna-repair-sensitizes-mutation-susceptibility-and-induces-aldehyde-dna-adducts-at-p53-mutational-hotspot-codon-249
#1
Mao-Wen Weng, Hyun-Wook Lee, Bongkun Choi, Hsiang-Tsui Wang, Yu Hu, Manju Mehta, Dhimant Desai, Shantu Amin, Yi Zheng, Moon-Shong Tang
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in the food chain is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). More than 60% of AFB1 related HCC carry p53 codon 249 mutations but the causal mechanism remains unclear. We found that 1) AFB1 induces two types of DNA adducts in human hepatocytes, AFB1-8,9-epoxide-deoxyguanosine (AFB1-E-dG) induced by AFB1-E and cyclic α-methyl-γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propano-dG (meth-OH-PdG) induced by lipid peroxidation generated acetaldehyde (Acet) and crotonaldehyde (Cro); 2) the level of meth-OH-PdG is >30 fold higher than the level of AFB1-E-dG; 3) AFB1, Acet, and Cro, but not AFB1-E, preferentially induce DNA damage at codon 249; 4) methylation at -CpG- sites enhances meth-OH-PdG formation at codon 249; and 5) repair of meth-OH-PdG at codon 249 is poor...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212517/phytoremediation-of-dyes-using-lagerstroemia-speciosa-mediated-silver-nanoparticles-and-its-biofilm-activity-against-clinical-strains-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
V Sai Saraswathi, Neethu Kamarudheen, K V BhaskaraRao, K Santhakumar
The aim of this study was to prepare silver nanoparticles by a green method using the aqueous leaves extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized, studied for its photocatalytic and biofilm inhibition studies. The maximum absorbance peak was found at 427nm and thus confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. The average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized was found to be 12nm using XRD and it was spherical in shape. The nanoparticles synthesized was investigated for photocatalytic activity for to two different dye molecules, methyl orange and methylene blue showing 310 and 290min degradation time respectively...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212500/cyto-genotoxic-and-dna-methylation-changes-induced-by-different-crystal-phases-of-tio2-np-in-bronchial-epithelial-16-hbe-cells
#3
Manosij Ghosh, Deniz Öner, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Stevan M Cokic, Sven Seys, Stef Kerkhofs, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Peter Hoet, Lode Godderis
With the increase in use of TiO2-np, a better understanding of their safety is important. In the present study the effect of different crystal phases of TiO2-np (anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture; 20-26nm) were studied for cyto-genotoxicity and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. Cytotoxic response was observed at a concentration of 25μg/ml for the particles tested. Results of comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of these particles...
February 10, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212459/structural-studies-of-nicotinoids-cotinine-vs-nicotine
#4
Iciar Uriarte, Cristóbal Pérez, Elena Caballero-Mancebo, Francisco J Basterretxea, Alberto Lesarri, José A Fernández, Emilio J Cocinero
Nicotinoids are agonists of the acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and play important biochemical and pharmacological roles. Here we report on the structural and conformational landscape of cotinine, and compare its molecular properties with the nicotine prototype, from which it only differs in the addition of a carbonyl group. The investigation of cotinine included a theoretical survey of the effects of rotamerization of the pyridine moiety, the puckering of the pyrrolidinone ring and the internal rotation of the methyl group...
February 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#5
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212411/lack-of-impact-of-pre-existing-t97a-hiv-1-integrase-mutation-on-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor-resistance-and-treatment-outcome
#6
Michael E Abram, Renee R Ram, Nicolas A Margot, Tiffany L Barnes, Kirsten L White, Christian Callebaut, Michael D Miller
T97A is an HIV-1 integrase polymorphism associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) resistance. Using pooled data from 16 clinical studies, we investigated the prevalence of T97A (pre-existing and emergent) and its impact on INSTI susceptibility and treatment response in INSTI-naive patients who enrolled on elvitegravir (EVG)- or raltegravir (RAL)-based regimens. Prior to INSTI-based therapy, primary INSTI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were absent and T97A pre-existed infrequently (1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212375/epilepsy-associated-gene-nedd4-2-mediates-neuronal-activity-and-seizure-susceptibility-through-ampa-receptors
#7
Jiuhe Zhu, Kwan Young Lee, Kathryn A Jewett, Heng-Ye Man, Hee Jung Chung, Nien-Pei Tsai
The neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4-2, Nedd4-2, is an epilepsy-associated gene with at least three missense mutations identified in epileptic patients. Nedd4-2 encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase that has high affinity toward binding and ubiquitinating membrane proteins. It is currently unknown how Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal circuit activity and how its dysfunction leads to seizures or epilepsies. In this study, we provide evidence to show that Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal activity and seizure susceptibility through ubiquitination of GluA1 subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor, (AMPAR)...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212337/synthesis-anti-breast-cancer-activity-and-molecular-docking-study-of-a-new-group-of-acetylenic-quinolinesulfonamide-derivatives
#8
Krzysztof Marciniec, Bartosz Pawełczak, Małgorzata Latocha, Leszek Skrzypek, Małgorzata Maciążek-Jurczyk, Stanisław Boryczka
In this study, a series of regioisomeric acetylenic sulfamoylquinolines are designed, synthesized, and tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against three human breast cacer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and a human normal fibroblast (HFF-1) by 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1) assay. The antiproliferative activity of the tested acetylenic quinolinesulfonamides is comparable to that of cisplatin. The bioassay results demonstrate that most of the tested compounds show potent antitumor activities, and that some compounds exhibit better effects than the positive control cisplatin against various cancer cell lines...
February 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212331/analysis-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-related-gene-expression-changes-in-a-cellular-and-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
In-Su Kim, Sushruta Koppula, Shin-Young Park, Dong-Kug Choi
We employed transcriptome analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor related gene expression changes in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). We used a well-known Parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP⁺) to induce neuronal apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. The MPP⁺-treatment of SH-SY5Y cells was capable of inducing neuro-apoptosis, but it remains unclear what kinds of transcriptional genes are affected by MPP⁺ toxicity. Therefore the pathways that were significantly perturbed in MPP⁺ treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were identified based on genome-wide gene expression data at two time points (24 and 48 h)...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212312/genome-wide-prediction-of-dna-methylation-using-dna-composition-and-sequence-complexity-in-human
#10
Chengchao Wu, Shixin Yao, Xinghao Li, Chujia Chen, Xuehai Hu
DNA methylation plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation by repressing activity. Change of the DNA methylation level is an important factor affecting the expression of target genes and downstream phenotypes. Because current experimental technologies can only assay a small proportion of CpG sites in the human genome, it is urgent to develop reliable computational models for predicting genome-wide DNA methylation. Here, we proposed a novel algorithm that accurately extracted sequence complexity features (seven features) and developed a support-vector-machine-based prediction model with integration of the reported DNA composition features (trinucleotide frequency and GC content, 65 features) by utilizing the methylation profiles of embryonic stem cells in human...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212311/detection-of-atmospheric-methyl-mercaptan-using-wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy-with-multicomponent-spectral-fitting
#11
Zhenhui Du, Jiaxin Wan, Jinyi Li, Gang Luo, Hong Gao, Yiwen Ma
Detection of methyl mercaptan (CH₃SH) is essential for environmental atmosphere assessment and exhaled-breath analysis. This paper presents a sensitive CH₃SH sensor based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with a mid-infrared distributed feedback interband cascade laser (DFB-ICL). Multicomponent spectral fitting was used not only to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor but also to determine the concentration of interferents (atmospheric water and methane). The results showed that the uncertainties in the measurement of CH₃SH, H₂O, and CH₄ were less than 1...
February 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212307/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-1-positive-mothers-neurological-implications-in-virus-free-children
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
Since the worldwide introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1-positive mothers, together with HIV-1 testing prior to pregnancy, caesarian birth and breastfeeding cessation with replacement feeding, a reduction of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has been observed in the last few years. As such, an increasing number of children are being exposed in utero to ART. Several questions have arisen concerning the neurological effects of ART exposure in utero, considering the potential effect of antiretroviral drugs on the central nervous system, a structure which is in continuous development in the fetus and characterized by great plasticity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212305/epigenetic-landscape-during-coronavirus-infection
#13
Alexandra Schäfer, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus-host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212298/prevalence-and-clinical-impact-of-human-pegivirus-1-infection-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-in-yunnan-china
#14
Zhijiang Miao, Li Gao, Yindi Song, Ming Yang, Mi Zhang, Jincheng Lou, Yue Zhao, Xicheng Wang, Yue Feng, Xingqi Dong, Xueshan Xia
Human Pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) may have a beneficial impact on disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. However, analysis of the genotypic diversity of HPgV-1 and its relevance to the progression of HIV-1 disease remains limited. A total of 1062 HIV-1-infected individuals were recruited in all sixteen prefectures of Yunnan province, China. The reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR), phylogenetic analyses, and clinical data analyses were used to detect HPgV-1 infection, determine genotype, and analyze HPgV-1 genotype impact on HIV-1 disease progression...
February 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212294/volatile-profiles-of-emissions-from-different-activities-analyzed-using-canister-samplers-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-gc-ms-analysis-a-case-study
#15
Santino Orecchio, Michele Fiore, Salvatore Barreca, Gabriele Vara
The objective of present study was to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several sources (fuels, traffic, landfills, coffee roasting, a street-food laboratory, building work, indoor use of incense and candles, a dental laboratory, etc.) located in Palermo (Italy) by using canister autosamplers and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. In this study, 181 VOCs were monitored. In the atmosphere of Palermo city, propane, butane, isopentane, methyl pentane, hexane, benzene, toluene, meta- and para-xylene, 1,2,4 trimethyl benzene, 1,3,5 trimethyl benzene, ethylbenzene, 4 ethyl toluene and heptane were identified and quantified in all sampling sites...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212119/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-undiagnosed-men
#16
Hasan Dani, Stacy Loeb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article intends to review biomarkers derived from blood, urine, and tissue that can aid in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). RECENT FINDINGS: PCa screening requires tools that complement prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with a higher specificity for clinically significant disease. Novel blood biomarkers, such as the Prostate Health Index (phi) and 4Kscore, utilize isoforms of PSA to more accurately predict high-grade PCa than traditional tools such as PSA and the percentage free-to-total PSA...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212116/developing-a-community-of-practice-for-hiv-care-supporting-knowledge-translation-in-a-regional-training-initiative
#17
Donna M Gallagher, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Laura S Lorenz, Priyatam Piya
INTRODUCTION: Ensuring knowledgeable, skilled HIV providers is challenged by rapid advances in the field, diversity of patients and providers, and the need to retain experienced providers while training new providers. These challenges highlight the need for education strategies, including training and clinical consultation to support translation of new knowledge to practice. New England AIDS Education and Training Center (NEAETC) provides a range of educational modalities including academic peer detailing and distance support to HIV providers in six states...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212021/discovery-and-development-of-1-2-bromophenyl-sulfonyl-5-methoxy-3-4-methyl-1-piperazinyl-methyl-1h-indole-dimesylate-monohydrate-suvn-502-a-novel-potent-selective-and-orally-active-serotonin-6-5-ht6-receptor-antagonist-for-potential-treatment-of-alzheimer-s
#18
Ramakrishna Nirogi, Anil Shinde, Rama Sastry Kambhampati, Abdul Rasheed Mohammed, Sangram Keshari Saraf, Rajesh Kumar Badange, Thrinath Reddy Bandyala, Venugopalarao Bhatta, Kumar Bojja, Veena Reballi, Ramkumar Subramanian, Vijay Benade, Raghava Choudary Palacharla, Gopinadh Bhyrapuneni, Pradeep Jayarajan, Vinod Goyal, Venkat Jasti
Optimization of a novel series of 3-(piperazinylmethyl) indole derivatives as 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 receptor (5-HT6R) antagonists resulted in identification of 1-[(2-bromophenyl)sulfonyl]-5-methoxy-3-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-1H-indole dimesylate monohydrate (5al, SUVN-502) as a clinical candidate for potential treatment of cognitive disorders. It has high affinity at human 5-HT6R (Ki = 2.04 nM) and selectivity over 100 target sites which include receptors, enzymes, peptides, growth factors, ion channels, steroids, immunological factors, second messengers, and prostaglandins...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211971/atypical-angelman-syndrome-due-to-a-mosaic-imprinting-defect-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Anna Le Fevre, Jasmin Beygo, Cheryl Silveira, Benjamin Kamien, Jill Clayton-Smith, Alison Colley, Karin Buiting, Tracy Dudding-Byth
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe intellectual disability, limited, or absent speech and a generally happy demeanor. The four known etiological mechanisms; deletions, uniparental disomy, imprinting defects, and UBE3A mutation all affect expression of the UBE3A gene at 15q11-q13. An atypical phenotype is seen in individuals who are mosaic for a chromosome 15q11-q13 imprinting defect on the maternal allele. These patients present with a milder phenotype, often with hyperphagia and obesity or non-specific intellectual disability...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211951/semiparametric-regression-analysis-of-interval-censored-competing-risks-data
#20
Lu Mao, Dan-Yu Lin, Donglin Zeng
Interval-censored competing risks data arise when each study subject may experience an event or failure from one of several causes and the failure time is not observed directly but rather is known to lie in an interval between two examinations. We formulate the effects of possibly time-varying (external) covariates on the cumulative incidence or sub-distribution function of competing risks (i.e., the marginal probability of failure from a specific cause) through a broad class of semiparametric regression models that captures both proportional and non-proportional hazards structures for the sub-distribution...
February 17, 2017: Biometrics
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