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Vitamin D & HIv

Jennifer Jao, Laura Freimanis, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Rachel A Cohen, Jacqueline Pontes Monteiro, Maria Leticia Cruz, Andrea Branch, Rhoda S Sperling, George K Siberry
Background Low maternal vitamin D has been associated with preterm birth (PTB). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women are at risk for PTB, but data on maternal vitamin D and PTB in this population are scarce. Methods In a cohort of Latin American HIV-infected pregnant women from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative protocol, we examined the association between maternal vitamin D status and PTB. Vitamin D status was defined as the following 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: severe deficiency (< 10 ng/mL), deficiency (10-20 ng/mL), insufficiency (21-29 ng/mL), and sufficiency (≥30 ng/mL)...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Long Zhang, Adrienne Tin, Todd Brown, Joseph B Margolick, Mallory D Witt, Frank J Palella, Lawrence Kingsley, Andrew Hoofnagle, Lisa Jacobson, Alison Abraham
We evaluated associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) levels in a cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected men at risk for infection in the United States. Stored samples collected between 1999 and 2008 were tested for vitamin D metabolites between 2014 and 2015. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum concentration of 25[OH]D < 20ng/mL. Multivariate models were used to assess associations of various demographic and clinical factors with vitamin D status...
October 4, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Elisabet Lerma-Chippirraz, Roberto Güerri-Fernández, Judit Villar García, Alicia González Mena, Ana Guelar Grinberg, María Milagro Montero, Luisa Sorli, Sonia Calzado, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Adolfo Díez-Pérez, Hernando Knobel Freud
Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL), insufficiency (defined as 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL), or hyperparathyroidism (PTH > 65 pg/mL) were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
L Steenkamp, A Goosen, D Venter, M Beeforth
The HIV prevalence in South Africa among students at higher education institutions (HEIs) in 2008 was reported to be 3.4%, with the highest HIV prevalence found in the Eastern Cape Province. Students at these facilities are also increasingly affected by socio-economic constraints that may impact on food security. Little is known about the impact of food insecurity on HIV-infected students in HEIs in South Africa. The purpose of this paper is to describe food insecurity and the nutritional status among HIV-infected students on the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University campuses in South Africa, as well as current initiatives to strengthen the safety nets for food-insecure students...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Seunghyun Won, Rachel Lee, Tahaniyat Lalani, Anuradha Ganesan, Timothy Burgess, Brian K Agan
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most important preventive strategy against influenza, however post-vaccination antibody responses are often inadequate especially among HIV-infected persons. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to adversely influence immune responses and is highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. Therefore, we evaluated the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and post-influenza vaccination responses. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study evaluating the immunogenicity of monovalent influenza A (H1N1) vaccination among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults (18-50years of age) during the 2009-2010 influenza season...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
Hanna Nylén, Abiy Habtewold, Eyasu Makonnen, Getnet Yimer, Leif Bertilsson, Jürgen Burhenne, Ulf Diczfalusy, Eleni Aklillu
Initiation of efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with Vitamin D deficiency, but the risk factors including efavirenz pharmacokinetics for cART-induced severe vitamin D deficiency (SVDD) and the impact of anti-tuberculosis (TB) cotreatment are not explored. We investigated the prevalence of SVDD in HIV and TB-HIV coinfected patients and associated risk factors for treatment-induced SVDD.Treatment-naïve Ethiopian HIV patients with (n = 102) or without (n = 89) TB co-infection were enrolled prospectively and received efavirenz-based cART...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Simon Villegas-Ospina, Sandra Gonzalez, Wildeman Zapata, Irma Saulle, Micaela Garziano, Mara Biasin, Mario Clerici, Maria T Rugeles
BACKGROUND: Although the anti-HIV-1 effects of Vitamin D (VitD) have been reported, mechanisms behind such protection remain largely unexplored. METHODS: Effects of active VitD (calcitriol) at 10, 10 and 10 M or its precursor (calcidiol) at 100 and 250 nM, on HIV-1 infection, immune activation and gene expression were analyzed in vitro in cells of Colombian and Italian healthy donors, respectively. We quantified levels of released p24 by ELISA, of intracellular p24 and cell-surface expression of CD38 and HLA-DR by flow cytometry, and mRNA expression of antiviral and immunoregulatory genes by qRT-PCR...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Stephen M Arpadi, Stephanie Shiau, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileka Mbete, Donald J McMahon, Jonathan J Kaufman, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn, Michael T Yin
BACKGROUND: We investigate if switching from a ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-based to an efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is associated with beneficial bone development. METHODS: The CHANGES Bone Study follows HIV-infected children who participated in a non-inferiority randomized trial in Johannesburg, South Africa evaluating the safety and efficacy of pre-emptive switching to efavirenz (N[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]=[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]106) compared to remaining on LPV/r (N[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]=[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]113)...
July 16, 2016: AIDS
Maria Norlin, Johan Lundqvist, Maria Ellfolk, Maritta Hellström Pigg, Jan Gustafsson, Kjell Wikvall
Vitamin D metabolism was studied in primary human dermal fibroblasts with focus on drug-mediated gene regulation related to adverse side effects of antiretroviral drugs used in HIV therapy. The fibroblasts expressed mRNA for cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes catalysing bioactivating (CYP2R1, CYP27A1 and CYP27B1) and catabolic reactions (CYP24A1). The cells produced both 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 . The results demonstrate that primary dermal fibroblasts have an active vitamin D3 metabolising system...
July 12, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Helen F Titmarsh, Stephanie M Lalor, Severine Tasker, Emily N Barker, Jacqueline Berry, Danielle Gunn-More, Richard J Mellanby
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that can lead to a syndrome of acquired immune dysfunction. Infected cats often remain asymptomatic for several years before immune dysfunction leads to an increased risk for the development of systemic diseases, neoplasia and opportunistic infections. FIV is structurally related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the pathogenesis of FIV-related disease is similar to that seen in HIV-infected patients. Observational studies have documented an association between low plasma vitamin D and HIV infection...
October 2015: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Prabha M Adhikari, Mukta N Chowta, John T Ramapuram, Satish B Rao, Karthik Udupa, Sahana D Acharya
BACKGROUND: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Liesl Grobler, Sukrti Nagpal, Thambu D Sudarsanam, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and malnutrition are linked in a complex relationship. Tuberculosis may cause undernutrition through increased metabolic demands and decreased intake, and nutritional deficiencies may worsen the disease, or delay recovery by depressing important immune functions. At present, there is no evidence-based nutritional guidance for adults and children being treated for tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alessandra Fantauzzi, Marco Floridia, Fabrizio Ceci, Francesco Cacciatore, Vincenzo Vullo, Ivano Mezzaroma
OBJECTIVES: With the development of effective treatments and the resulting increase in life expectancy, bone mineral density (BMD) alteration has emerged as an important comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. The potential contributors to the pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis include a higher prevalence of risk factors, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-exposure, HIV-1 itself and chronic immune activation/inflammation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the "gold standard" technique for assessing bone status in HIV-1 population...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
G Nunnari, P Fagone, F Lazzara, A Longo, D Cambria, G Di Stefano, M Palumbo, L Malaguarnera, Michelino Di Rosa
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is known to suppress NF-kB activity by interfering with its pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 in reducing the reactivation of the HIV virus J-LAT cells, an established model of latently infected cells, which were treated with TNFalpha (100 ng/ml) for 2 h with or without 24 h 1,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM) pretreatment. Reactivation of HIV RNA in J-LAT was evaluated in terms of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The same experimental setting was repeated on T cells from HIV-infected patients...
July 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar
Myeloneuropathy is a frequently encountered condition and often poses a diagnostic challenge. A variety of nutritional, toxic, metabolic, infective, inflammatory, and paraneoplastic disorders can present with myeloneuropathy. Deficiencies of vitamin B12, folic acid, copper, and vitamin E may lead to myeloneuropathy with a clinical picture of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Among infective causes, chikungunya virus has been shown to produce a syndrome similar to myeloneuropathy. Vacuolar myelopathy seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is clinically very similar to subacute combined degeneration...
April 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Lynne McNamara, Simbarashe Takuva, Tobias Chirwa, Patrick MacPhail
BACKGROUND: Host genetic factors may a play role in susceptibility to infection. Vitamin-D is an immunomodulator that may play a role in HIV infection. Vitamin-D action is mediated by the vitamin-D receptor. We establish prevalence of ApaI, BsmI, FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (VDRPs) amongst a black southern African HIV+ve population and investigate polymorphic differences between HIV+ve and -ve people. METHODS: Seventy-nine sex and age-group matched HIV+ve patients of African origin initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 79 HIV-ve participants, also of African origin, were recruited from a public sector HIV testing and treatment clinic and investigated for the 4 polymorphisms...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
Anca Streinu-Cercel, Oana Săndulescu, Gabriela Ceapraga, Daniela Manolache, Monica Andreea Stoica, Liliana Lucia Preoțescu, Adrian Streinu-Cercel
BACKGROUND: The Romanian HIV cohort has certain particularities that render it unique in Europe. We have performed a study to evaluate the prevalence of bone and kidney impairment in this particular group of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We performed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) evaluation of the lumbar vertebrae and the femur, as well as laboratory tests including standard serum panels, bone-related markers and urinalysis in patients from the Romanian HIV cohort...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Evelyn Hsieh, Liana Fraenkel, Yang Han, Weibo Xia, Karl L Insogna, Michael T Yin, Ting Zhu, Xinqi Cheng, Taisheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinal change in vitamin D binding protein (DBP) levels during the first year after initiation of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/lamivudine/efavirenz and compare these findings with concurrent changes in markers of skeletal metabolism. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of plasma samples collected from an ongoing multicenter clinical trial. METHODS: Plasma samples collected at 0, 24, and 48 weeks after initiation of TDF + lamivudine + efavirenz from 134 adult participants enrolled in a multicenter randomized trial were analyzed...
July 31, 2016: AIDS
Sulggi A Lee, Joel A Mefford, Yong Huang, John S Witte, Jeffrey N Martin, David W Haas, Paul J Mclaren, Taisei Mushiroda, Michiaki Kubo, Helen Byakwaga, Peter W Hunt, Deanna L Kroetz
OBJECTIVE: Plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, a biomarker of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity, is a strong independent predictor of mortality in HIV-infected Ugandans initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may play a key role in HIV pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide study to identify potential host genetic determinants of kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in HIV-infected ART-suppressed Ugandans. DESIGN/METHODS: We performed genome-wide and exome array genotyping and measured plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratio during the initial 6-12 months of suppressive ART in Ugandans...
July 17, 2016: AIDS
Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Wildeman Zapata, María T Rugeles
The relationship between the immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin D (VitD) and the expression of anti-HIV-1 molecules has not been explored in HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs). Higher mRNA levels of cathelicidin and HAD-4 in oral-mucosa and peripheral-blood, along with higher CYP24A1 mRNA in vaginal-mucosa and lower TLR2 mRNA in endocervical-mucosa were found in HESNs compared to non-exposed controls. Furthermore, the mRNA of anti-HIV molecules Elafin, TRIM5, Cathelicidin, HAD-4 and RNase7, previously associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, positively correlated with the mRNA expression of VDR in HESNs, suggesting the potential participation of VitD in natural resistance to HIV-1...
July 2016: Microbes and Infection
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