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Vitamin D & HIv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413362/bone-loss-in-hiv-infection
#1
Caitlin A Moran, M Neale Weitzmann, Ighovwerha Ofotokun
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an established risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) and subsequent fracture, and treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) leads to additional BMD loss, particularly in the first 1-2 years of therapy. The prevalence of low BMD and fragility fracture is expected to increase as the HIV-infected population ages with successful treatment with cART. Mechanisms of bone loss in the setting of HIV infection are likely multifactorial, and include viral, host, and immune effects, as well as direct and indirect effects of cART, particularly tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and the protease inhibitors (PIs)...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399423/bone-mineral-density-and-vitamin-d-concentration-the-challenges-in-taking-care-of-children-and-adolescents-infected-with-hiv
#2
Fabiana Bononi Carmo, Maria Teresa Terreri, Regina Célia de Menezes Succi, Suenia Vasconcelos Beltrão, Aida de Fátima Tomé Barbosa Gouvea, Erica Regina Cruz Paulino, Daisy Maria Machado
The increase in life expectancy for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in health complications related to a chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) alterations and vitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents and to verify the variations in those parameters during a 12-month interval. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a dual period of evaluation was conducted in 57 patients perinatally HIV-infected and one patient with sexual abuse in early infancy...
April 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393662/cholecalciferol-20-000-iu-once-weekly-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-low-vitamin-d-levels-result-from-a-cohort-study
#3
Sebastian Noe, Silke Heldwein, Rita Pascucchi, Celia Oldenbüttel, C Wiese, Ariane von Krosigk, Eva Jägel-Guedes, Hans Jäger, Wolfgang Mayer, Christoph D Spinner, Eva Wolf
PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of 20 000 IU cholecalciferol weekly in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Longitudinal data for 243 HIV-infected patients with paired 25-OH-vitamin D3 values for the same month in 2 consecutive years were stratified by the initiation of supplementation in this retrospective study. RESULTS: After 1 year of administration of cholecalciferol 20 000 IU weekly, about 78% of patients with initial vitamin D level <20 µg/L achieved vitamin D levels >20 µg/L and 42% achieved levels >30 µg/L...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370356/changes-in-bone-mineral-density-body-composition-vitamin-d-status-and-mineral-metabolism-in-urban-hiv-positive-south-african-women-over-12-months
#4
Matthew M Hamill, John M Pettifor, Kate A Ward, Shane A Norris, Ann Prentice
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with bone loss and poor vitamin D status in Caucasian populations, though their relative roles are not known. No previous studies have examined longitudinal changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD), measured by DXA, or in vitamin D status in HIV-positive African women. Of 247 premenopausal, urban, black African women from Soweto, South Africa, initially recruited, 187 underwent anthropometry, DXA scanning and blood and urine collections at both baseline and 12 months...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367779/regional-solar-radiation-is-inversely-correlated-with-incidence-and-severity-of-tuberculosis-in-chile
#5
M E Balcells, J Cerda, S Concha, R Hoyos-Bachiloglu, C A Camargo, A R Martineau, A Borzutzky
Vitamin D (VD) deficiency has been linked to increased incidence and morbidity of tuberculosis (TB). Chile has large variations in solar radiation (SR; a proxy of VD status) and high prevalence of VD deficiency in its southernmost regions with low SR. We investigated the correlation between regional SR and rates of TB incidence, admissions and deaths in Chile by reviewing national records on prospectively collected mandatory disease notifications, admissions and mortality between 2001 and 2011. Over the study period, 26 691 new TB notifications were registered...
April 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358908/pharmacogenomics-study-on-cadherin-2-network-with-regard-to-hiv-infection-and-methadone-treatment-outcome
#6
Hsiang-Wei Kuo, Chia-Lung Shih, Jieh-Hen Tsung, Sheng-Wen Liu, Shih-Kai Chu, Hsin-Chou Yang, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Zih-Hsiang Wang, Andrew C H Chen, Yu-Li Liu
Heroin dependent patients have a high incidence of HIV infection. In contrast to the gene expression method, we developed a systemic correlation analysis method built upon the results of pharmacogenomics study in a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) cohort consisting of 344 Taiwanese heroin dependent patients. We identified genetic variants and their encoding proteins that may be involved with HIV infection and MMT treatment outcome. Cadherin 2 (CDH2) genetic determinants were identified through the genome-wide pharmacogenomic study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333766/dietary-inadequacies-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-school-aged-children-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#7
Stephanie Shiau, Acadia Webber, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Ashraf Coovadia, Samantha Kozakowski, Susan Brodlie, Michael T Yin, Louise Kuhn, Stephen M Arpadi
OBJECTIVES: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that HIV-infected children increase energy intake and maintain a balanced macronutrient distribution for optimal growth and nutrition. Few studies have evaluated dietary intake of HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the dietary intake of 220 perinatally HIV-infected children and 220 HIV-uninfected controls ages 5-9 years in Johannesburg, South Africa...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275459/carbohydrate-lipid-bone-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-positive-adolescents-on-antiretroviral-therapy-and-hormonal-contraception
#8
EDITORIAL
Nadia Kancheva Landolt, Torsak Bunupuradah, Jullapong Achalapong, Pope Kosalaraksa, Witaya Petdachai, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Sasiwimol Ubolyam, Narukjaporn Thammajaruk, Stephen Kerr, Jintanat Ananworanich
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the cumulative effect of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and hormonal contraception (HC) on metabolism and inflammation in HIV-positive women. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of markers for carbohydrate, lipid, bone metabolism, inflammation and coagulation in HIV-positive adolescents on ART and HC (n=37) versus on ART only (n=51) in Thailand. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to assess differences between groups...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274549/protease-inhibitor-associated-bone-mineral-density-loss-is-related-to-hypothyroidism-and-related-bone-turnover-acceleration
#9
Ei Kinai, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Daisuke Mizushima, Takeshi Nishijima, Takahiro Aoki, Ikumi Genka, Katsuji Teruya, Kunihisa Tsukada, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
BACKGROUND: Clinical and experiments evidence indicate that protease inhibitors (PI) can cause bone mineral density (BMD) loss. However, the mechanism of such loss remains obscure. METHODS: This single-center, cross-sectional study included 184 HIV-infected patients treated with PI who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Serum phosphorus, percentage of tubular reabsorption of phosphate (%TRP), thyroid and parathyroid function (iPTH), vitamin D, osteocalcin (OC), urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (u-NTx) were measured...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261385/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-liver-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-pooled-clinical-trials-data
#10
Alia S Dadabhai, Behnam Saberi, Katie Lobner, Russell T Shinohara, Gerard E Mullin
AIM: To investigate the relationship between vitamin D and liver fibrosis in hepatitis C-monoinfected or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. METHODS: Pertinent studies were located by a library literature search in PubMed/Embase/Cochrane/Scopus/LILACS by two individual reviewers. Inclusion criteria: (1) studies with patients with HCV or co-infected HCV/HIV; (2) studies with patients ≥ 18 years old; (3) studies that evaluated liver fibrosis stage, only based on liver biopsy; and (4) studies that reported serum or plasma 25(OH)D levels...
February 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243241/high-expression-of-antiviral-and-vitamin-d-pathway-genes-are-a-natural-characteristic-of-a-small-cohort-of-hiv-1-exposed-seronegative-individuals
#11
Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Irma Saulle, Daria Trabattoni, Francesca Vichi, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesco Mazzotta, Maria T Rugeles, Mario Clerici, Mara Biasin
Natural resistance to HIV-1 infection is influenced by genetics, viral-exposure, and endogenous immunomodulators such as vitamin D (VitD), being a multifactorial phenomenon that characterizes HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs). We compared mRNA expression of 10 antivirals, 5 immunoregulators, and 3 VitD pathway genes by qRT-PCR in cells of a small cohort of 11 HESNs, 16 healthy-controls (HCs), and 11 seropositives (SPs) at baseline, in response to calcidiol (VitD precursor) and/or aldithriol-2-(AT2)-inactivated HIV-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193202/association-of-high-serum-vitamin-d-concentrations-with-active-pulmonary-tb-in-an-hiv-co-endemic-setting-harare-zimbabwe
#12
Cuthbert Musarurwa, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Doreen Zvipo Duri, Kudzie Mateveke-Dangaiso, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Maria Mary Chipiti, Marshall Wesley Munjoma, Witmore Bayayi Mujaji
BACKGROUND: There is paucity data on the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and active tuberculosis (TB) in southern Africa where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is co-endemic. We examined the association of serum vitamin D concentrations with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV-infected (n = 284) and uninfected (n = 267) Black Zimbabweans, in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 551 participants comprising 145 HIV(+)/PTB (+), 139 HIV(+)/PTB(-), 134 HIV(-)/PTB(+) and 133 HIV(-)/PTB(-)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183335/efficacy-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-reducing-incidence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-mortality-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-adults-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Christopher R Sudfeld, Ferdinand Mugusi, Said Aboud, Tumaini J Nagu, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience high rates of morbidity and mortality during the initial months of treatment. Observational studies in high-income and resource-limited settings indicate that HIV-infected adults with low vitamin D levels may be at increased risk of mortality, HIV disease progression, and incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). As a result, vitamin D3 supplementation may improve survival and treatment outcomes for HIV-infected adults initiating ART...
February 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169875/vitamin-a-and-d-deficiencies-associated-with-incident-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-in-multinational-case-cohort-study
#14
Mark W Tenforde, Ashish Yadav, David W Dowdy, Nikhil Gupte, Rupak Shivakoti, Wei-Teng Yang, Noluthando Mwelase, Cecilia Kanyama, Sandy Pillay, Wadzanai Samaneka, Breno Santos, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Srikanth Tripathy, Cynthia Riviere, Sima Berendes, Javier R Lama, Sandra W Cardoso, Patcharaphan Sugandhavesa, Parul Christian, Richard D Semba, Thomas B Campbell, Amita Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study (n=332) within a randomized trial comparing three ART regimens in 1571 HIV treatment-naïve adults from nine countries. A subcohort of 30 patients was randomly selected from each country (n=270)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161530/effects-of-cholecalciferol-supplementation-on-serum-and-urinary-vitamin-d-metabolites-and-binding-protein-in-hiv-infected-youth
#15
Allison Ross Eckard, Myrtle Thierry-Palmer, Natalia Silvestrov, Julia C Rosebush, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Danielle Labbato, Joshua H Ruff, Ravinder J Singh, Vin Tangpricha, Grace A McComsey
Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread in HIV-infected patients. HIV and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly efavirenz (EFV), may interfere with vitamin D metabolism. However, few data from randomized, controlled trials exist. Here, we investigate changes in vitamin D metabolites and binding protein (VDBP) after 6 months of supplementation in a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating 2 different monthly cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) doses [60,000 (medium) or 120,000 (high) IU/month] vs...
April 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155313/vitamin-d-status-hypertension-and-body-mass-index-in-an-urban-black-community-in-mangaung-south-africa
#16
Ronette Lategan, Violet L Van den Berg, Jasminka Z Ilich, Corinna M Walsh
BACKGROUND: A strong relationship exists between hypertension and body weight. Research has linked both higher blood pressure and body weight with lower vitamin D status. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the vitamin D status of a low-income, urban, black community in South Africa, to examine whether serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with hypertension and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Data collected from 339 adults (25-64 years) from the Assuring Health for All in the Free State (AHA-FS) study were analysed...
October 31, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060020/significant-association-between-statin-associated-myalgia-and-vitamin-d-deficiency-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients
#17
Leonardo Calza, Eleonora Magistrelli, Vincenzo Colangeli, Marco Borderi, Ilaria Contadini, Isabella Bon, Maria Carla Re, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of statin-related symptomatic myalgia in the general population, but there are no data among HIV-infected persons. METHODS: A retrospective, cohort study was conducted to assess the incidence of symptomatic myalgia and elevation in serum creatine kinase level among HIV-positive adults on combination antiretroviral therapy and treated with atorvastatin or rosuvastatin for at least 12 months between 2011 and 2015 in our outpatient unit...
March 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045766/baseline-vitamin-d-deficiency-decreases-the-effectiveness-of-statins-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Corrilynn O Hileman, Vin Tangpricha, Abdus Sattar, Grace A McComsey
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV. Statins may increase vitamin D, and it is unknown whether vitamin D modifies the effect of statins on cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: SATURN-HIV was a 96-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on immune activation and subclinical vascular disease in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy. This analysis focuses on the prespecified secondary endpoint 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013265/decline-in-bone-mass-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-is-associated-with-hormonal-changes-in-the-absence-of-renal-impairment-when-used-by-hiv-uninfected-adolescent-boys-and-young-men-for-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#19
Peter L Havens, Charles B Stephensen, Marta D Van Loan, Gertrud U Schuster, Leslie R Woodhouse, Patricia M Flynn, Catherine M Gordon, Cynthia G Pan, Brandy Rutledge, Nancy Liu, Craig M Wilson, Rohan Hazra, Sybil G Hosek, Peter L Anderson, Sharon M Seifert, Bill G Kapogiannis, Kathleen Mulligan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to define the relative importance of renal and endocrine changes in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related bone toxicity. METHODS: In a study of daily TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected young men who have sex with men, we measured changes from baseline in blood and urine markers of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis, creatinine, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986599/development-of-a-novel-formulation-that-improves-preclinical-bioavailability-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#20
Melynda E Watkins, Steve Wring, Ryan Randolph, Seonghee Park, Kendall Powell, Lissa Lutz, Michelle Nowakowski, Ram Ramabhadran, Paul L Domanico
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), the bisphosphonate ester prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), has poor bioavailability due to intestinal degradation and efflux transport. Reformulation using U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved esterase and efflux inhibitors to increase oral bioavailability could provide lower dose alternatives and reduce costs for patients with HIV in resource-limited settings. Inhibition of mucosal and intracellular esterases was studied in human and rat intestinal extracts (S9), where TDF was protected by the carboxylesterase inhibitor bis-para-nitrophenylphosphate, the ester mix EM1, and the generally recognized-as-safe (GRAS) excipient propylparaben...
March 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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