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Vitamin D & HIv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140875/bone-mineral-density-declines-twice-as-quickly-among-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-men
#1
Kristine M Erlandson, Jordan E Lake, Myung Sim, Julian Falutz, Carla M Prado, Ana Rita Domingues da Silva, Todd T Brown, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Initial declines in bone mineral density (BMD) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV are well described, but data on long-term changes and risk factors for decline, particularly among women, are limited. METHODS: HIV-infected men and women in the Modena Metabolic Clinic underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans every 6-12 months for up to 10 years (median 4.6 years). Mixed effect regression model in combined and sex-stratified models determined annual rates of decline and clinical factors associated with BMD...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136775/high-parathyroid-hormone-concentration-in-tenofovir-treated-patients-are-due-to-inhibition-of-calcium-sensing-receptor-activity
#2
Alessandra Mingione, Katia Maruca, Federica Chiappori, Francesca Pivari, Caterina Brasacchio, Tiziana Quirino, Ivan Merelli, Laura Soldati, Paolo Bonfanti, Stefano Mora
Bone health impairment is a common finding in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment. High serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration in patients on antiretroviral treatment containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been reported. Hyperparathyroidism was not always sustained by a reduction in vitamin D concentration. We thus hypothesized a direct inhibitory effect of TDF on the Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), leading to hyperparathyroidism. Human embryonic kidney cells were transfected with CASR wild-type gene or mutated in different sites (N124K, T1051G, C788T, T888M)...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110385/vitamin-d-and-progression-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-hiv-positive-canadians
#3
H Huff, A T Merchant, E Lonn, E Pullenayegum, F Smaill, M Smieja
OBJECTIVES: Based on a growing body of evidence implicating low vitamin D status in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), we hypothesized that in Canadian HIV-positive adults, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration would be associated with increased subclinical vascular disease progression. METHODS: We prospectively studied the relationship between baseline 25(OH)D and subsequent progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between 2002 and 2011, in the Canadian HIV Vascular Study using stored blood specimens...
November 6, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094039/host-directed-therapeutic-strategies-for-tuberculosis
#4
REVIEW
Afsal Kolloli, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Currently, the standard treatment for TB involves multiple antibiotics administered for at least 6 months. Although multiple antibiotics therapy is necessary to prevent the development of drug resistance, the prolonged duration of treatment, combined with toxicity of drugs, contributes to patient non-compliance that can leads to the development of drug-resistant Mtb (MDR and XDR) strains...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071047/patterns-of-vitamin-d-parathyroid-hormone-and-c-terminal-telopeptide-of-collagen-type-1-in-caucasian-and-african-descent-hiv-infected-populations-in-central-europe
#5
Sebastian Noe, Celia Oldenbuettel, Silke Heldwein, Hans Jaeger, Eva Wolf
Risk factors for bone loss in HIV patients might differ or have a different impact in African descent compared to Caucasian populations. The aim of the paper is to analyze the relevance of risk factors on surrogate markers of bone metabolism in HIV-infected African descent and Caucasian patients. This is a cross-sectional study in a single HIV-specialized research and clinical care center in Munich, Germany. We included 889 patients in the study, among them 771 Caucasians (86.7%). Only in Caucasians lower vitamin D levels [OR: 2...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067983/occurrence-patterns-predictors-of-hypogonadism-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-in-india
#6
Deep Dutta, Lokesh Kumar Sharma, Neera Sharma, Adesh K Gadpayle, Atul Anand, Kumar Gaurav, Ankit Gupta, Yashwanth Poondla, Bindu Kulshreshtha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Data on hypogonadism among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Indians are not available. This study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence, pattern and predictors of hypogonadism in HIV-infected Indians. METHODS: Consecutive stable HIV-infected patients, 18-70 yr age, without any severe comorbid state, having at least one year follow up data at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays. RESULTS: From initially screened 527 patients, 359 patients (225 males; 134 females), having disease duration of 61...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020329/vitamin-d3-supplementation-increases-spine-bone-mineral-density-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-hiv-infection-being-treated-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Peter L Havens, Charles B Stephensen, Marta D Van Loan, Gertrud U Schuster, Leslie R Woodhouse, Patricia M Flynn, Catherine M Gordon, Cynthia G Pan, Brandy Rutledge, D Robert Harris, Georgine Price, Alyne Baker, William A Meyer, Craig M Wilson, Rohan Hazra, Bill G Kapogiannis, Kathleen Mulligan
Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in youth receiving TDF. Methods: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 vs. placebo every 4 weeks for 48 weeks in youth ages 16-24 years with HIV, viral load <200 copies/mL, taking TDF-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (TDF-cART) for ≥180 days. Participants (N=214) received a daily multivitamin containing VITD3 400 IU and calcium 162 mg, plus monthly randomized VITD3 50,000 IU (N=109) or placebo (N=105)...
August 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994661/vitamin-d-supplementation-decreases-immune-activation-and-exhaustion-in-hiv-1-infected-youth
#8
Allison Ross Eckard, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Seungeun Thera Lee, Jakob G Habib, Joshua H Ruff, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Vin Tangpricha, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Heightened immune activation and exhaustion drive HIV disease progression and co-morbidities. Vitamin D has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects, but little is known about the effects of supplementation in HIV. Our study investigates changes in immune activation and exhaustion markers after 12 months of supplementation in virologically-suppressed HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. METHODS: This is a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating with 3 different vitamin D3 doses [18,000 (standard/active-control dose), 60,000 (moderate dose) and 120,000 IU/monthly (high dose)] in 8-26 year old HIV-infected youth on combination antiretroviral therapy with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations ≤30 ng/mL...
October 10, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990534/association-between-vitamin-d-status-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-viral-load-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection
#9
Tamires Flauzino, Andréa Nc Simão, Elaine Rd de Almeida, Helena K Morimoto, Sayonara R Oliveira, Daniela F Alfieri, Luiz T Ueda, Isaias Dichi, Edna Mv Reiche
BACKGROUND: The role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between vitamin D and immunological, virological, and oxidative stress biomarkers in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. METHODS: The serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined in 314 HIV-1-infected individuals and 127 controls and the values ≥30 ng/mL defined a vitamin D sufficient (VDS) status, and <30 ng/mL defined as hypovitaminosis D (HD)...
October 5, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979590/hiv-infection-and-bone-abnormalities
#10
Aamir N Ahmad, Shahid N Ahmad, Nafees Ahmad
More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936074/syndromes-of-rapidly-progressive-cognitive-decline-our-experience
#11
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Lakshminarayanapuram Gopal Viswanathan, Anupama Ramakanth Pai, Rahul Wahatule, Suvarna Alladi
BACKGROUND: Dementias are fairly slowly progressive degenerative diseases of brain for which treatment options are very less and carry a lot of burden on family and society. A small percentage of them are rapidly progressive and mostly carry a different course outcome. However, there are no definite criteria other than the time line for these patients. AIMS: The aim of this was to identify and categorize the causes and course of rapidly progressive dementias seen in our center...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902705/effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-markers-in-hiv-infected-youth
#12
Allison Ross Eckard, Mary Ann OʼRiordan, Julia C Rosebush, Joshua H Ruff, Ann Chahroudi, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Vin Tangpricha, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a significant comorbidity in HIV. However, studies evaluating vitamin D supplementation on bone health in this population are limited. This study investigates changes in bone health parameters after 12 months of supplementation in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. METHODS: This is a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating changes in bone parameters with 3 different vitamin D3 doses [18,000 (standard/control dose), 60,000 (moderate dose), and 120,000 IU/monthly (high dose)] in HIV-infected youth 8-25 years old with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <30 ng/mL...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891732/effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-hiv-infected-youth
#13
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Ann Chahroudi, Joshua H Ruff, Christopher T Longenecker, Vin Tangpricha, Grace A McComsey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870263/effect-of-maternal-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-maternal-health-birth-outcomes-and-infant-growth-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-pregnant-women-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Christopher P Duggan, Said Aboud, Alfa Muhihi, David M Sando, Fadhlun M Alwy Al-Beity, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has significant immunomodulatory effects on both adaptive and innate immune responses. Observational studies indicate that adults infected with HIV with low vitamin D status may be at increased risk of mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, and HIV disease progression. Growing observational evidence also suggests that low vitamin D status in pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth and infant health outcomes. As a result, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adjunct vitamin D3 supplementation may improve the health of HIV-infected pregnant women and their children...
September 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832406/racial-differences-in-calculated-bioavailable-vitamin-d-with-vitamin-d-calcium-supplementation
#15
Michael T Yin, Ellen S Chan, Todd T Brown, Pablo Tebas, Grace A McComsey, Kathleen M Melbourne, Andrew Napoli, William R Hardin, Heather J Ribaudo, Edgar T Overton
OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggest that bioavailable 25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] is more accurate than total 25-(OH)D as an assessment of vitamin D (VitD) status in black individuals. We hypothesized that increases in bioavailable 25-(OH)D would correlate better with improvement in bone outcomes among black HIV-infected adults. DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5280, a randomized, double-blind study of VitD3 and calcium supplementation in HIV-infected participants initiating antiretroviral therapy...
November 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830419/prevalence-patterns-and-perceived-value-of-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-among-hiv-patients-a-descriptive-study
#16
Mandreker Bahall
BACKGROUND: Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread among different patient populations despite the availability of evidence-based conventional medicine and lack of supporting evidence for the claims of most CAM types. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. METHODS: This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between November 1, 2014 and March 31, 2015 among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of attendees of the HIV clinic of a public tertiary health care institution...
August 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797019/associations-of-low-vitamin-d-and-elevated-parathyroid-hormone-concentrations-with-bone-mineral-density-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Denise L Jacobson, Charles B Stephensen, Tracie L Miller, Kunjal Patel, Janet S Chen, Russell B Van Dyke, Ayesha Mirza, Gertrud U Schuster, Rohan Hazra, Angela Ellis, Sean S Brummel, Mitchell E Geffner, Margarita Silio, Stephen A Spector, Linda A DiMeglio
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children have, on average, lower bone mineral density (BMD) than perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) and healthy children. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations may lead to suboptimal bone accrual. METHODS: PHIV and PHEU children in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study had total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; BMD z-scores (BMDz) were calculated for age and sex...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756682/vitamin-d-status-and-kidney-function-decline-in-hiv-infected-men-a-longitudinal-study-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#18
Adrienne Tin, Long Zhang, Michelle M Estrella, Andy Hoofnagle, Casey M Rebholz, Todd T Brown, Frank J Palella, Mallory D Witt, Lisa P Jacobson, Lawrence A Kingsley, Alison G Abraham
Vitamin D may play an important role in a range of disease processes. In the general population, lower vitamin D levels have been associated with kidney dysfunction. HIV-infected populations have a higher risk of chronic kidney disease. Few studies have examined the link between lower vitamin D levels and kidney function decline among HIV-infected persons. We investigated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] with kidney function decline in a cohort of HIV-infected white and black men under highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment in the vitamin D ancillary study of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740520/vitamin-d-levels-and-their-impact-on-mineral-metabolism-in-hiv-infected-patients-an-exploratory-study
#19
Silvina Mastaglia, Dana Watson, Natalia Bello, Vanesa Fridman, Daniel Stecher, Beatriz Oliveri
Vitamin D has immunomodulating properties. The nuclear receptor for vitamin D is expressed in several immune cells, which convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to the active form 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2 D]. Under conditions of infection, 1,25(OH)2 D promotes production of cathelicidin (an antimicrobial peptide) in monocytes and activated macrophages. In vitro studies have shown the ability of cathelicidin to inhibit replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in T CD4 lymphocytes and macrophages...
January 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700743/polymorphisms-in-the-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-are-associated-with-reduced-rate-of-sputum-culture-conversion-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-africa
#20
Matthew J Magee, Yan V Sun, James C M Brust, N Sarita Shah, Yuming Ning, Salim Allana, Angela Campbell, Qin Hui, Koleka Mlisana, Pravi Moodley, Neel R Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D modulates the inflammatory and immune response to tuberculosis (TB) and also mediates the induction of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin. Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may increase the risk of TB disease and decrease culture conversion rates in drug susceptible TB. Whether these VDR SNPs are found in African populations or impact multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB treatment has not been established...
2017: PloS One
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