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Vitamin D & HIv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275459/carbohydrate-lipid-bone-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-positive-adolescents-on-antiretroviral-therapy-and-hormonal-contraception
#1
EDITORIAL
Nadia Kancheva Landolt, Torsak Bunupuradah, Jullapong Achalapong, Pope Kosalaraksa, Witaya Petdachai, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Sasiwimol Ubolyam, Narukjaporn Thammajaruk, Stephen Kerr, Jintanat Ananworanich
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the cumulative effect of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and hormonal contraception (HC) on metabolism and inflammation in HIV-positive women. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of markers for carbohydrate, lipid, bone metabolism, inflammation and coagulation in HIV-positive adolescents on ART and HC (n=37) versus on ART only (n=51) in Thailand. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to assess differences between groups...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274549/protease-inhibitor-associated-bone-mineral-density-loss-is-related-to-hypothyroidism-and-related-bone-turnover-acceleration
#2
Ei Kinai, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Daisuke Mizushima, Takeshi Nishijima, Takahiro Aoki, Ikumi Genka, Katsuji Teruya, Kunihisa Tsukada, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
BACKGROUND: Clinical and experiments evidence indicate that protease inhibitors (PI) can cause bone mineral density (BMD) loss. However, the mechanism of such loss remains obscure. METHODS: This single-center, cross-sectional study included 184 HIV-infected patients treated with PI who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Serum phosphorus, percentage of tubular reabsorption of phosphate (%TRP), thyroid and parathyroid function (iPTH), vitamin D, osteocalcin (OC), urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (u-NTx) were measured...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261385/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-liver-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-pooled-clinical-trials-data
#3
Alia S Dadabhai, Behnam Saberi, Katie Lobner, Russell T Shinohara, Gerard E Mullin
AIM: To investigate the relationship between vitamin D and liver fibrosis in hepatitis C-monoinfected or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. METHODS: Pertinent studies were located by a library literature search in PubMed/Embase/Cochrane/Scopus/LILACS by two individual reviewers. Inclusion criteria: (1) studies with patients with HCV or co-infected HCV/HIV; (2) studies with patients ≥ 18 years old; (3) studies that evaluated liver fibrosis stage, only based on liver biopsy; and (4) studies that reported serum or plasma 25(OH)D levels...
February 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243241/high-expression-of-antiviral-and-vitamin-d-pathway-genes-are-a-natural-characteristic-of-a-small-cohort-of-hiv-1-exposed-seronegative-individuals
#4
Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Irma Saulle, Daria Trabattoni, Francesca Vichi, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesco Mazzotta, Maria T Rugeles, Mario Clerici, Mara Biasin
Natural resistance to HIV-1 infection is influenced by genetics, viral-exposure, and endogenous immunomodulators such as vitamin D (VitD), being a multifactorial phenomenon that characterizes HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs). We compared mRNA expression of 10 antivirals, 5 immunoregulators, and 3 VitD pathway genes by qRT-PCR in cells of a small cohort of 11 HESNs, 16 healthy-controls (HCs), and 11 seropositives (SPs) at baseline, in response to calcidiol (VitD precursor) and/or aldithriol-2-(AT2)-inactivated HIV-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193202/association-of-high-serum-vitamin-d-concentrations-with-active-pulmonary-tb-in-an-hiv-co-endemic-setting-harare-zimbabwe
#5
Cuthbert Musarurwa, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Doreen Zvipo Duri, Kudzie Mateveke-Dangaiso, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Maria Mary Chipiti, Marshall Wesley Munjoma, Witmore Bayayi Mujaji
BACKGROUND: There is paucity data on the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and active tuberculosis (TB) in southern Africa where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is co-endemic. We examined the association of serum vitamin D concentrations with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV-infected (n = 284) and uninfected (n = 267) Black Zimbabweans, in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 551 participants comprising 145 HIV(+)/PTB (+), 139 HIV(+)/PTB(-), 134 HIV(-)/PTB(+) and 133 HIV(-)/PTB(-)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183335/efficacy-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-reducing-incidence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-mortality-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-adults-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Christopher R Sudfeld, Ferdinand Mugusi, Said Aboud, Tumaini J Nagu, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience high rates of morbidity and mortality during the initial months of treatment. Observational studies in high-income and resource-limited settings indicate that HIV-infected adults with low vitamin D levels may be at increased risk of mortality, HIV disease progression, and incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). As a result, vitamin D3 supplementation may improve survival and treatment outcomes for HIV-infected adults initiating ART...
February 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169875/vitamin-a-and-d-deficiencies-associated-with-incident-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-in-multinational-case-cohort-study
#7
Mark W Tenforde, Ashish Yadav, David W Dowdy, Nikhil Gupte, Rupak Shivakoti, Wei-Teng Yang, Noluthando Mwelase, Cecilia Kanyama, Sandy Pillay, Wadzanai Samaneka, Breno Santos, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Srikanth Tripathy, Cynthia Riviere, Sima Berendes, Javier R Lama, Sandra W Cardoso, Patcharaphan Sugandhavesa, Parul Christian, Richard D Semba, Thomas B Campbell, Amita Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study (n=332) within a randomized trial comparing three ART regimens in 1571 HIV treatment-naïve adults from nine countries. A subcohort of 30 patients was randomly selected from each country (n=270)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161530/effects-of-cholecalciferol-supplementation-on-serum-and-urinary-vitamin-d-metabolites-and-binding-protein-in-hiv-infected-youth
#8
Allison Ross Eckard, Myrtle Thierry-Palmer, Natalia Silvestrov, Julia C Rosebush, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Danielle Labbato, Joshua H Ruff, Ravinder J Singh, Vin Tangpricha, Grace A McComsey
Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread in HIV-infected patients. HIV and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly efavirenz (EFV), may interfere with vitamin D metabolism. However, few data from randomized, controlled trials exist. Here, we investigate changes in vitamin D metabolites and binding protein (VDBP) after 6 months of supplementation in a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating 2 different monthly cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) doses [60,000 (medium) or 120,000 (high) IU/month] vs...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155313/vitamin-d-status-hypertension-and-body-mass-index-in-an-urban-black-community-in-mangaung-south-africa
#9
Ronette Lategan, Violet L Van den Berg, Jasminka Z Ilich, Corinna M Walsh
BACKGROUND: A strong relationship exists between hypertension and body weight. Research has linked both higher blood pressure and body weight with lower vitamin D status. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the vitamin D status of a low-income, urban, black community in South Africa, to examine whether serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with hypertension and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Data collected from 339 adults (25-64 years) from the Assuring Health for All in the Free State (AHA-FS) study were analysed...
October 31, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060020/significant-association-between-statin-associated-myalgia-and-vitamin-d-deficiency-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients
#10
Leonardo Calza, Eleonora Magistrelli, Vincenzo Colangeli, Marco Borderi, Ilaria Contadini, Isabella Bon, Maria Carla Re, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of statin-related symptomatic myalgia in the general population, but there are no data among HIV-infected persons. METHODS: A retrospective, cohort study was conducted to assess the incidence of symptomatic myalgia and elevation in serum creatine kinase level among HIV-positive adults on combination antiretroviral therapy and treated with atorvastatin or rosuvastatin for at least 12 months between 2011 and 2015 in our outpatient unit...
March 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045766/baseline-vitamin-d-deficiency-decreases-the-effectiveness-of-statins-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Corrilynn O Hileman, Vin Tangpricha, Abdus Sattar, Grace A McComsey
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV. Statins may increase vitamin D, and it is unknown whether vitamin D modifies the effect of statins on cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: SATURN-HIV was a 96-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on immune activation and subclinical vascular disease in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy. This analysis focuses on the prespecified secondary endpoint 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013265/decline-in-bone-mass-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-is-associated-with-hormonal-changes-in-the-absence-of-renal-impairment-when-used-by-hiv-uninfected-adolescent-boys-and-young-men-for-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#12
Peter L Havens, Charles B Stephensen, Marta D Van Loan, Gertrud U Schuster, Leslie R Woodhouse, Patricia M Flynn, Catherine M Gordon, Cynthia G Pan, Brandy Rutledge, Nancy Liu, Craig M Wilson, Rohan Hazra, Sybil G Hosek, Peter L Anderson, Sharon M Seifert, Bill G Kapogiannis, Kathleen Mulligan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to define the relative importance of renal and endocrine changes in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related bone toxicity. METHODS: In a study of daily TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected young men who have sex with men, we measured changes from baseline in blood and urine markers of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis, creatinine, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986599/development-of-a-novel-formulation-that-improves-preclinical-bioavailability-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#13
Melynda E Watkins, Steve Wring, Ryan Randolph, Seonghee Park, Kendall Powell, Lissa Lutz, Michelle Nowakowski, Ram Ramabhadran, Paul L Domanico
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), the bisphosphonate ester prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), has poor bioavailability due to intestinal degradation and efflux transport. Reformulation using U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved esterase and efflux inhibitors to increase oral bioavailability could provide lower dose alternatives and reduce costs for patients with HIV in resource-limited settings. Inhibition of mucosal and intracellular esterases was studied in human and rat intestinal extracts (S9), where TDF was protected by the carboxylesterase inhibitor bis-para-nitrophenylphosphate, the ester mix EM1, and the generally recognized-as-safe (GRAS) excipient propylparaben...
March 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889053/osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-women-living-with-hiv
#14
REVIEW
Fionnuala Finnerty, Karen Walker-Bone, Shema Tariq
The widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a life-limiting condition to one with near-normal life expectancy. HIV is associated with an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis, with people living with HIV (PLHIV) potentially experiencing these conditions at a younger age than their HIV-negative counterparts. The mechanisms driving bone disease in HIV are complex and include: an increased prevalence of traditional risk factors; other comorbid conditions; and HIV-associated factors such as viral effects, systemic inflammation, and ART-related factors...
January 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837268/effect-of-high-dose-cholecalciferol-vitamin-d3-on-bone-and-body-composition-in-children-and-young-adults-with-hiv-infection-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
A J Rovner, V A Stallings, R Rutstein, J I Schall, M B Leonard, B S Zemel
It is unknown whether vitamin D supplementation positively impacts body composition and bone outcomes in children and young adults with HIV. This RCT found that despite increasing 25(OH)D concentrations, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not impact bone or body composition in children and young adults with HIV infection. INTRODUCTION: The objective of this paper was to determine the impact of high-dose daily cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on body composition and bone density, structure, and strength in children and young adults with perinatally acquired (PHIV) or behaviorally acquired (BHIV) HIV infection...
January 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832021/adiponectin-leptin-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-associated-metabolic-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents
#16
María Espiau, Diego Yeste, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Pere Soler-Palacín, Clàudia Fortuny, Roser Ferrer, Immaculada Comas, Andrea Martín-Nalda, Ángela Deyà-Martínez, Concepció Figueras, Antonio Carrascosa
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is more common in HIV-infected adults and children than in the general population. Adipocytokines and inflammatory markers may contribute to the pathophysiology of this condition and could be useful indices for monitoring MetS. The objective of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of MetS and investigate the role of adipocytokines and other biomarkers in this syndrome in HIV-infected pediatric patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 in the outpatient clinics of 2 tertiary pediatric referral hospitals...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821214/change-in-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-with-antiretroviral-treatment-initiation-and-nutritional-intervention-in-hiv-positive-adults
#17
Daniel Yilma, Pernille Kæstel, Mette F Olsen, Alemseged Abdissa, Markos Tesfaye, Tsinuel Girma, Henrik Krarup, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen, Christian Ritz, Ole Kirk, Åse B Andersen, Henrik Friis
Low vitamin D level in HIV-positive persons has been associated with disease progression. We compared the levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons, and investigated the role of nutritional supplementation and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on serum 25(OH)D levels. A randomised nutritional supplementation trial was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. The trial compared 200 g/d of lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) with no supplementation during the first 3 months of ART...
November 8, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813318/bleeding-and-liver-transplantation-outcomes-in-haemophilia
#18
K D Mehta, M V Ragni
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is the major cause of end-stage liver disease and the major indication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) in individuals with haemophilia. AIM: To assess the epidemiology and outcomes of OLTx in U.S. haemophilia patients. METHODS: We investigated haemophilia liver transplant recipients between 1993 and 2012, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, identified by ICD9 code 50.59. RESULTS: Of the 11 267 (weighted n = 54 691) patients undergoing OLTx, 44 (0...
March 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812717/bone-mineral-density-and-vitamin-d-levels-in-hiv-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-african-american-individuals-randomized-to-receive-hiv-drug-regimens
#19
Paul P Cook, Alexandra Te Stang, Lia R Walker, Shaw M Akula, Fiona J Cook
OBJECTIVES: Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is associated with a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). Treatment with efavirenz is associated with vitamin D deficiency. We compared the effects of efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF) with the effects of raltegravir, darunavir, and ritonavir (RAL/DRV/r) on BMD and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naïve African American subjects...
November 2016: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812706/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-hiv-infected-children
#20
Ayesha Mirza, Saran Wells, Tabitha Gayton, Carmen Smotherman, Azeem Rathore, Dale Kraemer, Mobeen Rathore
OBJECTIVES: Improvement in life expectancy with the use of combination antiretroviral therapy has come with the recognition of the complications associated with chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Vitamin D has been of particular interest because of its effect on bone health and immune functions. The purpose of this study was to assess vitamin D status in children in relation to the duration and severity of their human immunodeficiency virus infection and nutritional status, as well as to determine whether there was any effect of seasonality...
November 2016: Southern Medical Journal
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