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psychiatric epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305581/an-epigenome-wide-methylation-study-of-healthy-individuals-with-or-without-depressive-symptoms
#1
Mihoko Shimada, Takeshi Otowa, Taku Miyagawa, Tadashi Umekage, Yoshiya Kawamura, Miki Bundo, Kazuya Iwamoto, Tempei Ikegame, Mamoru Tochigi, Kiyoto Kasai, Hisanobu Kaiya, Hisashi Tanii, Yuji Okazaki, Katsushi Tokunaga, Tsukasa Sasaki
Major depressive disorder is a common psychiatric disorder that is thought to be triggered by both genetic and environmental factors. Depressive symptoms are an important public health problem and contribute to vulnerability to major depression. Although a substantial number of genetic and epigenetic studies have been performed to date, the detailed etiology of depression remains unclear and there are no validated biomarkers. DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications that play diverse roles in the etiology of complex diseases...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305195/epigenetic-mechanisms-in-alcohol-and-adversity-induced-developmental-origins-of-neurobehavioral-functioning
#2
REVIEW
K E Boschen, S M Keller, T L Roth, A Y Klintsova
The long-term effects of developmental alcohol and stress exposure are well documented in both humans and non-human animal models. Damage to the brain and attendant life-long impairments in cognition and increased risk for psychiatric disorders are debilitating consequences of developmental exposure to alcohol and/or psychosocial stress. Here we discuss evidence for a role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating these consequences. While we highlight some of the common ways in which stress or alcohol impact the epigenome, we point out that little is understood of the epigenome's response to experiencing both stress and alcohol exposure, though stress is a contributing factor as to why women drink during pregnancy...
January 2, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277323/epigenetic-changes-in-the-crh-gene-are-related-to-severity-of-suicide-attempt-and-a-general-psychiatric-risk-score-in-adolescents
#3
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Ali Dadfar, Diana M Ciuculete, Andreas Chatzittofis, Marie Åsberg, Helgi B Schiöth
The aim of this study, comprising 88 suicide attempters, was to identify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) -axis coupled CpG-sites showing methylation shifts linked to severity of the suicide attempt. Candidate methylation loci were further investigated as risk loci for a general psychiatric risk score in two cohorts of adolescents (cohort 1 and 2). The genome-wide methylation pattern was measured in whole blood using the Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip. Subjects were stratified into high-risk and low-risk groups based on the severity of the suicidal behavior...
December 18, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277215/epigenetics-a-missing-link-in-understanding-psychiatric-disorders
#4
Joanne Ryan, Richard Saffery, George Patton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251832/a-role-for-activity-dependent-epigenetics-in-the-development-and-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Corina Nagy, Kathryn Vaillancourt, Gustavo Turecki
Chronic stressors, during developmental critical periods and beyond, contribute to the risk of developing psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation and histone modifications, at key stress response and neurotrophin genes, are increasingly implicated in mediating this risk. Although the exact mechanisms through which stressful environmental stimuli alter the epigenome are still unclear, research from the learning and memory fields indicates that epigenomic marks can be altered, at least in part, through calcium-dependent signalling cascades in direct response to neuronal activity...
December 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244246/role-of-rna-modifications-in-brain-and-behavior
#6
REVIEW
Kornel E Schuebel, Yonwoo Jung, David Goldman
Much progress in our understanding of RNA metabolism has been made since the first RNA modification was identified in 1957. To date, more than 100 distinct chemical modifications have been identified, and more await discovery. Many of these modifications are found in non-coding RNAs but recent studies suggest an important role for RNA modification in coding RNAs as well. Here we summarize current knowledge of cellular consequences of RNA modifications, with a special emphasis on neuropsychiatric disorders. We present evidence for the existence of an "RNA code", similar to the histone code, that fine-tunes gene expression in the nervous system by using combinations of different RNA modifications...
December 15, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237550/the-effects-of-dna-methylation-on-human-psychology
#7
REVIEW
Farzeen Kader, Meenu Ghai, Leah Maharaj
DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic modification in the human genome; pivotal in development, genomic imprinting, X inactivation, chromosome stability, gene expression and methylation aberrations are involved in an array of human diseases. Methylation at promoters is associated with transcriptional repression, whereas gene body methylation is generally associated with gene expression. Extrinsic factors such as age, diets and lifestyle affect DNA methylation which consequently alters gene expression...
December 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236313/micrornas-and-exosomes-in-depression-potential-diagnostic-biomarkers
#8
Jahanshir Tavakolizadeh, Kambiz Roshanaei, Arash Salmaninejad, Reza Yari, Javid Sadri Nahand, Hoda Khoshdel Sarkarizi, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Reza Salarinia, Majid Rahmati, Seyed Farshid Mousavi, Ryan Mokhtari, Hamed Mirzaei
Depression is known as one of important psychiatric disorders which could be associated with disability among various populations. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD-10) could be used as subjective diagnostic schemes for identification of mental disorders such as depression. Utilization of subjective diagnostic schemes are associated with limitations. Hence, it seems that employing of new diagnosis platforms is required...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230022/trained-innate-immunity-a-salient-factor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neuroimmune-psychiatric-disorders
#9
A P Salam, A Borsini, P A Zunszain
Historically, only cells of the adaptive immune system have been considered capable of retaining memory for infectious challenges. Recently, however, cells of the innate immune system have been shown to be capable of displaying long-term functional memory following a single immunostimulatory challenge, leading to enhanced production of proinflammatory molecules upon other subsequent, and temporally distant, immunostimulatory challenges. This effect has been termed 'trained innate immunity', and is underwritten by stable epigenetic changes in immune and metabolic pathways...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228394/the-psychiatric-risk-gene-transcription-factor-4-tcf4-regulates-neurodevelopmental-pathways-associated-with-schizophrenia-autism-and-intellectual-disability
#10
Marc P Forrest, Matthew J Hill, David H Kavanagh, Katherine E Tansey, Adrian J Waite, Derek J Blake
Background: Common genetic variants in and around the gene encoding transcription factor 4 (TCF4) are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Conversely, rare damaging TCF4 mutations cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and have also been found in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing were used to identify the genomic targets of TCF4. These data were integrated with expression, epigenetic and disease gene sets using a range of computational tools...
December 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226124/epigenetic-and-neural-circuitry-landscape-of-psychotherapeutic-interventions
#11
REVIEW
Christopher W T Miller
The science behind psychotherapy has garnered considerable interest, as objective measures are being developed to map the patient's subjective change over the course of treatment. Prenatal and early life influences have a lasting impact on how genes are expressed and the manner in which neural circuits are consolidated. Transgenerationally transmitted epigenetic markers as well as templates of enhanced thought flexibility versus evasion can be passed down from parent to child. This influences gene expression/repression (impacting neuroplasticity) and kindling of neurocircuitry which can perpetuate maladaptive cognitive processing seen in a number of psychiatric conditions...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224006/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-promotor-region-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-and-nerve-growth-factor-in-opioid-maintained-patients
#12
Adrian Groh, Kirsten Jahn, Alexandra Burkert, Alexandra Neyazi, Laura Schares, Eva Janke, Marie Rehme, Rilana Schuster, Thomas Hillemacher, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Annemarie Heberlein
AIMS: The nerve growth factor (NGF) and the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) may be of importance for psychiatric diseases including substance use disorders. The aim of the study was to identify differences in the regulation of both neuropeptides via the DNA-methylation status of the promotor regions of NGF and VEGF-A in different forms of maintenance therapy for opioid dependence and the related stress regulation via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. METHODS: We compared methylation levels of opioid-dependent patients receiving treatment with diamorphine (n = 28) or levomethadone (n = 54) and similar levels in a healthy control group (n = 72)...
December 8, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217682/overexpression-of-the-histone-dimethyltransferase-g9a-in-nucleus-accumbens-shell-increases-cocaine-self-administration-stress-induced-reinstatement-and-anxiety
#13
Ethan M Anderson, Erin B Larson, Daniel Guzman, Anne Marie Wissman, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, David W Self
Repeated exposure to cocaine induces lasting epigenetic changes in neurons that promote the development and persistence of addiction. One epigenetic alteration involves reductions in levels of the histone dimethyltransferase, G9a, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) after chronic cocaine administration. This reduction in G9a may enhance cocaine reward since overexpressing G9a in the NAc decreases cocaine-conditioned place preference. Thus, we hypothesized that HSV-mediated G9a overexpression in the NAc shell (NAcSh) would attenuate cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213232/stress-induced-chronic-visceral-pain-of-gastrointestinal-origin
#14
REVIEW
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson
Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174947/rbfox1-encoding-a-splicing-regulator-is-a-candidate-gene-for-aggressive-behavior
#15
Noèlia Fernàndez-Castillo, Gabriela Gan, Marjolein M J van Donkelaar, Mariliis Vaht, Heike Weber, Wolfgang Retz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Barbara Franke, Jaanus Harro, Andreas Reif, Stephen V Faraone, Bru Cormand
The RBFOX1 gene (or A2BP1) encodes a splicing factor important for neuronal development that has been related to autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Evidence from complementary sources suggests that this gene contributes to aggressive behavior. Suggestive associations with RBFOX1 have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of anger, conduct disorder, and aggressive behavior. Nominal association signals in RBFOX1 were also found in an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of aggressive behavior...
November 23, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165573/an-emerging-role-for-epigenetic-factors-in-relation-to-executive-function
#16
Omar Ibrahim, Heidi G Sutherland, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
Executive function (EF) includes a range of decision-making and higher-order thinking processes. Although the genetic basis of EF has been studied and reviewed, epigenetic factors that influence EF are an emerging field of interest; here, we summarize the current research. Work relating to different word combinations of 'Executive Function' and 'Epigenetic' was identified through three academic search directories. Inclusion criteria were human populations, EF testing, epigenetic testing or genotyping related to epigenetic regulation...
November 20, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162169/stress-exposure-and-psychopathology-alter-methylation-of-the-serotonin-receptor-2a-htr2a-gene-in-preschoolers
#17
Stephanie H Parade, Andrew M Novick, Justin Parent, Ronald Seifer, Samantha J Klaver, Carmen J Marsit, Asi Polly Gobin, Bao-Zhu Yang, Audrey R Tyrka
Serotonin signaling pathways play a key role in brain development, stress reactivity, and mental health. Epigenetic alterations in the serotonin system may underlie the effect of early life stress on psychopathology. The current study examined methylation of the serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) gene in a sample of 228 children including 119 with child welfare documentation of moderate to severe maltreatment within the last 6 months. Child protection records, semistructured interviews in the home, and parent reports were used to assess child stress exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and behavior...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156546/systematic-review-of-epigenetic-effects-of-pharmacological-agents-for-bipolar-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Laura E Lockwood, Nagy A Youssef
Epigenetic effects of medications are an evolving field of medicine, and can change the landscape of drug development. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the literature of the relationship between common medications used for treatment of bipolar disorders and epigenetic modifications. MedLine/PubMed searches were performed based on pre-specified inclusion criteria from inception to November 2017. Six animal and human studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined the epigenetic changes in the main classes of medications that are used in bipolar disorders, namely mood stabilizers and antipsychotics...
November 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132028/dna-methylation-and-genetic-variation-of-the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-in-depression
#19
Dilys Lam, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Karen Ritchie, Richard Saffery, Joanne Ryan
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and in older persons is associated with high levels of comorbidity and under-treatment. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis is consistently observed in the older population as well as depressed patients, with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) a key regulator of the stress response. Epigenetic regulation of ACE may play an important role in HPA axis (dys)regulation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ACE promoter methylation as a biomarker of late-life depression, and its association with genetic variation and cortisol secretion...
November 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106571/retrieval-induced-upregulation-of-tet3-in-pyramidal-neurons-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-mediates-cocaine-associated-memory-reconsolidation
#20
Cao Liu, Xue Sun, Zhilin Wang, Qiumin Le, Peipei Liu, Changyou Jiang, Feifei Wang, Lan Ma
Background: Memory retrieval refers to re-exposure to information previously encoded and stored in the brain. Following retrieval, a once-consolidated memory destabilizes and undergoes reconsolidation, during which gene expression changes to restabilize memory. Investigating epigenetic regulation during reconsolidation could provide insights into normal memory formation and pathological memory associated with psychiatric disorders. Methods: We used cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) to assess the cocaine-associated memory of mice and used chemogenetic methods to manipulate the activity of the pyramidal neurons in the dHC...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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