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psychiatric epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774705/serotonin-transporter-gene-promoter-methylation-in-peripheral-cells-in-healthy-adults-neural-correlates-and-tissue-specificity
#1
Elmira Ismaylova, Jessica Di Sante, Moshe Szyf, Zsofia Nemoda, Wei-Jo Yu, Florence B Pomares, Gustavo Turecki, Gabriella Gobbi, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Linda Booij
Early adversity can influence gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation. Peripheral tissues are essential in psychiatric epigenetics, as methylation generally cannot be assessed in the living human brain. Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show associations of peripheral serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) methylation with function and/or structure of frontal-limbic circuits and brain's resting-state. Commonly used samples are derived from blood, saliva or buccal cells...
July 31, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750583/association-of-a-history-of-child-abuse-with-impaired-myelination-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-convergent-epigenetic-transcriptional-and-morphological-evidence
#2
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Arnaud Tanti, Alicja Gasecka, Sarah Barnett-Burns, John J Kim, Yi Zhou, Gang G Chen, Marina Wakid, Meghan Shaw, Daniel Almeida, Marc-Aurele Chay, Jennie Yang, Vanessa Larivière, Marie-Noël M'Boutchou, Léon C van Kempen, Volodymyr Yerko, Josée Prud'homme, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Kathryn Vaillancourt, Jean-François Théroux, Alexandre Bramoullé, Tie-Yuan Zhang, Michael J Meaney, Carl Ernst, Daniel Côté, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki
OBJECTIVE: Child abuse has devastating and long-lasting consequences, considerably increasing the lifetime risk of negative mental health outcomes such as depression and suicide. Yet the neurobiological processes underlying this heightened vulnerability remain poorly understood. The authors investigated the hypothesis that epigenetic, transcriptomic, and cellular adaptations may occur in the anterior cingulate cortex as a function of child abuse. METHOD: Postmortem brain samples from human subjects (N=78) and from a rodent model of the impact of early-life environment (N=24) were analyzed...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731985/accelerated-dna-methylation-age-associations-with-ptsd-and-mortality
#3
Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Tawni B Stoop, Steven A Schichman, Annjanette Stone, Naomi Sadeh, Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Miller
OBJECTIVE: Recently-developed indices of cellular age based on DNA methylation (DNAm) data, referred to as DNAm age, are being used to study factors that influence the rate of aging and the health correlates of these metrics of the epigenetic clock. This study evaluated associations between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and accelerated versus decelerated DNAm age among military veterans. We also examined if accelerated DNAm age predicted mortality over the course of a 6...
July 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699694/the-epigenomics-of-schizophrenia-in-the-mouse
#4
REVIEW
Behnam Javidfar, Royce Park, Bibi S Kassim, Lucy K Bicks, Schahram Akbarian
Large-scale consortia including the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, the Common Minds Consortium, BrainSeq and PsychENCODE, and many other studies taken together provide increasingly detailed insights into the genetic and epigenetic risk architectures of schizophrenia (SCZ) and offer vast amounts of molecular information, but with largely unexplored therapeutic potential. Here we discuss how epigenomic studies in human brain could guide animal work to test the impact of disease-associated alterations in chromatin structure and function on cognition and behavior...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696507/the-impact-of-epigenomic-next-generation-sequencing-approaches-on-our-understanding-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Anne-Laure Schang, Délara Sabéran-Djoneidi, Valérie Mezger
Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders have a life span burden, which represents an enormous human, family, social, and economical cost. Several concepts have revolutionized our way of appraising neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs). They result from a combination of genetic factors and environmental insults, and their etiology finds roots in the neurodevelopmental period. As epigenetic mechanisms tightly control brain development, exposure to adverse conditions disturbing the epigenetic landscape of the fetal brain increases the risk of developing NPDs, due to the persistence of abnormal epigenetic signatures, at distance from the initial stimulus...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694114/epigenetic-dysregulation-of-protocadherins-in-human-disease
#6
REVIEW
Nady El Hajj, Marcus Dittrich, Thomas Haaf
Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a group of cell-cell adhesion molecules that are highly expressed in the nervous system and have a major function in dendrite development and neural circuit formation. However, the role protocadherins play in human health and disease remains unclear. Several recent studies have associated epigenetic dysregulation of protocadherins with possible implications for disease pathogenesis. In this review, we briefly recap the various epigenetic mechanisms regulating protocadherin genes, particularly the clustered Pcdhs...
July 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691784/epigenome-wide-association-of-ptsd-from-heterogeneous-cohorts-with-a-common-multi-site-analysis-pipeline
#7
Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Marco P Boks, Adam X Maihofer, Allison E Aiello, Ananda B Amstadter, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Dewleen G Baker, Jean C Beckham, Evelyn Bromet, Michelle Dennis, Melanie E Garrett, Elbert Geuze, Guia Guffanti, Michael A Hauser, Varun Kilaru, Nathan A Kimbrel, Karestan C Koenen, Pei-Fen Kuan, Mark W Logue, Benjamin J Luft, Mark W Miller, Colter Mitchell, Nicole R Nugent, Kerry J Ressler, Bart P F Rutten, Murray B Stein, Eric Vermetten, Christiaan H Vinkers, Nagy A Youssef, Monica Uddin, Caroline M Nievergelt, Alicia K Smith
Compelling evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play a role in stress regulation and in the etiologic basis of stress related disorders such as Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Here we describe the purpose and methods of an international consortium that was developed to study the role of epigenetics in PTSD. Inspired by the approach used in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, we brought together investigators representing seven cohorts with a collective sample size of N = 1147 that included detailed information on trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, and genome-wide DNA methylation data...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682231/g%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-tique-et-%C3%A3-pig%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-tique-des-troubles-des-conduites-alimentaires
#9
Nicolas Ramoz, Julia Clarke, Philip Gorwood
Eating disorders (EDs) are complex and multifactorial psychiatric illnesses that induce significant and sustained pathological disruption of food intake. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Illnesses (DSM-5) describes the clinical criteria of major disorders including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). The neurobiological basis of food intake is well characterized. Epidemiological studies reported a heritability about 70% in AN and 60% in BN, suggesting that genetic factors are involved in the vulnerability to EDs...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682228/-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-schizophrenia-and-other-psychoses
#10
Boris Chaumette, Oussama Kebir, Marie-Odile Krebs
Schizophrenia and other psychoses are categorical psychiatric diagnoses corresponding to frequent and heterogeneous disorders. Their physiopathology still remains largely unknown despite numerous recent advances. In particular, the last decade has identified different types of genetic variants, thanks to emergence of high-throughput methods. These methods allow both the identification of rare variants with a large effect such as punctual mutations or copy-number variants and the identification of frequent variants with a limited effect such as polymorphisms...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670349/epigenetic-mechanisms-during-ageing-and-neurogenesis-as-novel-therapeutic-avenues-in-human-brain-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Raúl Delgado-Morales, Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa, Manel Esteller, María Berdasco
Ageing is the main risk factor for human neurological disorders. Among the diverse molecular pathways that govern ageing, epigenetics can guide age-associated decline in part by regulating gene expression and also through the modulation of genomic instability and high-order chromatin architecture. Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of neural differentiation as well as in functional processes related to memory consolidation, learning or cognition during healthy lifespan. On the other side of the coin, many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with epigenetic dysregulation...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666827/physical-exercise-as-an-epigenetic-modulator-of-brain-plasticity-and-cognition
#12
REVIEW
Jansen Fernandes, Ricardo Mario Arida, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
A large amount of evidence has demonstrated the power of exercise to support cognitive function, the effects of which can last for considerable time. An emerging line of scientific evidence indicates that the effects of exercise are longer lasting than previously thought up to the point to affect future generations. The action of exercise on epigenetic regulation of gene expression seem central to building an "epigenetic memory" to influence long-term brain function and behavior. In this review article, we discuss new developments in the epigenetic field connecting exercise with changes in cognitive function, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs)...
June 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664328/timeline-of-intergenerational-child-maltreatment-the-mind-brain-body-interplay
#13
REVIEW
Marija Mitkovic Voncina, Milica Pejovic Milovancevic, Vanja Mandic Maravic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Still obscure mechanisms of intergenerational child maltreatment (ITCM) have been investigated partially, from various psychological and biological perspectives and from various time perspectives. This review is aimed at integrating the findings on different temporal ITCM pathways, emphasizing the mind-brain-body interplay. RECENT FINDINGS: Psychological mediators of ITCM involve attachment, mentalization, dissociation, social information processing, personality traits, and psychiatric disorders...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649671/early-life-stress-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#14
Shariful A Syed, Charles B Nemeroff
Early life stress has been shown to exert profound short- and long-term effects on human physiology both in the central nervous system and peripherally. Early life stress has demonstrated clear association with many psychiatric disorders including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic categorical system has served as a necessary framework for clinical service, delivery, and research, however has not been completely matching the neurobiological research perspective...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645747/a-review-of-dna-methylation-in-depression
#15
REVIEW
Dongmei Chen, Lin Meng, Fei Pei, Yang Zheng, Jiyan Leng
As one of the most common psychiatric disorders, depression has been a major public health problem. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic modification is essential in biological processes of depression. Recently, DNA methylation has been regarded as a potential link between environment and depression. In this review, we reviewed current studies of the association between DNA methylation and depression. The association between DNA methylation of seven genes, including BDNF, SLC6A4, NR3C1, 5-HTR (1A, 2A, and 3A), FKBP5, MAO-A and OXTR, and depression were reviewed in this study...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593903/hippocampal-bdnf-in-physiological-conditions-and-social-isolation
#16
Ivan Zaletel, Dragana Filipović, Nela Puškaš
Exposure of an organism to chronic psychosocial stress may affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression that has been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, such as depression. Given that depression in humans has been linked with social stress, the chronic social stress paradigms for modeling psychiatric disorders in animals have thus been developed. Chronic social isolation in animal models generally causes changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, associated with anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591566/regulation-of-clustered-protocadherin-genes-in-individual-neurons
#17
REVIEW
Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takeshi Yagi
Individual neurons are basic functional units in the complex system of the brain. One aspect of neuronal individuality is generated by stochastic and combinatorial expression of diverse clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs), encoded by the Pcdha, Pcdhb, and Pcdhg gene clusters, that are critical for several aspects of neural circuit formation. Each clustered Pcdh gene has its own promoter containing conserved sequences and is transcribed by a promoter choice mechanism involving interaction between the promoter and enhancers...
June 4, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557603/genome-wide-methyl-seq-analysis-of-blood-brain-targets-of-glucocorticoid-exposure
#18
Fayaz Seifuddin, Gary Wand, Olivia Cox, Mehdi Pirooznia, Laura Moody, Xiaoju Yang, Jonathan Tai, Gretha Boersma, Kellie Tamashiro, Peter Zandi, Richard Lee
Chronic exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) can lead to psychiatric complications through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation (DNAm). We sought to determine whether epigenetic changes in a peripheral tissue can serve as a surrogate for those in a relatively inaccessible tissue such as the brain. DNA extracted from the hippocampus and blood of mice treated with GCs or vehicle solution was assayed using a genome-wide DNAm platform (Methyl-Seq) to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) induced by GC treatment...
May 30, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536537/-gestaltomics-systems-biology-schemes-for-the-study-of-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Nora A Gutierrez Najera, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio, Humberto Nicolini
The integration of different sources of biological information about what defines a behavioral phenotype is difficult to unify in an entity that reflects the arithmetic sum of its individual parts. In this sense, the challenge of Systems Biology for understanding the "psychiatric phenotype" is to provide an improved vision of the shape of the phenotype as it is visualized by "Gestalt" psychology, whose fundamental axiom is that the observed phenotype (behavior or mental disorder) will be the result of the integrative composition of every part...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523558/epigenome-editing-in-the-brain
#20
Pavel Bashtrykov, Albert Jeltsch
Epigenome editing aims for an introduction or removal of chromatin marks at a defined genomic region using artificial EpiEffectors resulting in a modulation of the activity of the targeted functional DNA elements. Rationally designed EpiEffectors consist of a targeting DNA-binding module (such as a zinc finger protein, TAL effector, or CRISPR/Cas complex) and usually, but not exclusively, a catalytic domain of a chromatin-modifying enzyme. Epigenome editing opens a completely new strategy for basic research of the central nervous system and causal treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases, because rewriting of epigenetic information can lead to the direct and durable control of the expression of disease-associated genes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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