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hypertension salt

Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Bailin Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Xiang Li, Yanping Liu, Xueqin Feng, Xueyi Chen, Xiaorong Fan, Yingying Zhang, Wenna Zhang, Jiaqi Tang, Xiuwen Zhou, Na Li, Xiyuan Lu, Zhice Xu
BACKGROUND: Prenatal hypoxia is suggested to be associated with increased risks of hypertension in offspring. This study tested whether prenatal hypoxia resulted in salt-sensitive offspring and its related mechanisms of vascular ion channel remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant rats were housed in a normoxic (21% O2 ) or hypoxic (10.5% O2 ) chamber from gestation days 5 to 21. A subset of male offspring received a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) from 4 to 12 weeks after birth...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Theodore W Kurtz, Stephen E DiCarlo, Michal Pravenec, R Curtis Morris
High salt intake is one of the major dietary determinants of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Japan and throughout the world. Although dietary salt restriction may be of clinical benefit in salt-sensitive individuals, many individuals may not wish, or be able to, reduce their intake of salt. Thus, identification of functional foods that can help protect against mechanistic abnormalities mediating salt-induced hypertension is an issue of considerable medical and scientific interest. According to the "vasodysfunction" theory of salt-induced hypertension, the hemodynamic abnormality initiating salt-induced increases in blood pressure usually involves subnormal vasodilation and abnormally increased vascular resistance in response to increased salt intake...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Yuhui Yang, Xue Liu, Yunpeng Liu, Hui Fu, Ying Gao, Xing Liu, Xiaoliang Jiang
Background and objective: Chronic inflammatory is involved in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. PSGL-1 plays an important role in the inflammatory response. Methods and results: In this study, we used PSGL-1-/- and PSGL-1+/+ mice fed with high salt diet to measure the blood pressure, inflammatory response and vascular injury. We found that, in PSGL-1+/+ mice, high salt diet resulted in high blood pressure with the increased expression of serum inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNFɑ, vascular injury markers MCP-1, ET-1, and VWF, and renal macrophages and T cells infiltration, and endothelium-dependent acetylcholine vasodilation dysfunction...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Justine M Abais-Battad, Hayley Lund, Daniel J Fehrenbach, John Henry Dasinger, David L Mattson
The current study, performed in Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS) and SS-Rag1-/- rats lacking T- and B- lymphocytes, tested the hypothesis that immune cells amplify salt-sensitive hypertension and kidney damage in response to a high protein diet. After weaning, SS and SS-Rag1-/- rats were placed on an isocaloric, 0.4% NaCl diet containing normal (18%) or high (30%) protein. At 9 weeks of age, rats were switched to a 4.0% NaCl diet containing the same amount of dietary protein and maintained on the high salt diet for 3 weeks...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Shuang Han, Daolin Cheng, Nianjiao Liu, Hongyu Kuang
The relationship between salt and hypertension is the focus of a large amount of research, there are few reviews of the relationship between salt and diabetes, despite the increasing incidence of diabetes. By searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, we summarized the relationships between diabetic risk factors, diabetic complications and salt intake. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of salt on diabetes risk factors and diabetic complications are also discussed. Our findings should assist experts and scholars to understand the current research of salt intake and to pay more attention to the prevention and treatment of related diseases caused by excessive salt intake; guide treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus; and provide a reference for government departments to formulate a reasonable salt restriction policy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Yang Gu, Donna Thompson, Jie Xu, David F Lewis, John A Morgan, Danielle B Cooper, Charles E McCathran, Yuping Wang
OBJECTIVE: Corin is a serine protease that converts pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a cardiac hormone that regulates salt-water balance and blood pressure. ANP is degraded by natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR). This study was to determine if aberrant pro-ANP/corin/NPR signaling is present in maternal vascular system in preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal venous blood was obtained from 197 pregnant women (84 normotensive, 16 complicated with chronic hypertension (CHT), 11 mild and 86 severe preeclampsia)...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Shu-Lan Hsu, Chih-Wei Tseng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic hydrothorax is a nonmalignant pleural effusion associated with portal hypertension that may cause increased morbidity or mortality in cirrhotic patients. For patients who are refractory to salt restriction and diuretics, thoracentesis and catheter drainage are necessary for symptomatic relief. This review aimed to identify the best drainage method in patients with hepatic hydrothorax. RECENT FINDINGS: Chest tube placement is discouraged in cases of hepatic hydrothorax due to high complication and mortality rates...
March 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Ivna V Freire, Cezar A Casotti, Ícaro J S Ribeiro, Jonas R D Silva, Ana A L Barbosa, Rafael Pereira
The angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism has been widely reported as being associated with hypertension; however, most studies do not consider environmental/behavioral factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship among angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism, environmental/behavioral factors, and hypertension in community-dwelling elderly individuals. All community-dwelling older adults from Aiquara, Bahia, Brazil, were invited to take part in this study...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Enshe Jiang, Andrew D Chapp, Yuanyuan Fan, Robert A Larson, Taija Hahka, Michael J Huber, Jianqun Yan, Qing-Hui Chen, Zhiying Shan
Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation is implicated in hypertension. However, the role of brain proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) in salt sensitive hypertension remains to be determined. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high salt (HS) diet increases PICs expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and leads to PVN neuronal activation. Eight-week-old male Dahl salt sensitive (Dahl S) rats, and age and sex matched normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups and fed with either a HS (4% NaCl) or normal salt (NS, 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Carmela Cosola, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Adamasco Cupisti, Loreto Gesualdo
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiovascular (CV) damage is present in parallel which leads to an increased risk of CV disease. Both traditional and non-traditional risk factors contribute to CV damage in CKD. The systemic role of the microbiota as a central player in the pathophysiology of many organs is progressively emerging in the literature: the microbiota is indeed involved in a complex, bi-directional network between many organs, including the kidney and heart connection, although many of these relationships still need to be elucidated through in-depth mechanistic studies...
March 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Rebeca Caldeira Machado Berger, Acaris Benetti, Adriana Castello Costa Girardi, Ludimila Forechi, Rafaella Martins de Oliveira, Paula Frizera Vassallo, José Geraldo Mill
BACKGROUND: High sodium intake contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and adversely affects cardiac function. Conversely, sodium reduction is associated with a blood pressure decrease and improved cardiovascular function. However, the mechanisms that underlie the cardiac effects induced by salt intake in hypertension have not been fully elucidated. Ca2+ handling is critical for efficient myocardial function; thus, we aimed to investigate the long-term effects of diets with different salt contents on cardiac function and Ca2+ handling proteins in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Daniel Lemogoum, William Ngatchou, Claude Bika Lele, Cecile Okalla, Marc Leeman, Jean-Paul Degaute, Philippe van de Borne
BACKGROUND: High salt intake increases blood pressure (BP) and hypertension risk. This study aimed to examine association of urinary sodium excretion with BP and hypertension correlates among Cameroonian pygmies under hunter-gatherer subsistence mode and Bantus, living in urban area under unhealthy behavioral habits. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cluster sampling study, we randomly enrolled rural pygmies living in Lolodorf and urban Bantus living in Douala. The World Health Organization steps questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and lifestyle data...
March 7, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Christopher T Banek, Madeline M Gauthier, Daniel C Baumann, Dusty Van Helden, Ninitha Asirvatham-Jeyaraj, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Gregory D Fink, John W Osborn
Recent preclinical studies show renal denervation (RDNx) may be an effective treatment for hypertension; however, the mechanism remains unknown. We have recently reported total RDNx (TRDNx) and afferent-selective RDNx (ARDNx) similarly attenuated the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Whereas TRDNx abolished renal inflammation, ARDNx had a minimal effect despite an identical anti-hypertensive effect. Although this study established that ARDNx attenuates the development of DOCA-salt hypertension, it is unknown whether this mechanism remains operative once hypertension is established...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Martha L Daviglus, Alan R Dyer, Linda Van Horn, Daniel B Garside, Katsuyuki Miura, Yangfeng Wu, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Liancheng Zhao, Paul Elliott
Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118...
March 5, 2018: Hypertension
Mayowa O Owolabi, Fred Sarfo, Rufus Akinyemi, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Onoja Akpa, Albert Akpalu, Kolawole Wahab, Reginald Obiako, Lukman Owolabi, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence, prevalence, and fatality from stroke globally. Yet, only little information about context-specific risk factors for prioritising interventions to reduce the stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa is available. We aimed to identify and characterise the effect of the top modifiable risk factors for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicentre, case-control study done at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana...
February 26, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Luis R Cassinotti, María J Guil, Mercedes I Schöller, Mónica P Navarro, Liliana G Bianciotti, Marcelo S Vatta
Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and central endothelins (ETs) are involved in the development of hypertension. Besides the well-known brain structures involved in the regulation of blood pressure like the hypothalamus or locus coeruleus, evidence suggests that the olfactory bulb (OB) also modulates cardiovascular function. In the present study, we evaluated the interaction between the endothelinergic and catecholaminergic systems in the OB of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gul Hassan Sethar, Aisha Almoghawi, Nargis Khan, Wehad Altourah, Najat Mohammed Ashour
Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) type II is an extremely rare disorder which presents with hypertension, hyperkalemia, and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. PHA II is also known as familial hyperkalemic hypertension, Gordon syndrome, and chloride shunt syndrome. PHA II is an autosomal dominant disorder and is caused by mutation in WNK1, WNK4, CULLIN3, KLHL3, OSR, SPAK gene. The expression of these proteins is limited to the distal convoluted tube and collecting duct of the kidney. PHA II usually responds to salt restriction and thiazide diuretics...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Jens M Hohlfeld, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Heike Biller, Dominik Berliner, Korbinian Berschneider, Hanns-Christian Tillmann, Simone Hiltl, Johann Bauersachs, Tobias Welte
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with reduced biventricular end-diastolic volumes and increased morbidity and mortality. The combination of a long-acting β agonist (LABA) and a muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) is more effective in reducing hyperinflation than LABA-inhaled corticosteroid combination therapy but whether dual bronchodilation improves cardiac function is unknown. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, two-period crossover, placebo-controlled, single-centre study (CLAIM) at the Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (Hannover, Germany), a specialty clinic...
February 21, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Catalina A Lopez Gelston, Dakshnapriya Balasubbramanian, Gabriella R Abouelkheir, Alexandra H Lopez, Kayla R Hudson, Eric R Johnson, Mariappan Muthuchamy, Brett M Mitchell, Joseph M Rutkowski
<u>Rationale:</u> Hypertension is associated with renal infiltration of activated immune cells; however, the role of renal lymphatics and immune cell exfiltration is unknown. <u>Objective:</u> We tested the hypotheses that increased renal lymphatic density is associated with 2 different forms of hypertension in mice and that further augmenting renal lymphatic vessel expansion prevents hypertension by reducing renal immune cell accumulation. <u>Methods and Results:</u> Mice with salt-sensitive hypertension or nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension exhibited significant increases in renal lymphatic vessel density and immune cell infiltration associated with inflammation...
February 23, 2018: Circulation Research
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