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bcl2 family

Yuan-Chin Lee, Ying-Jung Chen, Chia-Hui Huang, Long-Sen Chang
Previous studies have attributed the anticancer activity of amsacrine to its inhibitory effect on topoisomerase II. However, 9-aminoacridine derivatives, which have the same structural scaffold as amsacrine, induce cancer cell apoptosis by altering the expression of BCL2 family proteins. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed whether BCL2 family proteins mediated the cytotoxic effects of amsacrine on human leukemia U937 cells. Amsacrine-induced apoptosis of U937 cells was characterized by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation, increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, mitochondrial depolarization, and MCL1 down-regulation...
October 19, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Tahereh Javaheri, Zahra Kazemi, Jan Pencik, Ha Tt Pham, Maximilian Kauer, Rahil Noorizadeh, Barbara Sax, Harini Nivarthi, Michaela Schlederer, Barbara Maurer, Maximillian Hofbauer, Dave Nt Aryee, Marc Wiedner, Eleni M Tomazou, Malcolm Logan, Christine Hartmann, Jan P Tuckermann, Lukas Kenner, Mario Mikula, Helmut Dolznig, Aykut Üren, Günther H Richter, Florian Grebien, Heinrich Kovar, Richard Moriggl
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most frequent childhood bone cancer driven by the EWS/FLI1 (EF) fusion protein. Genetically defined ES models are needed to understand how EF expression changes bone precursor cell differentiation, how ES arises and through which mechanisms of inhibition it can be targeted. We used mesenchymal Prx1-directed conditional EF expression in mice to study bone development and to establish a reliable sarcoma model. EF expression arrested early chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation due to changed signaling pathways such as hedgehog, WNT or growth factor signaling...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Atsunobu Sagara, Katsuhide Igarashi, Maky Otsuka, Takeshi Karasawa, Noriko Gotoh, Michiko Narita, Naoko Kuzumaki, Minoru Narita, Yoshinori Kato
Although drug resistance is often observed in metastatic recurrence of breast cancer, little is known about the intrinsic drug resistance in such metastases. In the present study, we found, for the first time, that MDA-MB-231BR, a brain metastatic variant of a human breast cancer cell line, was refractory to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) even without chronic drug exposure, compared to its parent cell line, MDA-MB-231, and a bone metastatic variant, MDA-MB-231SCP2. Both the mRNA and protein levels of COX-2 and BCL2A1 in MDA-MB-231BR were significantly higher than those in MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-231SCP2...
2016: PloS One
Sayaka Sobue, Naoki Mizutani, Yuka Aoyama, Yoshiyuki Kawamoto, Motoshi Suzuki, Yoshinori Nozawa, Masatoshi Ichihara, Takashi Murate
Paclitaxel (PTX) is a microtubule-targeting drug widely used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. However, drug resistance can emerge after a series of treatments, and this can seriously affect the patient's prognosis. Here, we analyzed the mechanism of PTX resistance using a human prostate cancer cell line, PC3, and its PTX-resistant subline, PC3-PR. Compared with PC3, PC3-PR exhibited some unique phenotypes that might be associated with PTX resistance, including decreased expression of acetylated α-tubulin and the cell cycle regulator p21, and increased expression of βIII tubulin, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Neha Kapila, Ankita Sharma, Amit Kishore, Monika Sodhi, Pawan K Tripathi, Ashok K Mohanty, Manishi Mukesh
The present study aims to identify the heat responsive genes and biological pathways in heat stressed buffalo mammary epithelial cells (MECs). The primary mammary epithelial cells of riverine buffalo were exposed to thermal stress at 42°C for one hour. The cells were subsequently allowed to recover at 37°C and harvested at different time intervals (30 min to 48 h) along with control samples (un-stressed). In order to assess the impact of heat stress in buffalo MECs, several in-vitro cellular parameters (lactate dehydrogenase activity, cell proliferation assay, cellular viability, cell death and apoptosis) and transcriptional studies were conducted...
2016: PloS One
Lixing Zhang, Chao Ge, Fangyu Zhao, Yang Zhang, Xin Wang, Ming Yao, Jinjun Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to chemotherapy. Research data supported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for the chemoresistance, and strategies that suppress CSCs stemness could also inhibit the drug resistance. In this study, we found that NRBP2 expression was downregulated in the CD133+ HCC CSCs. Most adjacent non-cancerous liver tissue analyzed expressed higher level of NRBP2 compared with cancerous tissue in HCC patients, and high NRBP2 expression indicated a better prognosis...
September 7, 2016: Cancer Research
Tara Williamson, Ren-Yuan Bai, Verena Staedtke, David Huso, Gregory J Riggins
Inheritance of a gene mutation leads to the initiation of 5 to 10% of most cancers, including colon cancer cases. We developed a chemoprevention strategy using a novel combination of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) sulindac plus the anthelminthic benzimidazole, mebendazole. This oral drug combination was effective in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). Treatment with 35 mg/kg daily mebendazole reduced the number of intestinal adenomas by 56% (P = 0.0002), 160 ppm sulindac by 74% (P < 0...
September 6, 2016: Oncotarget
J P Bernardini, M Lazarou, G Dewson
Mitophagy, the selective engulfment and clearance of mitochondria, is essential for the homeostasis of a healthy network of functioning mitochondria and prevents excessive production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species from damaged mitochondria. The mitochondrially targeted PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin are well-established synergistic mediators of the mitophagy of dysfunctional mitochondria. This pathway relies on the ubiquitination of a number of mitochondrial outer membrane substrates and subsequent docking of autophagy receptor proteins to selectively clear mitochondria...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
Kateřina Vlčková, Jiri Réda, Lubica Ondrušová, Mohammad Krayem, Ghanem Ghanem, Jiri Vachtenheim
MEK kinase inhibitors (trametinib and selumetinib) or kinase inhibitors directed against mutated BRAF(V600E) (vemurafenib and dabrafenib) have initial encouraging effects in the treatment of melanoma but acquired resistance appears almost invariably after some months. Studies revealed mutually exclusive NRAS and BRAF activating mutations driving the MAPK/ERK pathway among human melanomas. Although combination therapy exerts significantly better antitumor cell efficacy, complete remission is rarely achieved...
September 2016: International Journal of Oncology
S R Mishra, M S Parmar, V P Yadav, R Reshma, J Bharati, M K Bharti, A Paul, V S Chouhan, G Taru Sharma, G Singh, M Sarkar
The objective of this study was to document the expression and localization of angiopoietin (ANGPT) family members comprising of angiopoietin (ANGPT1 and ANGPT2), and their receptors (Tie1 and Tie2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle, and the modulatory role of ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 alone or in combinations on progesterone (P4 ) secretion and mRNA expression of phosphotidylinositide-3kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK), protein kinase B (AKT), Bcl2 associated death promoter (BAD), caspase 3 and von willebrand factor (vWF) in luteal cells obtained from midluteal phase (MLP) of oestrous cycle in buffalo...
August 28, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Xiaomin Zhong, Lan Zheng, Jianfeng Shen, Dongmei Zhang, Minmin Xiong, Youyou Zhang, Xinhong He, Janos L Tanyi, Feng Yang, Kathleen T Montone, Xiaojun Chen, Congjian Xu, Andy P Xiang, Qihong Huang, Xiaowei Xu, Lin Zhang
Oncogenic KRAS contributes to malignant transformation, antiapoptosis, and metastasis in multiple human cancers, such as lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers and melanoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 18- to 25-nucleotide noncoding small RNAs that regulate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner via the degradation of target mRNAs or inhibition of protein translation. In the present study, using array-based miRNA profiling in IMR90 and MCF10A cells expressing oncogenic KRAS, we identified that the expression of the microRNA 200 (mir-200) family was suppressed by KRAS activation and that this suppression was mediated by the transcription factors JUN and SP1 in addition to ZEB1...
November 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Khushboo Singh, James M Briggs
Mutations in the translocated BCL2 gene are often detected in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), indicating both their significance and pervasiveness. Large series genome sequencing of more than 200 DLBCLs has identified frequent BCL2 mutations clustered in the exons coding for the BH4 domain and the folded loop domain (FLD) of the protein. However, BCL2 mutations are mostly contemplated to represent bystander events with negligible functional impact on the pathogenesis of DLBCL. BCL2 arbitrates apoptosis through a classic interaction between its hydrophobic groove forming BH1-3 domains and the BH3 domain of pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family...
July 2016: Mutation Research. Reviews in Mutation Research
Tongmei Zhang, Liang Xue, Li Li, Chengyuan Tang, Zhengqing Wan, Ruoxi Wang, Jieqiong Tan, Ya Tan, Hailong Han, Runyi Tian, Timothy R Billiar, W Andy Tao, Zhuohua Zhang
Mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) cause early onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 accumulates on the outer membrane of damaged mitochondria followed by recruiting parkin to promote mitophagy. Here, we demonstrate that BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a mitochondrial BH3-only protein, interacts with PINK1 to promote accumulation of full-length PINK1 on outer membrane of mitochondria and this facilitates parkin recruitment and PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Atanu Maity, Souvik Sinha, Debabani Ganguly, Shubhra Ghosh Dastidar
Bcl-xL, a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, remains distributed over the cytosol and the mitochondrial membrane, maintaining a balance between apoptosis and the survival of the cell. Passage to the membrane is essential for its biological functions (e.g. to antagonize pro-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl2 family), which is known to be initiated by the insertion of the C-terminal segment into the membrane. This tail, composed of ∼24 residues, is reported to act as a pseudo-inhibitor of the protein itself, adapting a helical conformation...
August 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
J R Gomes, R S Nogueira, M Vieira, S D Santos, J P Ferraz-Nogueira, J B Relvas, M J Saraiva
Transthyretin (TTR) is a protein whose function has been associated to binding and distribution of thyroid hormones in the body and brain. However, little is known regarding the downstream signaling pathways triggered by wild-type TTR in the CNS either in neuroprotection of cerebral ischemia or in physiological conditions. In this study, we investigated how TTR affects hippocampal neurons in physiologic/pathologic conditions. Recombinant TTR significantly boosted neurite outgrowth in mice hippocampal neurons, both in number and length, independently of its ligands...
November 1, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Haidy E Michel, Mariane G Tadros, Ahmed Esmat, Amani E Khalifa, Ahmed M Abdel-Tawab
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder. Apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress are the current hypothesized mechanisms for PD pathogenesis. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), the major bioactive component of Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (ChuanXiong), Family Apiaceae, reportedly has anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study investigated the role of 'TMP' in preventing rotenone-induced neurobiological and behavioral sequelae. A preliminary dose-response study was conducted where rats received TMP (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i...
August 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
AbdelRahman N Zekri, Esraa Sobhy, Nehal Hussein, Ola S Ahmed, Amira Hussein, Sahar Shoman, Amira H Soliman, Hanaa M Alam ElDin
Several studies have addressed the possible role of hepatitis C virus genotype4 (HCV GT4) in apoptosis. However, this still not fully understood. In the current study a reconstructed clone of E1/E2 polyprotein region of the HCV GT4 was transfected into the Huh7 cell line and a human apoptotic PCR array of 84 genes was used to investigate its possible significance for apoptosis. Out of the 84 genes, only 35 showed significant differential expression, 12 genes being upregulated and 23 downregulated. The highestup regulated genes were APAF1 (apoptotic peptidaseactivating factor 1), BID (BH3 interacting domain death agonist) and BCL 10 (Bcell CLL/ lymphoma protein 10) with fold regulation of 33...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Vijay Ramakrishnan, Marcus Gomez, Vivek Prasad, Teresa Kimlinger, Utkarsh Painuly, Bedabrata Mukhopadhyay, Jessica Haug, Lintao Bi, S Vincent Rajkumar, Shaji Kumar
Bcl2 and IAP families are anti-apoptotic proteins deregulated in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Pharmacological inhibition of each of these families has shown significant activity only in subgroups of MM patients. Here, we have examined a broad-spectrum Bcl2 family inhibitor Obatoclax (OBX) in combination with a Smac mimetic LCL161 in MM cell lines and patient cells. LCL161/OBX combination induced synergistic cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effects on a broad range of human MM cell lines. The cytotoxicity was mediated through inhibition of the IAPs, activation of caspases and up regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid, Bim, Puma and Noxa by the drug combination...
August 2, 2016: Oncotarget
Sarah Mahmoud Gamal, Nermeen Bakr Sadek, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Heba Mohamed Shawky, Maha Mohamed Gamal El-Din
AIMS: To investigate the possible protective effect of elevated undercarboxylated osteocalcin on diabetic cardiomyopathy mechanisms and risk factors. METHODS: In all, 32 male rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, diabetic warfarin and normal warfarin-treated groups. Isolated heart functions were assessed; fasting serum insulin, glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance and lipid profile were investigated...
November 2016: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Khairy Ma Zoheir, Ahmed A Abd-Rabou, Gamaleldin I Harisa, Ashok Kumar, Sheikh Fayaz Ahmad, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Adel R Abd-Allah
IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating proteins (IQGAPs) belong to a conserved family, and they are involved in various intracellular processes. IQGAP1 is expressed in all cells, while IQGAP2 and IQGAP3 are mainly expressed in hepatic cells. IQGAP1 has been suggested to be an oncogene, while IQGAP2 is considered a tumor-suppressor gene. However, the relationship between RAS family genes and IQGAP genes remains unclear. We recently demonstrated this interaction in a chemically induced mouse liver cancer. In this study, IQGAP1 expression was partially silenced in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells...
August 3, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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