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Andan Qian, Xin Wang, Huiru Liu, Jiejie Tao, Jiejie Zhou, Qiong Ye, Jiance Li, Chuang Yang, Jingliang Cheng, Ke Zhao, Meihao Wang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder that has been linked to the dopaminergic system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity during the resting state in ADHD children using the methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in 49 children with ADHD. All participants were classified as either carriers of the DRD4 4-repeat/4-repeat (4R/4R) allele (n = 30) or the DRD4 2-repeat (2R) allele (n = 19)...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Behdad Parhizi, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Mehdi Behroozi
The present paper concentrates on the impact of visual attention task on structure of the brain functional and effective connectivity networks using coherence and Granger causality methods. Since most studies used correlation method and resting-state functional connectivity, the task-based approach was selected for this experiment to boost our knowledge of spatial and feature-based attention. In the present study, the whole brain was divided into 82 sub-regions based on Brodmann areas. The coherence and Granger causality were applied to construct functional and effective connectivity matrices...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Chaoyang Zhou, Ping Wei, Lihua Chen, Xuntao Yin, Jiuquan Zhang, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects a vast population and is closely associated with cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms of cognitive impairment in T2DM patients have not been unraveled. Research on the basic units (nodes or hubs and edges) of the brain functional network on the basis of neuroimaging may advance our understanding of the network change pattern in T2DM patients. This study investigated the change patterns of brain functional hubs using degree centrality (DC) analysis and the connectivity among these hubs using functional connectivity and Granger causality analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Niels R Disbergen, Giancarlo Valente, Elia Formisano, Robert J Zatorre
Polyphonic music listening well exemplifies processes typically involved in daily auditory scene analysis situations, relying on an interactive interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes. Most studies investigating scene analysis have used elementary auditory scenes, however real-world scene analysis is far more complex. In particular, music, contrary to most other natural auditory scenes, can be perceived by either integrating or, under attentive control, segregating sound streams, often carried by different instruments...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shuai Zhang, Xu Wang, Chao-Qun Yan, Shang-Qing Hu, Jian-Wei Huo, Zhong-Yan Wang, Ping Zhou, Chun-Hong Liu, Cun-Zhi Liu
Background: Chronic shoulder pain (CSP) is a common disease causing pain and functional limitation, which is highly prevalent and has substantial negative effects on the quality of life. Acupuncture has gained popularity and has been accepted gradually by many countries because it can successfully treat patients with chronic pain, but the specific brain mechanisms under acupuncture treatment for CSP remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to 1) compare the clinical effects between acupuncture at the contralateral and ipsilateral Tiaokou (ST 38) point in patients with unilateral shoulder pain and 2) explore how contralateral- and ipsilateral-acupuncture modulates the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of patients with CSP...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Talia Brandman, Marius V Peelen
We internally represent the structure of our surroundings even when there is little layout information available in the visual image, such as when walking through fog or darkness. One way in which we disambiguate such scenes is through object cues; for example, seeing a boat supports the inference that the foggy scene is a lake. Recent studies have investigated the neural mechanisms by which object and scene processing interact to support object perception. The current study examines the reverse interaction by which objects facilitate the neural representation of scene layout...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Andrew D Engell, Na Yeon Kim, Gregory McCarthy
Perception of faces has been shown to engage a domain-specific set of brain regions, including the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is commonly held that the OFA is responsible for the detection of faces in the environment, whereas the FFA is responsible for processing the identity of the face. However, an alternative model posits that the FFA is responsible for face detection and subsequently recruits the OFA to analyze the face parts in the service of identification. An essential prediction of the former model is that the OFA is not sensitive to the arrangement of internal face parts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Nathan W Churchill, Michael G Hutchison, Simon J Graham, Tom A Schweizer
Concussion is associated with significant adverse effects within the first week post-injury, including physical complaints and altered cognition, sleep and mood. It is currently unknown whether these subjective disturbances have reliable functional brain correlates. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been used to measure functional connectivity of individuals after traumatic brain injury, but less is known about the relationship between functional connectivity and symptom assessments after a sport concussion...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hang Joon Jo, Kevin W McCairn, William S Gibson, Paola Testini, Cong Zhi Zhao, Krzysztof R Gorny, Joel P Felmlee, Kirk M Welker, Charles D Blaha, Bryan T Klassen, Hoon-Ki Min, Kendall H Lee
Background and objectives: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a promising therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). However, few human studies have examined its mechanism of action. Therefore, the networks that mediate the therapeutic effects of thalamic DBS remain poorly understood. Methods: Five participants diagnosed with severe medically refractory TS underwent bilateral thalamic DBS stereotactic surgery. Intraoperative fMRI characterized the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response evoked by thalamic DBS and determined whether the therapeutic effectiveness of thalamic DBS, as assessed using the Modified Rush Video Rating Scale test, would correlate with evoked BOLD responses in motor and limbic cortical and subcortical regions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Xiaoyue Liu, Xiao Lin, Ming Zheng, Yanbo Hu, Yifan Wang, Lingxiao Wang, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
Internet search changed the way we store and recall information and possibly altered our brain functions. Previous studies suggested that Internet search facilitates the information-acquisition process. However, this process may cause individuals to lose the ability to store and recollect specific contents. Despite the numerous behavioral studies conducted in this field, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying Internet searches. The present study explores potential brain activity changes induced by Internet search...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Xing Zhang, Guangming Ran, Wenjian Xu, Yuanxiao Ma, Xu Chen
Humans are highly social animals, and the ability to cater to the preferences of other individuals is encouraged by society. Preference-inferring is an important aspect of the theory of mind (TOM). Many previous studies have shown that attachment style is closely related to TOM ability. However, little is known about the effects of adult attachment style on preferences inferring under different levels of certainty. Here, we investigated how adult attachment style affects neural activity underlying preferences inferred under different levels of certainty by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
M C Pensel, M Daamen, L Scheef, H U Knigge, S Rojas Vega, J A Martin, H H Schild, H K Strüder, H Boecker
Cardiovascular training has been associated with neuroimaging correlates of executive control functions (ECF) in seniors and children/adolescents, while complementary studies in middle-aged populations are lacking. Ascribing a prominent role to cardiorespiratory fitness improvements, most studies concentrated on training-induced gains in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), although other fitness indices may provide complementary information. Here, we investigated the impact of long-term sub-maximal exercise training on interference control, considering individual training-induced shifts in blood lactate profile curves (BLC) and VO2 max...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuan Feng, Yu-Chen Chen, Han Lv, Wenqing Xia, Cun-Nan Mao, Fan Bo, Huiyou Chen, Jin-Jing Xu, Xindao Yin
Purpose : Chronic subjective tinnitus may arise from aberrant functional coupling between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate the functional connectivity network of the cerebellar regions in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Methods : Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 28 chronic tinnitus patients and 29 healthy controls (well matched for age, sex and education) in this study. Cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Shijing Wu, Jun Li, Lantian Gao, Changshui Chen, Sailing He
Hemodynamic response to motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) was investigated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We used a 31 channel fNIRS system which allows non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation changes induced by cortical activation. Sixteen healthy subjects (mean-age 24.5 yeas) were recruited and the changes in concentration of hemoglobin were examined during right and left hand finger tapping tasks and kinesthetic MI. To suppress the systemic physiological interference, we developed a preprocessing procedure which prevents over-activated reporting in NIRS-SPM...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Carla Caballero, Sejal Mistry, Joe Vero, Elizabeth B Torres
The variability inherently present in biophysical data is partly contributed by disparate sampling resolutions across instrumentations. This poses a potential problem for statistical inference using pooled data in open access repositories. Such repositories combine data collected from multiple research sites using variable sampling resolutions. One example is the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange repository containing thousands of imaging and demographic records from participants in the spectrum of autism and age-matched neurotypical controls...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Feng Tian, Junjie Wang, Cheng Xu, Hong Li, Xin Ma
In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in studies that explored the personality-brain association. Researches on personality neuroscience have the potential to provide personality psychology with explanatory models-that is, why people differ from each other rather than how they differ from each other (DeYoung and Gray, 2009). As one of the most important dimensions of personality traits, extraversion is the most stable core and a universal component in personality theory...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Katrin H Preller, Leonhard Schilbach, Thomas Pokorny, Jan Flemming, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Distortions of self-experience are critical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and have detrimental effects on social interactions. In light of the immense need for improved and targeted interventions for social impairments, it is important to better understand the neurochemical substrates of social interaction abilities. We therefore investigated the pharmacological and neural correlates of self- and other-initiated social interaction. In a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study 24 healthy human participants (18 males and 6 females) received either 1) placebo+placebo 2) placebo+lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (100 μg p...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tali R Marron, Yulia Lerner, Ety Berant, Sivan Kinreich, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Talma Hendler, Miriam Faust
Research on creativity shows that creative thinking entails both executive (controlled) and associative (spontaneous) processes. Yet standard creativity tasks cannot reliably isolate these two types of cognitive processes, making it difficult to understand the relation between the two and the roles of their corresponding brain networks in creative cognition. In this study we used a behavioral and neuroimaging approach in an effort to establish chain free association (FA) tasks as a relevant method for directly investigating spontaneous associative thinking and its role in creative cognition...
March 16, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Adam M Goodman, Nathaniel G Harnett, Muriah D Wheelock, Danielle R Hurst, Tyler R Orem, Ethan W Gossett, Chelsea A Dunaway, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Excessive stress exposure often leads to emotional dysfunction, characterized by disruptions in healthy emotional learning, expression, and regulation processes. A prefrontal cortex (PFC)-amygdala circuit appears to underlie these important emotional processes. However, limited human neuroimaging research has investigated whether these brain regions underlie the altered emotional function that develops with stress. Therefore, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate stress-induced changes in PFC-amygdala function during Pavlovian fear conditioning...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Govinda R Poudel, Carrie R H Innes, Richard D Jones
Even when it is critical to stay awake, such as when driving, sleep deprivation weakens one's ability to do so by substantially increasing the propensity for microsleeps. Microsleeps are complete lapses of consciousness but, paradoxically, are associated with transient increases in cortical activity. But do microsleeps provide a benefit in terms of attenuating the need for sleep? And is the neural response to microsleeps altered by the degree of homeostatic drive to sleep? In this study, we continuously monitored eye-video, visuomotor responsiveness, and brain activity via fMRI in 20 healthy subjects during a 20-min visuomotor tracking task following a normally-rested night and a sleep-restricted (4-h) night...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
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