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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944718/obesity-is-associated-with-altered-mid-insula-functional-connectivity-to-limbic-regions-underlying-appetitive-responses-to-foods
#1
Jason A Avery, Joshua N Powell, Florence J Breslin, Rebecca J Lepping, Laura E Martin, Trisha M Patrician, Joseph E Donnelly, Cary R Savage, W Kyle Simmons
Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944306/reward-related-neural-correlates-of-antisocial-behavior-and-callous-unemotional-traits-in-young-men
#2
Laura Murray, Daniel S Shaw, Erika E Forbes, Luke W Hyde
BACKGROUND: Individuals involved in antisocial behavior often engage in excessive reward-driven behavior even in the face of severe punishments including incarceration. However, the neural mechanisms of reward processing in antisocial behavior have not been examined while considering the heterogeneity of antisocial behavior and specific phases of reward and loss processing. In this study, we investigate the relationship between antisocial behavior, callous-unemotional traits, and neural activity during the anticipation and receipt of rewards and losses...
May 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943846/a-computational-model-for-the-automatic-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-based-on-functional-brain-volume
#3
Lirong Tan, Xinyu Guo, Sheng Ren, Jeff N Epstein, Long J Lu
In this paper, we investigated the problem of computer-aided diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using machine learning techniques. With the ADHD-200 dataset, we developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model to classify ADHD patients from typically developing controls (TDCs), using the regional brain volumes as predictors. Conventionally, the volume of a brain region was considered to be an anatomical feature and quantified using structural magnetic resonance images. One major contribution of the present study was that we had initially proposed to measure the regional brain volumes using fMRI images...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943838/a-novel-feature-map-based-ica-model-for-identifying-the-individual-intra-inter-group-brain-networks-across-multiple-fmri-datasets
#4
Nizhuan Wang, Chunqi Chang, Weiming Zeng, Yuhu Shi, Hongjie Yan
Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis to evaluate functional connectivity of the brain; however, there are still some limitations on ICA simultaneously handling neuroimaging datasets with diverse acquisition parameters, e.g., different repetition time, different scanner, etc. Therefore, it is difficult for the traditional ICA framework to effectively handle ever-increasingly big neuroimaging datasets. In this research, a novel feature-map based ICA framework (FMICA) was proposed to address the aforementioned deficiencies, which aimed at exploring brain functional networks (BFNs) at different scales, e...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943835/investigating-brain-connectomic-alterations-in-autism-using-the-reproducibility-of-independent-components-derived-from-resting-state-functional-mri-data
#5
Mohammed A Syed, Zhi Yang, Xiaoping P Hu, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Significance: Autism is a developmental disorder that is currently diagnosed using behavioral tests which can be subjective. Consequently, objective non-invasive imaging biomarkers of Autism are being actively researched. The common theme emerging from previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies is that Autism is characterized by alterations of fMRI-derived functional connections in certain brain networks which may provide a biomarker for objective diagnosis. However, identification of individuals with Autism solely based on these measures has not been reliable, especially when larger sample sizes are taken into consideration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943411/two-cortical-deficits-underlie-amblyopia-a-multi-focal-fmri-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Reza Farivar, Jiawei Zhou, Yufeng Huang, Lixia Feng, Yifeng Zhou, Robert F Hess
Amblyopia is a relatively common (incidence 3%) developmental disorder in which there is loss of vision as a consequence of a disruption to normal visual development. Although the deficit is monocular and known to be of cortical origin, the nature of the processing deficit is controversial. Human behavioral studies have identified two main deficits-a loss of contrast sensitivity and perceived spatial distortions. Here we use a multi-focal fMRI approach to ascertain, in a group of anisometropic amblyopes, whether these two deficits have a single common cause or whether they are the result of two underlying independent cortical disorders...
September 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942672/integration-and-segregation-of-default-mode-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-transition-age-males-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-proof-of-concept-study
#7
Gagan Joshi, Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Kaustubh Patil, Meha Semwal, Rachel Goldin, Stephannie Furtak, Xiaoqian Jenny Chai, Zeynep Saygin, John D Gabrieli, Joseph Biederman, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli
OBJECTIVES: To assess the resting-state functional connectivity (RsFc) profile of the default mode network (DMN) in transition-age males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Resting-state blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI (fMRI) data were acquired from adolescent and young adult males with high-functioning ASD (N=15) and from age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (HC; N=16). The DMN was examined by assessing the positive and negative RsFc correlations of an average of the literature-based conceptualized major DMN nodes (medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC], posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral angular and inferior temporal gyrii regions)...
September 24, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942018/integration-of-fmri-and-meg-functional-maps-into-a-cyberknife-planning-system-feasibility-study-for-motor-activity-localization-and-dose-planning
#8
Elena De Martin, Dunja Duran, Francesco Ghielmetti, Elisa Visani, Domenico Aquino, Marcello Marchetti, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Davide Cusumano, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Ferruccio Panzica, Laura Fariselli
OBJECTIVE: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide non-invasive localization of eloquent brain areas for pre-surgical planning. The aim of this study is the integration of MEG and fMRI maps into a CyberKnife (CK) system to optimize dose planning. METHODS: Four patients with brain metastases in the motor area underwent functional imaging study of the hand motor cortex prior radiosurgery. MEG data were acquired during a visually cued hand motor-task...
September 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941768/lateralization-effects-on-functional-connectivity-of-the-auditory-network-in-patients-with-unilateral-pulsatile-tinnitus-as-detected-by-functional-mri
#9
Han Lv, Pengfei Zhao, Zhaohui Liu, Xuehuan Liu, Heyu Ding, Liheng Liu, Guopeng Wang, Jing Xie, Rong Zeng, Yuchen Chen, Zhenghan Yang, Shusheng Gong, Zhenchang Wang
Unilateral pulsatile tinnitus (PT) was proved to be a kind of disease with brain functional abnormalities within and beyond the auditory network (AN). However, changes in patterns of the lateralization effects of PT are yet to be established. Relationship between the AN and other brain networks in PT patients is also a scientific question need to be answered. In this study, we recruited 23 left-sided, 23 right-sided PT (LSPT, RSPT) patients and 23 normal controls (NC). We combined applied independent component analysis and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to investigate alteration feature of the FC of the AN by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940969/decoding-the-neural-representation-of-story-meanings-across-languages
#10
Morteza Dehghani, Reihane Boghrati, Kingson Man, Joe Hoover, Sarah I Gimbel, Ashish Vaswani, Jason D Zevin, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Andrew S Gordon, Antonio Damasio, Jonas T Kaplan
Drawing from a common lexicon of semantic units, humans fashion narratives whose meaning transcends that of their individual utterances. However, while brain regions that represent lower-level semantic units, such as words and sentences, have been identified, questions remain about the neural representation of narrative comprehension, which involves inferring cumulative meaning. To address these questions, we exposed English, Mandarin, and Farsi native speakers to native language translations of the same stories during fMRI scanning...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940859/dynamic-functional-connectivity-and-individual-differences-in-emotions-during-social-stress
#11
Michael J Tobia, Koby Hayashi, Grey Ballard, Ian H Gotlib, Christian E Waugh
Exposure to acute stress induces multiple emotional responses, each with their own unique temporal dynamics. Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) measures the temporal variability of network synchrony and captures individual differences in network neurodynamics. This study investigated the relationship between dFC and individual differences in emotions induced by an acute psychosocial stressor. Sixteen healthy adult women underwent fMRI scanning during a social evaluative threat (SET) task, and retrospectively completed questionnaires that assessed individual differences in subjectively experienced positive and negative emotions about stress and stress relief during the task...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940855/long-term-effects-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-on-brain-functional-outcome-and-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
María Díez-Cirarda, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, Maria Ángeles Gómez-Beldarrain, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive rehabilitation has demonstrated efficacy in producing short-term cognitive and brain changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. To date, no study has assessed the long-term effects of cognitive rehabilitation using neuroimaging techniques in PD. The aim was to assess the longitudinal effects of a 3-month cognitive rehabilitation program evaluating the cognitive, behavioural and neuroimaging changes after 18 months. METHODS: Fifteen PD patients underwent a cognitive, behavioural and neuroimaging assessment at pre-treatment (T0 ), post-treatment (T1 ) and after 18-months (T2 )...
September 23, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940758/time-dependent-neuronal-changes-associated-with-craving-in-opioid-dependence-an-fmri-study
#13
Anna Murphy, Dan I Lubman, Shane McKie, Prun S Bijral, Lesley A Peters, Qasim Faiz, Sophie E Holmes, Ian M Anderson, Bill Deakin, Rebecca Elliott
Relapse after initially successful treatment is a significant problem facing the treatment of opioid dependence. Evidence suggests craving elicited by re-exposure to drug cues may precipitate relapse. Attempts to identify neural biomarkers of cue-elicited craving have yielded inconsistent findings. We aimed to apply a novel continuous functional magnetic resonance imaging technique to follow the minute-to-minute evolution of brain responses, which correlate with the waxing and waning of craving. Newly detoxified male opioid-dependent patients and healthy control participants attended two separate, counterbalanced, functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning sessions during which they viewed a 10-minute video (drug cue or neutral cue) followed by 5 minutes of fixation...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940312/increased-thalamic-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-core-driver-of-lsd-induced-hallucinations
#14
F Müller, C Lenz, P Dolder, U Lang, A Schmidt, M Liechti, S Borgwardt
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. METHOD: 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches...
September 21, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939991/when-three-is-greater-than-five-eeg-and-fmri-signatures-of-errors-in-numerical-and-physical-comparisons
#15
Ewa Beldzik, Aleksandra Domagalik, Magda Gawlowska, Tadeusz Marek, Justyna Mojsa-Kaja
Unravelling the neural mechanisms, which determine performance accuracy, is one of the key concepts in cognitive neuroscience. When compared to correct responses, shorter reaction times are commonly observed behavioural feature of errors committed in typical conflict tasks. Yet, little is known about the origins of this phenomenon. In this study, EEG and fMRI experiments were conducted using the numerical version of the Stroop paradigm, which yielded unique behavioural outcomes. Particularly, errors in numerical comparison had shorter reaction times than correct trials, whereas physical comparison resulted in the opposite pattern...
September 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939939/cognitive-performance-change-of-pediatric-patients-after-conducting-frontal-transcortical-approach-to-treat-lateral-ventricular-tumor
#16
Wanchun Zhu, Jintao He, Xiang Li, Lei Wang, Zheng Lu, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECTIVE: Applying frontal transcortical approach to treat lateral ventricular tumor is one of the most common neurosurgical manipulations. The frontal transcortical approach generally passes through the middle frontal gyrus in which there is no major function involved in the traditional sense. However, current researches have suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in the whole network of the brain cognitive frame. In addition, cognitive function is crucial in growing and developmental stages and essential for the educational achievement, especially for children...
September 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939433/robust-inter-subject-audiovisual-decoding-in-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-using-high-dimensional-regression
#17
Gal Raz, Michele Svanera, Neomi Singer, Gadi Gilam, Maya Bleich Cohen, Tamar Lin, Roee Admon, Tal Gonen, Avner Thaler, Roni Y Granot, Rainer Goebel, Sergio Benini, Giancarlo Valente
Major methodological advancements have been recently made in the field of neural decoding, which is concerned with the reconstruction of mental content from neuroimaging measures. However, in the absence of a large-scale examination of the validity of the decoding models across subjects and content, the extent to which these models can be generalized is not clear. This study addresses the challenge of producing generalizable decoding models, which allow the reconstruction of perceived audiovisual features from human magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data without prior training of the algorithm on the decoded content...
September 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939432/characterizing-dynamic-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-and-its-relationship-with-dynamic-functional-connectivity-an-application-to-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Zening Fu, Yiheng Tu, Xin Di, Yuhui Du, G D Pearlson, J A Turner, Bharat B Biswal, Zhiguo Zhang, V D Calhoun
The human brain is a highly dynamic system with non-stationary neural activity and rapidly-changing neural interaction. Resting-state dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) has been widely studied during recent years, and the emerging aberrant dFC patterns have been identified as important features of many mental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ). However, only focusing on the time-varying patterns in FC is not enough, since the local neural activity itself (in contrast to the inter-connectivity) is also found to be highly fluctuating from research using high-temporal-resolution imaging techniques...
September 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939415/qualitative-differences-in-offline-improvement-of-procedural-memory-by-daytime-napping-and-overnight-sleep-an-fmri-study
#19
Sho K Sugawara, Takahiko Koike, Hiroaki Kawamichi, Kai Makita, Yuki H Hamano, Haruka K Takahashi, Eri Nakagawa, Norihiro Sadato
Daytime napping offers various benefits for healthy adults, including enhancement of motor skill learning. It remains controversial whether napping can provide the same enhancement as overnight sleep, and if so, whether the same neural underpinning is recruited. To investigate this issue, we conducted functional MRI during motor skill learning, before and after a short day-nap, in 13 participants, and compared them with a larger group (N=47) who were tested following regular overnight sleep. Training in a sequential finger-tapping task required participants to press a keyboard in the MRI scanner with their non-dominant left hand as quickly and accurately as possible...
September 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939388/elderly-adults-show-higher-ventral-striatal-activation-in-response-to-motor-performance-related-rewards-than-young-adults
#20
Mario Widmer, Samara Stulz, Andreas R Luft, Kai Lutz
Feedback on motor performance activates the striatum and boosting ventral striatum activation with rewarding feedback during motor training supports the consolidation of the learned skill. Aging is associated with changes of the reward system, including striatal and extrastriatal loss of dopamine receptors. How these changes interact with the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response is, however, not yet fully understood. While it is known that reward prediction and reward-based decision-making differ between young and elderly healthy adults, the influence of age on the processing of rewarding feedback on motor performance have not been investigated so far...
September 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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