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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149617/decoding-early-and-late-cortical-contributions-to-individuation-of-attended-and-unattended-objects
#1
Claire K Naughtin, Jason B Mattingley, Angela D Bender, Paul E Dux
To isolate a visual stimulus as a unique object with a specific spatial location and time of occurrence, it is necessary to first register (individuate) the stimulus as a distinct perceptual entity. Recent investigations into the neural substrates of object individuation have suggested it is subserved by a distributed neural network, but previous manipulations of individuation load have introduced extraneous visual confounds, which might have yielded ambiguous findings, particularly in early cortical areas...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149326/virtually-in-the-heat-of-the-moment-insula-activation-in-safe-sex-negotiation-among-risky-men
#2
Benjamin J Smith, Feng Xue, Vita Droutman, Emily Barkley-Levenson, A James Melrose, Lynn C Miller, John R Monterosso, Antoine Bechara, Paul Robert Appleby, John L Christensen, Carlos G Godoy, Stephen J Read
HIV is most prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and although most MSM use condoms consistently during casual sex, some take risks. To better understand the psychology of those risky decisions, we examined neural correlates of playing a virtual sexual "hook up" game in an fMRI scanner in MSM who had, in the past 90 days, been sexually risky (N = 76) or safe (N = 31). We found that during potentially risky sexual choices, previously risky MSM had more right insula activity than previously safe MSM...
November 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149191/resting-state-fmri-in-sleeping-infants-more-closely-resembles-adult-sleep-than-adult-wakefulness
#3
Anish Mitra, Abraham Z Snyder, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Helmut Laufs, Jed Elison, Robert W Emerson, Mark D Shen, Jason J Wolff, Kelly N Botteron, Stephen Dager, Annette M Estes, Alan Evans, Guido Gerig, Heather C Hazlett, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Bradley L Schlaggar, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett, Marcus Raichle
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in infants enables important studies of functional brain organization early in human development. However, rs-fMRI in infants has universally been obtained during sleep to reduce participant motion artifact, raising the question of whether differences in functional organization between awake adults and sleeping infants that are commonly attributed to development may instead derive, at least in part, from sleep. This question is especially important as rs-fMRI differences in adult wake vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#4
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#5
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146995/gaba-concentrations-in-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-predict-human-semantic-processing
#6
JeYoung Jung, Stephen R Williams, Faezeh Sanaei Nezhad, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
There is now considerable convergent evidence from multiple methodologies and clinical studies that the human anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is a semantic representational hub. However, the neurochemical nature of the ATL in the semantic processing remains unclear. The current study investigated the neurochemical mechanism underlying semantic processing in the ATL. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure task-related blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during sematic processing and resting-state GABA concentrations in the ATL...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146466/causal-mapping-of-emotion-networks-in-the-human-brain-framework-and-initial-findings
#7
Julien Dubois, Hiroyuki Oya, J Michael Tyszka, Matthew Howard, Frederick Eberhardt, Ralph Adolphs
Emotions involve many cortical and subcortical regions, prominently including the amygdala. It remains unknown how these multiple network components interact, and it remains unknown how they cause the behavioral, autonomic, and experiential effects of emotions. Here we describe a framework for combining a novel technique, concurrent electrical stimulation with fMRI (es-fMRI), together with a novel analysis, inferring causal structure from fMRI data (causal discovery). We outline a research program for investigating human emotion with these new tools, and provide initial findings from two large resting-state datasets as well as case studies in neurosurgical patients with electrical stimulation of the amygdala...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146377/cortical-processing-of-pitch-model-based-encoding-and-decoding-of-auditory-fmri-responses-to-real-life-sounds
#8
REVIEW
Vittoria De Angelis, Federico De Martino, Michelle Moerel, Roberta Santoro, Lars Hausfeld, Elia Formisano
Pitch is a perceptual attribute related to the fundamental frequency (or periodicity) of a sound. So far, the cortical processing of pitch has been investigated mostly using synthetic sounds. However, the complex harmonic structure of natural sounds may require different mechanisms for the extraction and analysis of pitch. This study investigated the neural representation of pitch in human auditory cortex using model-based encoding and decoding analyses of high field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected while participants listened to a wide range of real-life sounds...
November 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146290/sustained-opioid-antagonism-modulates-striatal-sensitivity-to-baby-schema-in-opioid-use-disorder
#9
An-Li Wang, Steven B Lowen, Igor Elman, Zhenhao Shi, Victoria P Fairchild, Alexander Bouril, Ruben C Gur, Daniel D Langleben
BACKGROUND: Chronic opioid misuse is associated with reduced sensitivity to natural rewards and social motivation deficits that include impaired caregiving. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these deficits and their response to treatment are not well understood. Baby schema (Kindchenschema) is a set of juvenile physical features, which is perceived as "cute" and triggers motivation for caregiving. Recent studies suggest that the "baby schema effect" is mediated by the brain "reward" network...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145910/brain-activation-during-emotion-regulation-in-women-with-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder
#10
Nicole Petersen, Dara G Ghahremani, Andrea J Rapkin, Steven M Berman, Letty Liang, Edythe D London
BACKGROUND: Difficulties in regulating emotions are linked to the core symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). We therefore investigated the neural substrates of emotion-regulation problems in women with PMDD. METHODS: On the basis of self-evaluations over 2 months on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems, eligible participants were assigned to two groups: PMDD and control (18 per group). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a well-validated task were used to assess brain function during emotion regulation...
November 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#11
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144173/chronotype-regulates-the-neural-basis-of-response-inhibition-during-the-daytime
#12
Jingjing Song, Pan Feng, Xiaoyue Zhao, Wenjian Xu, Lijuan Xiao, Jia Zhou, Yong Zheng
Studies have elucidated the various modulatory effects of chronotype and time-of-day on task-dependent brain activity, but it is unclear how chronotype and time-of-day regulate brain activity in response inhibition tasks. To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effects of chronotype and time-of-day on response inhibition in normal day-night conditions. Morning-type (MT) and evening-type (ET) participants conducted the stop-signal task in morning (08:00-12:00 hours) and evening (19:00-23:00 hours) sessions...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143414/central-pain-processing-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-pain-free-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Alessandro Tessitore, Antonio Russo, Rosa De Micco, Michele Fratello, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Alfonso Giordano, Mario Cirillo, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Fabrizio Esposito
BACKGROUND: Despite its clinical relevance, the pathophysiology of pain in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still largely unknown, and both central and peripheral mechanisms have been invoked. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether central pain processing is altered in "drug-naive" pain-free PD (dnPD) patients. METHODS: Using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), functional response to forearm heat stimulation (FHS) at two different intensities (41°C and 53°C) was investigated in 20 pain-free dnPD patients, compared with 18 healthy controls (HCs)...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143411/spontaneous-neural-activity-differences-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-quantitative-resting-state-meta-analysis-and-fmri-validation
#14
Seth G Disner, Craig A Marquardt, Bryon A Mueller, Philip C Burton, Scott R Sponheim
Identifying the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a critical step toward reducing its debilitating impact. Spontaneous neural activity, measured at rest using various neuroimaging techniques (e.g., regional homogeneity [ReHo], amplitude of low frequency fluctuations [ALFF]), can provide insight about baseline neurobiological factors influencing sensory, cognitive, or behavioral processes associated with PTSD. The present study used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct the largest-to-date quantitative meta-analysis of spontaneous neural activity in PTSD, including 457 PTSD cases, 292 trauma-exposed controls (TECs), and 293 non-traumatized controls (NTCs) across 22 published studies...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143096/-neurofeedback-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-tinnitus-review-and-future-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
T Kleinjung, C Thüring, D Güntensperger, P Neff, M Meyer
Neurofeedback is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique employing real-time display of brain activity in terms of electroencephalography (EEG) signals to teach self-regulation of distinct patterns of brain activity or influence brain activity in a targeted manner. The benefit of this approach for control of symptoms in attention deficit disorders, hyperactivity, depression, and migraine has been proven. Studies in recent years have also repeatedly shown this treatment to improve tinnitus symptoms, although it has not become established as routine therapy...
November 15, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141188/autistic-traits-modulate-the-activity-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-response-to-female-faces
#16
Yui Murakami, Shinya Sakai, Kenta Takeda, Daisuke Sawamura, Kazuki Yoshida, Takamichi Hirose, Chisa Ikeda, Hiroki Mani, Toru Yamamoto, Ayahito Ito
Previous findings have revealed abnormal visual attention or processing of faces among individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC). However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between autistic traits and neural mechanisms associated with representing facial values. Using fMRI, we investigated the patterns of brain activity in the vmPFC and VS in response to faces of elderly males, elderly females, young males, and young females. During fMRI, subjects with a relatively high autism quotient (high group) and those with a relatively low autism quotient (low group) were presented with a face and asked to rate its pleasantness...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#17
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138923/hippocampal-caudate-nucleus-interactions-support-exceptional-memory-performance
#18
Nils C J Müller, Boris N Konrad, Nils Kohn, Monica Muñoz-López, Michael Czisch, Guillén Fernández, Martin Dresler
Participants of the annual World Memory Championships regularly demonstrate extraordinary memory feats, such as memorising the order of 52 playing cards in 20 s or 1000 binary digits in 5 min. On a cognitive level, memory athletes use well-known mnemonic strategies, such as the method of loci. However, whether these feats are enabled solely through the use of mnemonic strategies or whether they benefit additionally from optimised neural circuits is still not fully clarified. Investigating 23 leading memory athletes, we found volumes of their right hippocampus and caudate nucleus were stronger correlated with each other compared to matched controls; both these volumes positively correlated with their position in the memory sports world ranking...
November 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138088/comparing-multilayer-brain-networks-between-groups-introducing-graph-metrics-and-recommendations
#19
Kanad Mandke, Jil Meier, Matthew J Brookes, Reuben D O'Dea, Piet Van Mieghem, Cornelis J Stam, Arjan Hillebrand, Prejaas Tewarie
There is an increasing awareness of the advantages of multi-modal neuroimaging. Networks obtained from different modalities are usually treated in isolation, which is however contradictory to accumulating evidence that these networks show non-trivial interdependencies. Even networks obtained from a single modality, such as frequency-band specific functional networks measured from magnetoencephalography (MEG) are often treated independently. Here, we discuss how a multilayer network framework allows for integration of multiple networks into a single network description and how graph metrics can be applied to quantify multilayer network organisation for group comparison...
November 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137988/tms-eeg-reveals-hemispheric-asymmetries-in-top-down-influences-of-posterior-intraparietal-cortex-on-behavior-and-visual-event-related-potentials
#20
Mika Koivisto, Simone Grassini, Mikko Hurme, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Henry Railo, Victor Vorobyev, Jussi Tallus, Teemu Paavilainen, Antti Revonsuo
Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posterior part of intraparietal sulcus (IPS1) while the participants were viewing and rating the visibility of bilaterally presented Gabor patches...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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