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obesity AND renal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920727/genetic-targeting-of-arginase-ii-in-mouse-prevents-renal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Ji Huang, Angana Rajapakse, Yuyan Xiong, Jean-Pierre Montani, François Verrey, Xiu-Fen Ming, Zhihong Yang
Obesity is associated with development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence demonstrates that enhanced levels of the L-arginine:ureahydrolase, including the two isoenzymes arginase-I (Arg-I) and arginase-II (Arg-II) in vascular endothelial cells promote uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to increased superoxide radical anion and decreased NO production thereby endothelial dysfunction. Arg-II but not Arg-I is abundantly expressed in kidney and the role of Arg-II in CKD is uncertain and controversial...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914707/adiponectin-alters-renal-calcium-and-phosphate-excretion-through-regulation-of-klotho-expression
#2
Joseph M Rutkowski, Johanne Pastor, Kai Sun, Sun K Park, I Alexandru Bobulescu, Christopher T Chen, Orson W Moe, Philipp E Scherer
The kidney controls systemic calcium and phosphate levels and disturbances of its control mechanisms can lead to a variety of diseases. The insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin is renoprotective and accelerates functional recovery following renal injury. However, unlike other adipokines, adiponectin is reduced in obesity. High adiponectin levels are also correlated with bone loss, suggestive of an additional action in mineral metabolism. Using knockout, wild-type, and adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice, we sought to identify the mechanistic basis for adiponectin's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate balance at the level of the kidney...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914704/kidney-outcomes-three-years-after-bariatric-surgery-in-severely-obese-adolescents
#3
Edward J Nehus, Jane C Khoury, Thomas H Inge, Nianzhou Xiao, Todd M Jenkins, Marva M Moxey-Mims, Mark M Mitsnefes
A significant number of severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery have evidence of early kidney damage. To determine if kidney injury is reversible following bariatric surgery, we investigated renal outcomes in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery cohort, a prospective multicenter study of 242 severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Primary outcomes of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated preoperatively and up to 3 years following bariatric surgery...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913572/very-low-density-lipoprotein-vldl-induced-signals-mediating-aldosterone-production
#4
Ying-Ying Tsai, William E Rainey, Wendy B Bollag
Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal zona glomerulosa, enhances sodium retention, thus increasing blood volume and pressure. Excessive production of aldosterone results in high blood pressure, and contributes to cardiovascular and renal disease, stroke, and visual loss. Hypertension is also associated with obesity, which s correlated with other serious health risks as well. Although weight gain is associated with increased blood pressure, the mechanism by which excess fat deposits increase blood pressure remains unclear...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913299/the-inhibitory-effect-of-beta-lapachone-on-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis
#5
Dong Ryun Gu, Joon No Lee, Gi-Su Oh, Hyung Jin Kim, Min Seuk Kim, Seoung Hoon Lee
β-lapachone (β-L) is a substrate of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). NQO1 reduces quinones to hydroquinones using NADH as an electron donor and consequently increases the intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio. The activation of NQO1 by β-L has beneficial effects on several metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, hypertension, and renal injury. However, the effect of β-L on bone metabolism remains unclear. Here, we show that β-L might be a potent inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909899/obesity-and-risk-of-cancer-an-introductory-overview
#6
Tobias Pischon, Katharina Nimptsch
The prevalence of obesity has increased substantially in the past in almost all countries of the world, and a further increase is expected for the future. Besides the well-established effects on type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, there is convincing evidence today that obesity also increases the risk of several types of cancer, including colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, renal cell carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and liver cancer. Obesity probably also increases the risk of ovarian cancer, advanced prostate cancer, gallbladder cancer, and gastric cardia cancer...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908924/excess-weight-as-a-risk-factor-common-to-many-cancer-sites-words-of-caution-when-interpreting-meta-analytic-evidence
#7
Melina Arnold, Andrew G Renehan, Graham A Colditz
For over a decade, excess body weight, commonly categorized as overweight (body mass index, BMI: 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI: ≥ 30 kg/m2) has been an established incidence risk factor for several adult cancers (1). For 2012, the burden of disease attributed to elevated BMI was estimated as nearly half-million new cancers worldwide, making this the third highest ranked cancer risk factor globally after smoking and infections (ranked second in most western populations) and an important public health problem (2, 3)...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908330/sepsis-in-special-populations
#8
REVIEW
Matthew P Borloz, Khalief E Hamden
Sepsis is recognized by the presence of physiologic and laboratory changes that reflect the inflammatory response to infection on cellular and systemic levels. Comorbid conditions, such as cirrhosis, end-stage renal disease, and obesity, alter patients' susceptibility to infection and their response to it once present. Baseline changes in vital signs and chronic medications often mask clues to the severity of illness. The physiologic, hematologic, and biochemical adjustments that accompany pregnancy and the puerperium introduce similar challenges...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906747/update-on-angiotensin-at2-receptors
#9
Robert M Carey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates major new findings and concepts introduced during the past year on the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) subtype 2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the control of blood pressure and renal function. RECENT FINDINGS: AT2R activation prevents sodium (Na) retention and lowers blood pressure in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension and prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in the obese Zucker rat model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901336/robotic-kidney-transplantation-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#10
Angelo Territo, Alex Mottrie, Ronney Abaza, Craig Rogers, Mani Menon, Mahendra Bhandari, Rajesh Ahlawat, Alberto Breda
INTRODUCTION: For the treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is preferred to renal replacement modalities such as hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Although open surgery remains the gold standard, minimally invasive approaches have recently been applied in transplant kidney surgery. Despite growing enthusiasm and potential benefits of robotic kidney transplant, many aspects of this novel technique remain controversial. Aim of this study was to analyze the current status and future developments in robotic-assisted surgery for kidney transplantation...
November 30, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900314/renal-and-cardiovascular-morbidities-associated-with-apol1-status-among-african-american-and-non-african-american-children-with-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#11
Robert P Woroniecki, Derek K Ng, Sophie Limou, Cheryl A Winkler, Kimberly J Reidy, Mark Mitsnefes, Matthew G Sampson, Craig S Wong, Bradley A Warady, Susan L Furth, Jeffrey B Kopp, Frederick J Kaskel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: African-American (AA) children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) have later onset disease that progresses more rapidly than in non-AA children. It is unclear how APOL1 genotypes contribute to kidney disease risk, progression, and cardiovascular morbidity in children. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We examined the prevalence of APOL1 genotypes and associated cardiovascular phenotypes among children with FSGS in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study; an ongoing multicenter prospective cohort study of children aged 1-16 years with mild to moderate kidney disease...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897415/sarcopenia-among-patients-receiving-hemodialysis-weighing-the-evidence
#12
Piyawan Kittiskulnam, Juan J Carrero, Glenn M Chertow, George A Kaysen, Cynthia Delgado, Kirsten L Johansen
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on how best to define low muscle mass in patients with end-stage renal disease. Use of muscle mass normalized to height-squared has been suggested by geriatric societies but may underestimate sarcopenia, particularly in the setting of excess adiposity. We compared four definitions of low muscle mass in a prevalent hemodialysis cohort. METHODS: ACTIVE/ADIPOSE enrolled prevalent patients receiving hemodialysis from the San Francisco and Atlanta areas from June 2009 to August 2011...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889551/endothelial-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-survivors
#13
Paola Giordano, Paola Muggeo, Maurizio Delvecchio, Santa Carbonara, Alberto Romano, Maria Altomare, Gabriella Ricci, Federica Valente, Annapaola Zito, Pietro Scicchitano, Luciano Cavallo, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Nicola Santoro, Maria Felicia Faienza
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors have increased risk of obesity, metabolic alterations and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Vascular endothelial function has been studied in adult cancers. Limited data exist regarding CVD risk factors among childhood ALL survivors. We aimed to assess endothelial function, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in young survivors of childhood ALL. METHODS: Auxological parameters, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profile, hemostatic markers (total adiponectin and high-molecular-weight subfraction, endothelin-1, von Willebrand factor antigen, thrombin-antithrombin complex, D-dimers, fibrinogen), high sensitive C-reactive protein and ultrasound parameters of endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation-FMD, common carotid intima-media thickness-C-IMT, and antero-posterior diameter of infra-renal abdominal aorta-APAO) were assessed in 52 ALL survivors and 34 sex and age-matched controls...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886242/exploring-the-molecular-basis-of-age-related-disease-comorbidities-using-a-multi-omics-graphical-model
#14
Jonas Zierer, Tess Pallister, Pei-Chien Tsai, Jan Krumsiek, Jordana T Bell, Gordan Lauc, Tim D Spector, Cristina Menni, Gabi Kastenmüller
Although association studies have unveiled numerous correlations of biochemical markers with age and age-related diseases, we still lack an understanding of their mutual dependencies. To find molecular pathways that underlie age-related diseases as well as their comorbidities, we integrated aging markers from four different high-throughput omics datasets, namely epigenomics, transcriptomics, glycomics and metabolomics, with a comprehensive set of disease phenotypes from 510 participants of the TwinsUK cohort...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884225/obesity-a-perspective-from-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Dinko Susic, Jasmina Varagic
The prevalence of obesity-related hypertension is high worldwide and has become a major health issue. The mechanisms by which obesity relates to hypertensive disease are still under intense research scrutiny, and include altered hemodynamics, impaired sodium homeostasis, renal dysfunction, autonomic nervous system imbalance, endocrine alterations, oxidative stress and inflammation, and vascular injury. Most of these contributing factors interact with each other at multiple levels. Thus, as a multifactorial and complex disease, obesity-related hypertension should be recognized as a distinctive form of hypertension, and specific considerations should apply in planning therapeutic approaches to treat obese individuals with high blood pressure...
January 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872832/prevalence-of-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-and-kidney-disease-in-brazilian-healthy-preschool-children
#16
Adriana Cândida da Silva, Marcelo de Sousa Tavares, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães Penido
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS: This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed: Socio-demographic condictions, clinical health, anthropometric, biochemical, lifestyle and data on food consumption...
November 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863097/serum-levels-of-endocannabinoids-are-independently-associated-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Shira Zelber-Sagi, Shahar Azar, Alina Nemirovski, Muriel Webb, Zamir Halpern, Oren Shibolet, Joseph Tam
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between circulating levels of endocannabinoids (eCBs) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The serum levels of the main eCBs, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and their endogenous precursor and breakdown product, arachidonic acid (AA), were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in 105 volunteers screened for NAFLD. Hepatic ultrasound, fasting blood tests, and anthropometrics were assessed...
November 15, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862246/a-retrospective-analysis-of-mortality-in-captive-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis-from-1912-to-2014
#18
Gabriella L Flacke, Suzana Tkalčić, Beatrice Steck, Kristin Warren, Graeme B Martin
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is an IUCN Red List Endangered species (CITES Appendix II) that has been housed in zoological collections since 1912. As wild populations continue to decline throughout the species' range, successful ex situ breeding and management, including an understanding of morbidity and mortality, are of utmost importance. This study is the first comprehensive review of mortality data from the captive population since 1982 and significantly expands on previous analyses. We solicited necropsy reports from 129/187 zoological institutions worldwide that currently or previously held pygmy hippos and received data for 404 animals (177 ♂, 220 ♀, 7 undermined sex), representing 43% of pygmy hippos that have died in captivity...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853335/bardet-biedl-syndrome-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#19
Rajendrakumar Parakh, Dhananjaya Matapadi Nairy
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is one of the rare autosomal recessive disorders that affect multiple organs of the body. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary among affected individuals, even among members of the same family. We present a case of BBS with features of hypogonadism and features such as marked central obesity, retinitis pigmentosa, polydactyly, renal abnormalities and mental retardation, along with a brief review of the literature. The patient had end stage renal disease and managed with dialysis...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853007/bardet-biedl-syndrome-genetics-molecular-pathophysiology-and-disease-management
#20
REVIEW
Sathya Priya, Sheela Nampoothiri, Parveen Sen, S Sripriya
Primary cilia play a key role in sensory perception and various signaling pathways. Any defect in them leads to group of disorders called ciliopathies, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS, OMIM 209900) is one among them. The disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, with various primary and secondary clinical manifestations, and shows autosomal recessive inheritance and highly prevalent in inbred/consanguineous populations. The disease mapped to at least twenty different genes (BBS1-BBS20), follow oligogenic inheritance pattern...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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