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obesity AND renal disease

M Bryant Howren, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
The current issue is devoted broadly to research on treatment adherence and chronic illness self-management behavior. As the prevalence of chronic illness increases, the pervasive problem of treatment nonadherence is increasingly viewed as having a major impact on treatment outcomes, public health and healthcare costs, making this issue particularly timely. Sixteen articles spanning an array of topics are presented; articles include empirical studies, statistical simulations, systematic reviews, and theoretical commentaries...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Abdulmoein E Al-Agha, Abrar M Alnawab, Tala M Hejazi
To determine the various etiologies of primary and secondary hyperlipidemia among children visiting the pediatric endocrine clinic. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, cohort study conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2010 to 2015 that included 253 children aged from birth to 12 years old. Data were obtained by reviewing medical reports of patients who presented with hyperlipidemia to the clinic, and their laboratory investigation results using KAUH electronic "Phoenix" system...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jongha Park
Cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment is not easy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Age, male sex, race, family history of CV disease, smoking status and diabetes should be considered as CV risk factors as the general population. It is also accepted that hypertension (HTN) is associated with the greater risk of CV complications in this population. However, there are some concerns in this issue.First, supporting evidence for specific blood pressure (BP) targets in CKD is scarce. Many observational studies reported a J-shaped association between BP level and CV mortality unlike a linear association in the general population...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Joon Kyungjoon Lim, Benjie Barzel, Sandra Burke
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension affects one third of the population around the world and is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. There is strong evidence that the main cause of hypertension is increases sympathetic nerve activity to specific organs. Plasma leptin levels correlate with blood pressure (BP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The central effects of leptin are mediated primarily through the arcuate (ARC) nucleus of the hypothalamus. Both neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) containing neurons ascend from the ARC and terminate in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which are the key centres of energy homeostasis, hemodynamics and sympathetic tone to renal vasculature...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
David John Webb
Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined as the failure to achieve an office BP target of <140/90 mmHg (<130/80 mmHg in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes) in patients with hypertension (HT), despite adherence to at least 3 antihypertensive medications at optimal tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic (Calhoun et al., Circulation 2008). TRH identifies patients with hard-to-treat HT, who might benefit from specialist investigation and treatment. Although some studies put the prevalence of TRH as >10%, these levels may be inflated by white-coat hypertension and poor adherence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ana Vrdoljak, Vanja Ivković, Sandra Karanović, Živka Dika, Ivana Vuković, Jelena Kos, Mario Laganović, Tajana Željković Vrkić, Margareta Fištrek Prlić, Ivan Pećin, Bojan Jelaković
OBJECTIVE: It was observed that glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is associated with progression of kidney disease in diabetics, patients in stage 1 hypertension (HT), and we found previously that eGFR decreased faster also in prehypertensives (PHT) with GHF. Here we analyzed whether GHF in PHT is associated with other biomarkers of early renal impairment. DESIGN AND METHOD: From 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371(137 m;mean age = 46years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal,72 with normal BP,70 with PHT(high normal BP),and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Talha H Imam, Karen J Coleman
There is an epidemic of obesity in the USA. Obesity significantly increases the risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Multiple studies have shown overall health and mortalityrelated benefits of medical and surgical weight loss. Renal benefits of bariatric surgery include decrease in proteinuria and hyperfiltration. There have only been a few small studies in patients with abnormally low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that have shown improvements in GFR postsurgery over a short term. Long-term and larger scale studies are needed to see if renal benefits of weight loss are sustained in post-bariatric surgery patients...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Chengyuan Tang, Juan Cai, Zheng Dong
Lipid accumulation in renal cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related kidney disease, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Szeto et al. now unravel a central role of mitochondrial dysfunction in a high fat diet-induced glomerulopathy and proximal tubular injury. Moreover, they demonstrate the renoprotective effect of SS31, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, in related models. Targeting mitochondria may offer a novel strategy for the therapy of obesity-related kidney disease...
November 2016: Kidney International
Elaine Hillesheim, Valéria Laguna Salomão Ambrósio, Inalda Facincani
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease in children often determines poor nutritional status. Although renal transplantation (RTx) resolves endocrine and metabolic disorders, growth continues to be suboptimal and excessive weight gain may result in obesity. Objectives: Evaluating the development of height and body mass index in renal transplanted children and adolescents and identifying associated factors with final nutritional status. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 17 patients with regular follow-ups up to 24 months after RTx...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Zhi Su, Deborah Widomski, Ji Ma, Marian Namovic, Arthur Nikkel, Laura Leys, Lauren Olson, Katherine Salte, Diana Donnelly-Roberts, Timothy Esbenshade, Steve McGaraughty
BACKGROUND: Obese ZSF-1 rats display many features of human type II diabetes including nephropathy (DN). The study aimed to further understand the relevance of this model to DN, for which glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal fibrosis and several urinary/tissue biomarkers was followed over 24 weeks in ZSF-1 rats. METHODS: Intact/sham or uninephrectomized male and female ZSF-1 rats were studied. GFR was measured by transdermal clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-sinistrin...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Jae Hyun Jung, Gwan Gyu Song, Jong Dae Ji, Young Ho Lee, Jae-Hoon Kim, Young Ho Seo, Sung Jae Choi
Background/Aims: We performed this study to investigate associations between metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and gout. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 151 patients with gout at the Department of Rheumatology in Korea University Ansan Hospital. The following measures were examined: waist circumference, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and levels of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting serum glucose, serum uric acid (SUA), creatinine, insulin, and C-peptide...
October 12, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
R Thuret, F Kleinclauss, N Terrier, G Karam, M O Timsit
OBJECTIVES: To describe kidney transplantation surgical techniques and to propose strategies in high-risk recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant publications were identified through Medline ( and Embase ( database using the following keywords, alone or in association, "renal transplantation; peripheral arterial disease; obesity; third and fourth transplantation; robotic-assisted kidney transplant; anticoagulant therapy; dual kidney transplant"...
October 6, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Krittiya Mosikanon, Dumrongkiet Arthan, Aikkarach Kettawan, Rungsunn Tungtrongchitr, Pattaneeya Prangthip
Increased inflammation occurs with excessive adiposity and yeast β-glucan modulates immune responses. This study investigated the potential effect of yeast β-glucan on inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese people. A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial design enrolled 44 overweight/obese participants with body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2), randomized to two groups receiving β-glucan 477 mg/capsule (n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) orally for six weeks. At weeks one to two, participants received 1 β-glucan or placebo capsule/day and at four weeks two tablets/day...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Pamela A Kushner, Michael E Cobble
This review aims to explain risk factors, consequences, and management strategies recommended for patients with hypertriglyceridemia. A search of PubMed was performed: "Hypertriglyceridemia"[Majr], limited to English-language and published in the 5 years up to April 2016. Abstracts of the 680 results were screened for inclusion. Reference lists of publications included were also screened for inclusion. Approximately 25% of the United States population has elevated (≥150 mg/dL) triglycerides (TG) putting them at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis...
October 6, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Andrea G Kattah, Dawn C Scantlebury, Sanket Agarwal, Michelle M Mielke, Walter A Rocca, Amy L Weaver, Lisa E Vaughan, Virginia M Miller, Tracey L Weissgerber, Wendy White, Vesna D Garovic
BACKGROUND: Several registry-based studies, using diagnostic codes, have suggested that preeclampsia is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, because the 2 diseases share risk factors, the true nature of their association remains uncertain. Our goals were to conduct a population-based study to determine the magnitude of the association between preeclampsia and ESRD and evaluate the role of shared risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based nested case-control study...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Ying Xue, Min Gao, Yiqing Gao
The universal endocrine pathological state affecting young individuals and adults is type 2 diabetes mellitus, which has seen a significant increase in the last 30 years, particularly in children. Genetic and evnironmental factors are the causative agents for this pathological state in children. This rapid and wide spread of the disease can be controlled by enforcing amendments in environmental factors such as diet, physical activities and obesity. In young infants breastfeeding may be a key modulator of the disease...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kun Li, Jianan Zou, Zhibin Ye, Jianzhong Di, Xiaodong Han, Hongwei Zhang, Weijie Liu, Qinggui Ren, Pin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. METHODS: We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function...
2016: PloS One
Yanchen Zhang, Kristin M Corapi, Maria Luongo, Ravi Thadhani, Sagar U Nigwekar
BACKGROUND: Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Most research in the field of calciphylaxis is focused on hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, data on calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. METHODS: In this cohort study, we examined data from adult patients who initiated PD for ESRD management at our institute's PD unit from January 2001 to December 2015...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
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