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Cardiology, surgery, medicine, cardiovascular surgeon, cardiothoracic surgery,

J Nilas Young, Josie Everett, Janet M Simsic, Nathaniel W Taggart, Sonny Bert Litwin, Natalia Lusin, Lizbeth Hasse, Evgeny V Krivoshchekov, James P Marcin, Gary W Raff, Frank Cetta
OBJECTIVES: Cardiothoracic surgeons and practitioners of cardiovascular medicine have a long history of humanitarian aid. Although this is worthwhile at multiple levels and occasionally described in some detail, few efforts have a proven algorithm with demonstrable outcomes that suggest effective educational methodology or clinical results approaching accepted standards in developed countries. METHODS: Our report provides a stepwise approach to developing highly successful self-sustainable, replicable, and scalable humanitarian congenital cardiac surgical programs, and provides data to allow insight into the efficacy of our model...
December 2014: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
I C Ennker, K Schwarz, J Ennker
In ancient times, female medical practitioners and female surgeons were well known. With the introduction of medicine as an academic course and the ban on women studying, the medical career became virtually impossible for women. This condition changed with the general admission for women to colleges, in Germany in 1908. The current situation of women in surgery is presented here, with cardiovascular surgery as an example. Of 302 active cardiothoracic and cardiac surgeons 4.6% are female. According to an inquiry of all German heart institutes, there are 20 female senior registrars and 27 female surgeons as well as 162 female assistants...
April 1999: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
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