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ventilated-associated pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454226/dysphagia-and-laryngeal-pathology-in-post-surgical-cardiothoracic-patients
#1
Anna Miles, Naomi McLellan, Rochelle Machan, David Vokes, Alexandra Hunting, Mary McFarlane, Jennifer Holmes, Kelly Lynn
PURPOSE: Cardiothoracic surgery is known to result in dysphagia and laryngeal injury. While prevalence has been explored, extent, trajectory and longevity of symptoms are poorly understood. This retrospective, observational study explored dysphagia and laryngeal injury in patients following cardiothoracic surgery referred for instrumental swallowing assessment. METHODS: Clinical notes and endoscopic recordings of 106 patients (age range 18-87yrs; mean 63yrs; SD 15yrs) (including 190 endoscopes) at one large tertiary centre were reviewed by two speech-language pathologists and a laryngologist...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453481/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-role-of-nurses-in-its-prevention
#2
Chadani Osti, Deepa Wosti, Bimala Pandey, Qinghua Zhao
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most frequent nosocomial infections among ventilated patients in ICUs, associated with an increase in days of ICU stay, morbidity, and mortality. Its prevention is a significant concern in every hospital. Most of the interventions and prevention strategies are part of routine nursing care. Nurses have different vital roles such as care provider, manager, educator, coordinator, and evaluator in preventing VAP. Lack of knowledge of infection prevention and proper nursing care among nurses may become a barrier in adhering to evidence-based guidelines for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452729/postoperative-pneumonia-among-patients-with-and-without-copd-in-spain-from-2001-to-2015
#3
Javier de Miguel-Díez, Ana López-de-Andrés, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Isabel Jiménez-Trujillo, Manuel Méndez-Bailón, José María de Miguel-Yanes, Rodrigo Jiménez-García
BACKGROUND: To describe and compare incidence, characteristics and outcomes of postoperative pneumonia among patients with or without COPD. METHODS: We included hospitalized patients aged ≥40 years whose medical diagnosis included pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in the secondary's diagnosis field and who were discharged from Spanish hospitals from 2001 to 2015. Irrespectively of the position at the procedures coding list, we retrieved data about the type of surgical procedures using the enhanced ICD-9-CM codes...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436560/the-role-of-non-invasive-ventilation-used-immediately-after-planned-extubation-for-adults-with-chronic-respiratory-disorders
#4
Jinnan Ou, Huaying Chen, Lezhi Li, Liping Zhao, Na Nie
OBJECTIVE:  To estimate the benefits of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) used immediately after planned postextubation in patients with chronic respiratory disorders. METHODS:  Cochrane Library, PubMed, the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database of clinical trials (CBD) and Embase were searched for pertinent studies by 2 trained investigators. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by employing both fixed-effects and random-effects models...
February 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432348/trends-of-incidence-and-risk-factors-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-elderly-patients-admitted-to-french-icus-between-2007-and-2014
#5
Cédric Dananché, Philippe Vanhems, Anaïs Machut, Martine Aupée, Caroline Bervas, François L'Hériteau, Alain Lepape, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Vincent Stoeckel, Jean-François Timsit, Anne Berger-Carbonne, Anne Savey, Thomas Bénet
OBJECTIVES: To assess trends and risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia according to age, particularly in the elderly admitted to French ICUs between 2007 and 2014. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective French national Healthcare-Associated Infection surveillance network of ICUs ("Réseau REA-Raisin"). SETTINGS: Two-hundred fifty six ICUs in 246 settings in France. PATIENTS: Included were all adult patients hospitalized greater than or equal to 48 hours in ICUs participating in the network...
February 9, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430405/respiratory-mechanics-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-outcomes-in-intensive-care-unit
#6
Kelser de Souza Kock, Rosemeri Maurici
AIM: To evaluate the predictive capability of respiratory mechanics for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital in southern Brazil. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted between, involving a sample of 120 individuals. Static measurements of compliance and resistance of the respiratory system in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) modes in the 1 st and 5 th days of hospitalization were performed to monitor respiratory mechanics...
February 4, 2018: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426584/non-invasive-ventilation-in-children-and-adults-in-low-and-low-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Keren Mandelzweig, Aleksandra Leligdowicz, Srinivas Murthy, Rejani Lalitha, Robert A Fowler, Neill K J Adhikari
PURPOSE: We systematically reviewed the effects of NIV for acute respiratory failure (ARF) in low- and low-middle income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE (to January 2016) for observational studies and trials of NIV for ARF or in the peri-extubation period in adults and post-neonatal children. We abstracted outcomes data and assessed quality. Meta-analyses used random-effect models. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies (ten pediatric/n=1099; 44 adult/n=2904), mostly South Asian, were included...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425465/excess-mucin-impairs-subglottic-epithelial-host-defense-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#8
Jason Powell, James Garnett, Michael W Mather, Faye A H Cooles, Andrew Nelson, Bernard Verdon, Jon Scott, Kasim Jiwa, Marie-Hélène Ruchaud-Sparagano, Stephen P Cummings, John D Perry, Stephen E Wright, Janet A Wilson, Jeffrey Pearson, Chris Ward, A John Simpson
RATIONALE: Aspiration of infective subglottic secretions causes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Mechanisms underlying subglottic colonization in critical illness have not been defined, limiting strategies for targeted prevention of VAP. OBJECTIVES: To characterize subglottic host defense dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). To determine whether subglottic mucin contributes to neutrophil phagocytic impairment and bacterial growth...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423421/an-updated-review-of-iclaprim-a-potent-and-rapidly-bactericidal-antibiotic-for-the-treatment-of-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-and-nosocomial-pneumonia-caused-by-gram-positive-including-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#9
REVIEW
David B Huang, Catherine D Strader, James S MacDonald, Mark VanArendonk, Richard Peck, Thomas Holland
New antibiotics are needed because of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Iclaprim, a bacterial dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, not currently approved, is being studied for the treatment of skin infections and nosocomial pneumonia caused by Gram-positve bacteria, including multidrug-resistant bacteria. Iclaprim showed noninferiority at -10% to linezolid in 1 of 2 phase 3 studies for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections with a weight-based dose (0...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422728/multicenter-observational-study-to-evaluate-epidemiology-and-resistance-patterns-of-common-intensive-care-unit-infections
#10
Ramesh Venkataraman, Jigeeshu V Divatia, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, Rajesh Chawla, Pravin Amin, Palepu Gopal, Dhruva Chaudhry, Kapil Zirpe, Babu Abraham
Background: There is limited data regarding the microbiology of Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-acquired infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) from India. Objectives: To explore the microbiology and resistance patterns of ICU-acquired infections and evaluate their outcomes. Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter observational study, conducted by Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (MOSER study) between August 2011 and October 2012...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422291/a-case-control-study-on-the-clinical-impact-of-ventilator-associated-tracheobronchitis-in-adult-patients-who-did-not-develop-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#11
María Luisa Cantón-Bulnes, María Ascensión González-García, Manuela García-Sánchez, Ángel Arenzana-Seisdedos, José Garnacho-Montero
OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to determine whether ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is related to increased length of ICU stay. Secondary endpoints included prolongation of hospital stay, as well as, ICU and hospital mortality. DESIGN: A retrospective matched case-control study. Each case was matched with a control for duration of ventilation (± 2 days until development of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis), disease severity (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) at admission ± 3, diagnostic category and age ±10 years...
February 5, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422174/efficacy-of-a-care-bundle-to-prevent-multiple-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-quasi-experimental-pretest-posttest-design-study
#12
Gulay Yazici, Hulya Bulut
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections extend hospitalization time, increase treatment costs and increase morbidity-mortality rates. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a care bundle aimed at preventing three most frequent intensive care unit-acquired infections. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This quasi-experimental study occurred in an 18-bed tertiary care intensive care unit at a university hospital in Turkey. The sample consisted of 120 patients older than 18years and receiving invasive mechanical ventilation therapy, or had a central venous catheter or urinary catheter...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419933/a-serious-adverse-event-secondary-to-rapid-intravenous-levetiracetam-injection-in-a-dog
#13
Allison A Biddick, Lenore M Bacek, Amanda R Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To describe a serious adverse event as a result of rapid intravenous injection of undiluted levetiracetam in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: An 8-year-old female spayed Chihuahua was evaluated for cluster seizures and tachypnea. The patient was administered an intravenous dose of undiluted levetiracetam (60 mg/kg) and immediately developed tachycardia, hyperglycemia, hypotension, and a dull mentation. The patient's blood pressure and mentation did not respond to intravenous fluid boluses but improved immediately after administration of epinephrine intravenously...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416463/effect-of-extended-infusion-of-meropenem-and-nebulized-amikacin-on-gram-negative-multidrug-resistant-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#14
Mona Ahmed Ammar, Waleed Abdalla
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is associated with a significant mortality in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of extended infusion of meropenem and nebulized amikacin on VAP caused by Gram-negative MDRO versus intravenous (IV) meropenem and amikacin alone. Methodology: A randomized nonblinded controlled trial was performed on ninety patients with VAP...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416219/an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial-to-compare-low-level-pressure-support-and-t-piece-as-strategies-for-discontinuation-of-mechanical-ventilation-in-a-general-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#15
Kaweesak Chittawatanarat, Sariphat Orrapin, Karuna Jitkaroon, Sirirat Mueakwan, Ubolrat Sroison
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of continuous low pressure support (PSV) and T-piece as strategies for discontinuation of mechanical ventilation and extubation in a surgical ICU. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective open label randomized control study in surgical ICU patients who were intubated, mechanically ventilated, and who met criteria for a spontaneous breathing trial. Eligible, enrolled patients were randomized to receive low-level pressure supportup to 7 cmH2O (PSV) or T-piece as the mode of their spontaneous breathing trial...
February 2018: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411661/novel-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#16
James M Kidd, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Introduction Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) are among the most prevalent infections in hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit. Importantly, the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative (GN) bacteria as the bacteriologic cause of HABP/VABP is increasing. These include MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem resistant Enterobactericeae (CRE). Few antibiotics are currently available when such MDR Gram-negatives are encountered and older agents such as polymyxin B, colistin (polymyxin E), and tigecycline have typically performed poorly in HABP/VABP...
February 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410025/whole-genome-shotgun-sequences-of-seven-colistin-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-from-bacteraemia
#17
Saranya Vijayakumar, Baby Abirami S, Kalaiyarasi Kanthan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen responsible for causing various infections like blood stream infections, meningitis and ventilator associated pneumonia. A.baumannii is resistant to all the drugs including colistin and the development of colistin resistant A. baumannii is of serious concern in the hospital setting. OBJECTIVE: Characterisation of whole genome shotgun sequences of seven colistin resistant A. baumannii isolates from blood stream infections...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408389/hospital-ownership-a-risk-factor-for-nosocomial-infection-rates
#18
Christin Schröder, Michael Behnke, Christine Geffers, Petra Gastmeier
BACKGROUND: In some countries, a relationship between hospital ownership and the occurrence of healthcare associated infection rates (HCAI) has been described. AIM: To investigate the association between hospital ownership and occurrence of HCAI in Germany. METHODS: Five different components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system were analyzed with regard to the influence of hospital ownership in the period 2014-16 (Components for intensive care units (ICUs) with the endpoints ventilator associated pneumonia, central venous catheter associated bloodstream infections, and urinary catheter associated urinary tract infections, surgical site infections (SSI) following hip prosthesis, and colon surgery, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and hand rub consumption per 1000 patient days)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405160/demographic-profile-of-healthy-children-with-nasopharyngeal-colonisation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-a-research-paper
#19
Radhika Raman, Janani Sankar, Sulochana Putlibai, Vaidehi Raghavan
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx of healthy children can cause invasive diseases and the serotype distribution of colonisation isolates should be an indicator of invasive disease, antibiotic resistance profiles, and potential vaccine coverage. Identifying factors influencing nasopharyngeal colonisation, the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern can improve rational preventive strategies...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405141/incidence-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-impact-of-multidrug-resistant-infections-on-patient-s-outcome-experience-at-an-apex-trauma-centre-in-north-india
#20
Surbhi Khurana, Purva Mathur, Subodh Kumar, Kapil Dev Soni, Richa Aggrawal, Priyam Batra, Nidhi Bhardwaj
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains one of the most common nosocomial infections in the Intensive Care Unit. In the face of extremely high rates of antimicrobial resistance, it is essential to gauge the clinical significance of isolation of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens from clinical samples. This study details the trend of VAP and the clinical significance of isolation of MDR pathogens from respiratory samples at an Indian tertiary care hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted over a 5-year period...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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