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Aline Siteneski, Mauricio P Cunha, Vicente Lieberknecht, Francis L Pazini, Karen Gruhn, Patricia S Brocardo, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Evidence has indicated that the practice of physical exercise has antidepressant effects that might be associated with irisin release and BDNF signaling. In this study we investigated the effects of the central administration of irisin or BDNF in predictive tests of antidepressant properties paralleled with the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC1-α), fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Li Gan, Delin Ma, Min Li, Fu-Chen Yang, Robert S Rogers, Joshua L Wheatley, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, John P Thyfault, Paige C Geiger, John A Stanford
Aerobic capacity is a strong predictor of mortality. Low capacity runner (LCR) rats exhibit reduced mitochondrial function in peripheral organs. A high fat diet (HFD) can worsen metabolic phenotype in LCR rats. Little is known about metabolic changes in the brains of these rats, however. This study examined protein markers of mitochondrial function and metabolism as a function of aerobic running capacity and an acute HFD in four brain regions: the striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and substantia nigra. After 3 days HFD or chow diets, we measured peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1-α), nuclear respiratory factors 1 (Nrf-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and phosphorylated (activated) AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) protein levels in the four brain regions...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Quan Hong, Lu Zhang, Bhaskar Das, Zhengzhe Li, Bohan Liu, Guangyan Cai, Xiangmei Chen, Peter Y Chuang, John Cijiang He, Kyung Lee
Podocyte injury and loss contribute to the progression of glomerular diseases, including diabetic kidney disease. We previously found that the glomerular expression of Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is reduced in human diabetic glomeruli and that the podocyte-specific loss of SIRT1 aggravated albuminuria and worsened kidney disease progression in diabetic mice. SIRT1 encodes an NAD-dependent deacetylase that modifies the activity of key transcriptional regulators affected in diabetic kidneys, including NF-κB, STAT3, p53, FOXO4, and PGC1-α...
February 22, 2018: Kidney International
Meijuan Liu, Huijuan Zhu, Yufei Dai, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) plays an important role in the regulation of body weight, body fat, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we first measured ZAG levels in serum and ZAG mRNA levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) among overweight/obese patients and lean control subjects. Second, we investigated the effects of ZAG administration on the body weight, body fat and glucose metabolism of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese ICR mice and the possible mechanisms involved. The results showed that serum ZAG and mRNA levels in sWAT were significantly decreased in overweight/obese patients and that both showed a negative association with body mass index (BMI) and body weight after adjustment for age and sex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ashish Kumar, Sagnik Giri, Chandrima Shaha
Differential utilization of metabolites and metabolic plasticity can confer adaptation to cancer cells under metabolic stress. Glutamine is one of the vital and versatile nutrients which cancer cells consume avidly for their proliferation, therefore, mechanisms related to glutamine metabolism has been identified as targets. Recently, SESN2 (sestrin2), a stress inducible protein has been reported to regulate survival in glutamine depleted cancer cells, based on this, we explored if SESN2 could regulate glutamine metabolism during glucose starvation...
February 12, 2018: FEBS Journal
Hua Wu, Dan Luo, Changxing Li, Hui Zhang, A Shunxian, Yuanxin Zhang, Chao Sun
Yak is a wild bovine species living on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau that demonstrates good adaptability to the hypoxic environment. Chicoric acid, a natural phenolic compound, is known as having anti-oxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. However, its effect on hypoxia adaptability of yak is still unclear. In this study 40 yaks were selected that were of similar age, parity and weight, and divided into the control group and experimental groups 1, 2, 3, randomly. Results showed that chicoric acid significantly improved RBC, HGB, and WBC...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Minhui Pang, Jianwei Yang, Jiaming Rao, Haiqing Wang, Jiayi Zhang, Shengyong Wang, Xiongfei Chen, Xiaomei Dong
Exercise induces the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle, which promotes the cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) to irisin. To explore the relationship between irisin and its regulators, we analyzed the plasma irisin levels and the muscle levels of FNDC5 and PGC-1α after exercise. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent a treadmill exercise (60% of VO 2max ) for 30 min or one hour (h), and blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise, and during 24-h recovery after 1-h exercise...
February 2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Amanda R Martins, Amanda R Crisma, Laureane N Masi, Catia L Amaral, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Lucas H M Bomfim, Bruno G Teodoro, André L Queiroz, Tamires D A Serdan, Rosangela P Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Alice C Rodrigues, Tatiana C Alba-Loureiro, Tania C Pithon-Curi, Renata Gorjao, Leonardo R Silveira, Rui Curi, Philip Newsholme, Sandro M Hirabara
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been reported to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in animal models of insulin resistance, but the involved mechanisms still remain unresolved. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fish oil (FO), a source of n-3 PUFAs, on obesity, insulin resistance and muscle mitochondrial function in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57Bl/6 male mice, 8 weeks old, were divided into four groups: control diet (C), high-fat diet (H), C+FO (CFO) and H+FO (HFO)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
J Magalhaes, M E Gegg, A Migdalska-Richards, A H Schapira
Glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) mutations are the major genetic risk factor for Parkinson's Disease (PD). The pathogenic mechanism is still unclear, but alterations in lysosomal-autophagy processes are implicated due to reduction of mutated glucocerebrosidase (GCase) in lysosomes. Wild-type GCase activity is also decreased in sporadic PD brains. Small molecule chaperones that increase lysosomal GCase activity have potential to be disease-modifying therapies for GBA1-associated and sporadic PD. Therefore we have used mouse cortical neurons to explore the effects of the chaperone ambroxol...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francesca Mastropasqua, Giulia Girolimetti, Maria Shoshan
The PGC1 family (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivators) of transcriptional coactivators are considered master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. The PGC1α isoform is expressed especially in metabolically active tissues, such as the liver, kidneys and brain, and responds to energy-demanding situations. Given the altered and highly adaptable metabolism of tumor cells, it is of interest to investigate PGC1α in cancer. Both high and low levels of PGC1α expression have been reported to be associated with cancer and worse prognosis, and PGC1α has been attributed with oncogenic as well as tumor suppressive features...
January 22, 2018: Genes
M R Marshall, N Paneth, J A Gerlach, L M Mudd, L Biery, D P Ferguson, J M Pivarnik
Several studies have suggested that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy may influence long-term health of offspring by altering the offspring epigenome. Whether maternal leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy might have this effect is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal LTPA during pregnancy and offspring DNA methylation. Participants were recruited from the Archive for Research on Child Health study. At enrollment, participants' demographic information and self-reported LTPA during pregnancy were determined...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Shima Nazem, Farzaneh Rabiee, Kamran Ghaedi, Sadegh Babashah, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 protein (Fndc5) is a glycosylated protein with elevated expression in high energy demanded tissues as heart, brain, and muscle. It has been shown that upregulation of Fndc5 is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), which is known as a master regulator of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Also, our group indicated that Fndc5 expression increases gradually during cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Hao Ding, Feng Bai, Hongdi Cao, Jing Xu, Li Fang, Jining Wu, Qi Yuan, Yang Zhou, Qi Sun, Weichun He, Chunsun Dai, Ke Zen, Lei Jiang, Junwei Yang
AIMS: Cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is a universal second messenger that plays an important role in intracellular signal transduction. cAMP is synthesized by adenylate cyclases from adenosine triphosphate and terminated by the phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In the present study, we investigated the role of the cAMP pathway in tubular epithelial cell mitochondrial biogenesis in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. RESULTS: We found that the cAMP levels were decreased in fibrotic kidney tissues, and replenishing cAMP could ameliorate tubular atrophy and extracellular matrix deposition...
February 22, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Rodney A Velliquette, Arun Rajgopal, John Rebhun, Kelly Glynn
OBJECTIVE: To examine specific molecular mechanisms involved in modulating hepatic lipogenesis and mitochondria biogenesis signals by Lithospermum erythrorhizon (gromwell) root extract. METHODS: Stable cell lines with luciferase reporter constructs were generated to examine sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 (PGC1) α promoter activity and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) α response element activity...
November 22, 2017: Obesity
Jeffrey Yim, Hyokeun Cho, Simon W Rabkin
Gene expression and associations were examined in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a condition with minimal effective treatment. Genes with at least two studies showing significant changes in Dahl rat with heart failure were examined by meta-analysis. Significantly increased in expression were iNOS, p47phox, ADM, ANP, OPN, ACE, MCP-1, GP91PHOX, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, CTGF, ET-1, p22phox, ETB, BNP, ETA, MMP13, Col1a1, MMP2, TIMP1, Col3a1, Il-1β, β-MHC, ECE1, MMP14, AGT, and MMP9...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Baiba Vilne, Josefin Skogsberg, Hassan Foroughi Asl, Husain Ahammad Talukdar, Thorsten Kessler, Johan L M Björkegren, Heribert Schunkert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mitochondrial damage and augmented production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may represent an intermediate step by which hypercholesterolemia exacerbates atherosclerotic lesion formation. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, in mice with severe but genetically reversible hypercholesterolemia (i.e. the so called Reversa mouse model), we performed time-resolved analyses of mitochondrial transcriptome in the aortic arch employing a systems-level network approach...
December 2017: Atherosclerosis
Kewei Xie, Mingli Zhu, Peng Xiang, Xiaohuan Chen, Ayijiaken Kasimumali, Renhua Lu, Qin Wang, Shan Mou, Zhaohui Ni, Leyi Gu, Huihua Pang
Previous work showed that the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling promoted mitochondrial fusion and prevented podocyte apoptosis. The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is the main downstream transcription factor of PKA signaling. Herein, we show that the pKA-agonist pCPT-cAMP prevented the production of adriamycin (ADR)-induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in podocytes, which were inhibited by CREB RNAi. The activation of PKA enhanced mitochondrial function and prevented the ADR-induced decrease of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I subunits, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (ND) 1/3/4 genes, and protein expression...
October 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Tumu Venkat Reddy, Suresh Govatati, Mamata Deenadayal, Sisinthy Shivaji, Manjula Bhanoori
We investigated the link between polymorphisms in genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) and further studied the role of these genes on the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This case-control study was carried out in 118 PCOS cases and 110 controls. In the present study we genotyped three polymorphisms of PGC1-α gene (rs8192678-Gly482Ser, rs13131226 and rs2970856) and polymorphism of TFAM gene (rs1937-+35G/C) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis...
January 30, 2018: Gene
Yuho Kim, Sok Sambo Men, Chen Liang, Candace N Receno, Tom D Brutsaert, Donna L Korol, Kevin S Heffernan, Keith C DeRuisseau
Aging skeletal muscle displays an altered iron status that may promote oxidative stress and sarcopenia. A diet containing low iron (LI) could reduce muscle iron status and attenuate age-related muscle atrophy. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) may also alleviate sarcopenia by promoting muscle protein synthesis and iron status improvement. This study examined individual and combined effects of LI and BCAA diets on anabolic signaling and iron status in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Twenty-nine-month-old male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats consumed the following control-base diets: control + regular iron (35 mg iron/kg) (CR; n = 11); control + LI (∼6 mg iron/kg) (CL; n = 11); 2×BCAA + regular iron (BR; n = 10); and 2×BCAA + LI (BL; n = 12) for 12 weeks...
February 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Tao Chen, Shu-Hui Dai, Xia Li, Peng Luo, Jie Zhu, Yu-Hai Wang, Zhou Fei, Xiao-Fan Jiang
Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and Sirtuin3 (Sirt3) are two well-characterized members of the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) family of proteins. Both Sirt1 and Sirt3 have been shown to play vital roles in resistance to cellular stress, but the interaction between these two sirtuins has not been fully determined. In this study, we investigated the role of Sirt1-Sirt3 axis in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability after ischemia in vitro. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes were co-cultured to model the BBB in vitro and oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) was performed to mimic ischemia...
April 2018: Redox Biology
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