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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165897/lithospermum-erythrorhizon-root-and-its-naphthoquinones-repress-srebp1c-and-activate-pgc1%C3%AE-through-ampk%C3%AE
#1
Rodney A Velliquette, Arun Rajgopal, John Rebhun, Kelly Glynn
OBJECTIVE: To examine specific molecular mechanisms involved in modulating hepatic lipogenesis and mitochondria biogenesis signals by Lithospermum erythrorhizon (gromwell) root extract. METHODS: Stable cell lines with luciferase reporter constructs were generated to examine sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 (PGC1) α promoter activity and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) α response element activity...
November 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140729/gene-expression-and-gene-associations-during-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-model-of-hypertension
#2
Jeffrey Yim, Hyokeun Cho, Simon W Rabkin
Gene expression and associations were examined in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a condition with minimal effective treatment. Genes with at least two studies showing significant changes in Dahl rat with heart failure were examined by meta-analysis. Significantly increased in expression were iNOS, p47phox, ADM, ANP, OPN, ACE, MCP-1, GP91PHOX, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, CTGF, ET-1, p22phox, ETB, BNP, ETA, MMP13, Col1a1, MMP2, TIMP1, Col3a1, Il-1β, β-MHC, ECE1, MMP14, AGT, and MMP9...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100060/network-analysis-reveals-a-causal-role-of-mitochondrial-gene-activity-in-atherosclerotic-lesion-formation
#3
Baiba Vilne, Josefin Skogsberg, Hassan Foroughi Asl, Husain Ahammad Talukdar, Thorsten Kessler, Johan L M Björkegren, Heribert Schunkert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mitochondrial damage and augmented production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may represent an intermediate step by which hypercholesterolemia exacerbates atherosclerotic lesion formation. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, in mice with severe but genetically reversible hypercholesterolemia (i.e. the so called Reversa mouse model), we performed time-resolved analyses of mitochondrial transcriptome in the aortic arch employing a systems-level network approach...
October 21, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038164/pka-creb-signaling-prevents-adriamycin-induced-podocyte-apoptosis-via-upregulation-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-complexes
#4
Kewei Xie, Mingli Zhu, Peng Xiang, Xiaohuan Chen, Ayijiaken Kasimumali, Renhua Lu, Qin Wang, Shan Mou, Zhaohui Ni, Leyi Gu, Huihua Pang
Previous work showed that the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling promoted mitochondrial fusion and prevented podocyte apoptosis. The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is the main downstream transcription factor of PKA signaling. Herein, we show that the pKA-agonist pCPT-cAMP prevented the production of adriamycin (ADR)-induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in podocytes, which were inhibited by CREB RNAi. The activation of PKA enhanced mitochondrial function and prevented the ADR-induced decrease of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I subunits, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (ND) 1/3/4 genes, and protein expression...
October 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030253/polymorphisms-in-the-tfam-and-pgc1-%C3%AE-genes-and-their-association-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-among-south-indian-women
#5
Tumu Venkat Reddy, Suresh Govatati, Mamata Deenadayal, Sisinthy Shivaji, Manjula Bhanoori
We investigated the link between polymorphisms in genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) and further studied the role of these genes on the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This case-control study was carried out in 118 PCOS cases and 110 controls. In the present study we genotyped three polymorphisms of PGC1-α gene (rs8192678-Gly482Ser, rs13131226 and rs2970856) and polymorphism of TFAM gene (rs1937-+35G/C) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis...
October 10, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024598/effects-of-long-term-exposures-to-low-iron-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-containing-diets-on-aging-skeletal-muscle-of-fisher-344-brown-norway-rats
#6
Yuho Kim, Sok Sambo Men, Chen Liang, Candace N Receno, Tom D Brutsaert, Donna L Korol, Kevin S Heffernan, Keith C DeRuisseau
Aging skeletal muscle displays an altered iron status that may promote oxidative stress and sarcopenia. A low iron (LI) containing diet could reduce muscle iron status and attenuate age-related muscle atrophy. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) may also alleviate sarcopenia by promoting muscle protein synthesis and iron status improvement. This study examined individual and combined effects of LI and BCAA diets on anabolic signaling and iron status in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Twenty-nine-month-old male F344BN rats consumed the following control-base diets: Control + regular iron (35 mg iron/kg) (CR; n = 11); Control + LI (~6 mg iron/kg) (CL; n = 11); 2×BCAA + regular iron (BR; n = 10); and 2×BCAA + LI (BL; n = 12) for 12 weeks...
October 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965081/sirt1-sirt3-axis-regulates-human-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-response-to-ischemia
#7
Tao Chen, Shu-Hui Dai, Xia Li, Peng Luo, Jie Zhu, Yu-Hai Wang, Zhou Fei, Xiao-Fan Jiang
Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and Sirtuin3 (Sirt3) are two well-characterized members of the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) family of proteins. Both Sirt1 and Sirt3 have been shown to play vital roles in resistance to cellular stress, but the interaction between these two sirtuins has not been fully determined. In this study, we investigated the role of Sirt1-Sirt3 axis in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability after ischemia in vitro. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes were co-cultured to model the BBB in vitro and oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) was performed to mimic ischemia...
September 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934520/damage-of-inner-ear-sensory-hair-cells-via-mitochondrial-loss-in-a-murine-model-of-sleep-apnea-with-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#8
Young Joon Seo, Hyun Mi Ju, Sun Hee Lee, Sang Hyun Kwak, Min Jung Kang, Joo-Heon Yoon, Chang-Hoon Kim, Hyung-Ju Cho
Study Objectives: Investigating the exact pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)-induced hearing loss is critical. We sought to verify the hypothesis that a correlation exists between mitochondrial dysfunction in inner ear hair cells and the auditory dysfunction induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in a murine model of sleep apnea. Methods: C57BL/6J adult male mice were randomized to 4 weeks of CIH (n = 12) or normoxia (Sham) (n = 12)...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931237/histone-methyltransferase-set8-epigenetically-reprograms-host-immune-responses-to-assist-mycobacterial-survival
#9
Vikas Singh, Praveen Prakhar, R S Rajmani, Kasturi Mahadik, Salik Miskat Borbora, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
NQO1 and TRXR1 are important host reductases implicated in the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis. Although the transcriptional machinery governing these processes have been extensively investigated, the associated epigenetic regulatory events remain unclear. Here, we report that SET8, a histone H4 lysine 20 monomethylase (H4K20me1), is highly induced during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection that orchestrates immune evasion strategies through the induction of NQO1 and TRXR1 in vivo. SET8, along with FoxO3a, mediates an active NQO1-PGC1-α complex, which promotes the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype, and assists TRXR1-regulated arrest of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860475/long-term-pgc1%C3%AE-overexpression-leads-to-apoptosis-autophagy-and-muscle-wasting
#10
Danesh H Sopariwala, Vikas Yadav, Pierre-Marie Badin, Neah Likhite, Megha Sheth, Sabina Lorca, Isabelle K Vila, Eun Ran Kim, Qingchun Tong, Min Sup Song, George G Rodney, Vihang A Narkar
Skeletal muscle wasting is prevalent in many chronic diseases, necessitating inquiries into molecular regulation of muscle mass. Nuclear receptor co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1 alpha (PGC1α) and its splice variant PGC1α4 increase skeletal muscle mass. However, the effect of the other PGC1 sub-type, PGC1β, on muscle size is unclear. In transgenic mice selectively over-expressing PGC1β in the skeletal muscle, we have found that PGC1β progressively decreases skeletal muscle mass predominantly associated with loss of type 2b fast-twitch myofibers...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827782/extracellular-calcium-modulates-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-and-identity
#11
Ines Pramme-Steinwachs, Martin Jastroch, Siegfried Ussar
Brown adipocytes are important in regulating non-shivering thermogenesis, whole body glucose and lipid homeostasis. Increasing evidence supports an important role of metabolites as well as macro- and micronutrients in brown adipocyte differentiation and function. Calcium is one of the most abundant ions in the body regulating multiple cellular processes. We observed that increasing extracellular calcium concentration during brown adipocyte differentiation blocks lipid accumulation and suppresses induction of major adipogenic transcription factors such as PPARγ and C/EBPα...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763300/ablation-of-adipose-ho-1-expression-increases-white-fat-over-beige-fat-through-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-fusion-and-of-pgc1%C3%AE-in-female-mice
#12
Shailendra P Singh, Ilana Grant, Aliza Meissner, Attallah Kappas, Nader G Abraham
Background Hmox1 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and function by regulating cellular heme-derived CO and bilirubin. Previous studies have demonstrated that global disruption of HO-1 in humans and mice resulted in severe organ dysfunction. Methods We investigated the potential role of adipose-specific-HO-1 genetic ablation on adipose tissue function, mitochondrial quality control and energy expenditure by generating an adipo-HO-1 knockout mouse model (Adipo-HO-1-/-) and, in vitro, adipocyte cells in which HO activity was inhibited...
August 1, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740336/expression-and-role-of-nuclear-receptor-coregulators-in-colorectal-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Mouna Triki, Marion Lapierre, Vincent Cavailles, Raja Mokdad-Gargouri
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common human cancers and the cause of about 700000 deaths per year worldwide. Deregulation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway is a key event in CRC initiation. This pathway interacts with other nuclear signaling pathways, including members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and their transcription coregulators. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature dealing with the main coactivators (NCoA-1 to 3, NCoA-6, PGC1-α, p300, CREBBP and MED1) and corepressors (N-CoR1 and 2, NRIP1 and MTA1) of nuclear receptors and summarize their links with the WNT/β-catenin signaling cascade, their expression in CRC and their role in intestinal physiopathology...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659036/cinnamomum-cassia-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-through-the-increase-of-muscle-energy
#14
Mi Young Song, Seok Yong Kang, Anna Kang, Ji Hye Hwang, Yong-Ki Park, Hyo Won Jung
The cortex of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Cinnamomi Cortex: CC) has commonly been used for weight control in traditional medicines, but without a scientific basis. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the anti-obesity effect of CC extract in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model and in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet or a HFD for 16 consecutive weeks, and orally administered CC extract (100 or 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) or metformin (250[Formula: see text]mg/kg; positive control) daily for 16 weeks...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655613/int131-increases-dendritic-arborization-and-protects-against-a%C3%AE-toxicity-by-inducing-mitochondrial-changes-in-hippocampal-neurons
#15
Juan A Godoy, Juan M Zolezzi, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
In previous studies, we have demonstrated the beneficial effects of classic PPARγ agonists on neuroprotection against Aβ oligomer neurotoxicity in a double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer' disease (AD). INT-131, a novel, non-thiazolidinedione compound that belongs to a new family of drugs, selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARMs), has provided an emerging opportunity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. However, its role in the central nervous system has not been studied...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647477/derivatives-of-alkyl-gallate-triphenylphosphonium-exhibit-antitumor-activity-in-a-syngeneic-murine-model-of-mammary-adenocarcinoma
#16
Liliana Peredo-Silva, Sebastián Fuentes-Retamal, Cristian Sandoval-Acuña, Mario Pavani, Juan D Maya, Vicente Castro-Castillo, Matías Madrid-Rojas, Solange Rebolledo, Ulrike Kemmerling, Eduardo Parra, Jorge Ferreira
We previously demonstrated that alkyl gallates coupled to triphenylphosphine have a selective and efficient antiproliferative effect by inducing mitochondrial uncoupling in vitro due to the increased mitochondrial transmembrane potential of tumor cells. Therefore, in this work, the in vivo antitumor activities of alkyl gallate triphenylphosphonium derivatives (TPP(+)C8, TPP(+)C10 and TPP(+)C12) were evaluated in a syngeneic murine model of breast cancer. We found that TPP(+)C10 increased the cytosolic ADP/ATP ratio and significantly increased the AMP levels in a concentration-dependent manner in TA3/Ha murine mammary adenocarcinoma cells...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587104/c1q-tnf-related-protein-9-ameliorates-ox-ldl-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-via-pgc-1%C3%AE-ampk-mediated-antioxidant-enzyme-induction
#17
Haijian Sun, Xuexue Zhu, Yuetao Zhou, Weiwei Cai, Liying Qiu
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) accumulation is one of the critical determinants in endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) is identified to be an adipocytokine with cardioprotective properties. However, the potential roles of CTRP9 in endothelial function remain largely elusive. In the present study, the effects of CTRP9 on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, nitric oxide (NO) production and oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to ox-LDL were investigated...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580300/resveratrol-attenuates-triglyceride-accumulation-associated-with-upregulation-of-sirt1-and-lipoprotein-lipase-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#18
Haruki Imamura, Daiji Nagayama, Noriko Ishihara, Syo Tanaka, Rena Watanabe, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Yuta Sato, Takashi Yamaguchi, Noriko Ban, Hidetoshi Kawana, Masahiro Ohira, Kei Endo, Atsuhito Saiki, Kohji Shirai, Ichiro Tatsuno
AIM: We aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol (Rsv) on expression of genes regulating triglyceride (TG) accumulation and consumption in differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. METHODS: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Upon reaching confluence, cells were induced to differentiate for 4 days, cultured for 10 days for TG accumulation, and then incubated with Rsv (0, 25 or 50 μM) for 3 days. TG accumulation was analyzed by Oil Red-O staining...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556920/ampk-activator-acadesine-fails-to-alleviate-isoniazid-caused-mitochondrial-instability-in-hepg2-cells
#19
Tian-Guang Zhang, Takashi Ikejima, Toshihiko Hayashi, Jun Zhao, Yi-Mei Wang, Shuang-Qing Peng
Isoniazid (INH) is a first-line antituberculosis drug that is adversely associated with hepatotoxicity. Recently, impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis involved in this side effect has been noticed. Mitochondrial homeostasis is achieved by the balance between the generation of functional mitochondria by biogenesis and elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can maintain mitochondrial stability through positive control of these two processes. In this study, we showed that AMPK activator acadesine (AICAR) alleviated INH-caused impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis by activation of silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC1 α) pathway in HepG2 cells...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546467/post-exercise-cold-water-immersion-modulates-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-mrna-expression-in-immersed-and-non-immersed-limbs-evidence-of-systemic-regulation
#20
Robert Allan, Adam Philip Sharples, Graeme L Close, Barry Drust, Sam O Shepherd, John Dutton, James P Morton, Warren Gregson
Mechanisms mediating post-exercise cold-induced increases in PGC-1α gene expression in human skeletal muscle are yet to be fully elucidated, but may involve local cooling effects on AMPK and p38 MAPK related signalling and/or increased systemic β-adrenergic stimulation. We aimed to therefore examine whether post-exercise cold-water immersion enhancement of PGC-1α mRNA is mediated through local or systemic mechanisms. Ten subjects completed acute cycling (8x5 min at ~80% peak power output) followed by seated-rest (CON) or single-leg cold-water immersion (CWI; 10 min, 8°C)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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