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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885055/17b-estradiol-improves-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-through-pgc1b
#1
Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Antonia Nadal-Casellas, Marco Bauza-Thorbrügge, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Francisco José García-Palmer, Am Proenza, Magdalena Gianotti, Isabel Llado
Sexual dimorphism in mitochondrial biogenesis and function has been described in many rat tissues, with females showing larger and more functional mitochondria. The family of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC1) plays a central role in the regulatory network governing mitochondrial biogenesis and function, but little is known about the different contribution of hepatic PGC1A and PGC1B in these processes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of 17b-estradiol (E2) in mitochondrial biogenesis and function in liver and assess the contribution of both hepatic PGC1A and PGC1B as mediators of these effects...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836895/lifelong-quercetin-enrichment-and-cardioprotection-in-mdx-utrn-ice
#2
Christopher Ballmann, Thomas Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Tiffany S Quindry, Matthew Romero, Rajesh H Amin, Joshua T Selsby, John C Quindry
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is associated with progressive cardiac pathology, however, the SIRT1/PGC1-α activator quercetin may cardioprotect dystrophic hearts. We tested the extent to which long term 0.2% dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates dystrophic cardiopathology in Mdx/Utrn(+/-) mice. At 2 months, Mdx/Utrn(+/-) mice were fed quercetin enriched (Mdx/Utrn(+/-)-Q) or control diet (Mdx/Utrn(+/-)) for 8 months. Control C57BL/10 (C57) animals were fed a control diet for 10 months. Cardiac function was quantified by MRI at 2 and 10 months...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832814/obesity-induced-cardiac-lipid-accumulation-in-adult-mice-is-modulated-by-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-levels
#3
Elisa Lucas, Rocio Vila-Bedmar, Alba C Arcones, Marta Cruces-Sande, Victoria Cachofeiro, Federico Mayor, Cristina Murga
BACKGROUND: The leading cause of death among the obese population is heart failure and stroke prompted by structural and functional changes in the heart. The molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related cardiac remodeling are complex, and include hemodynamic and metabolic alterations that ultimately affect the functionality of the myocardium. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is an ubiquitous kinase able to desensitize the active form of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and is known to play an important role in cardiac GPCR modulation...
November 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780242/upregulation-of-mitochondrial-content-in-cytochrome-c-oxidase-deficient-fibroblasts
#4
Aviram Kogot-Levin, Ann Saada, Gil Leibowitz, Devorah Soiferman, Liza Douiev, Itamar Raz, Sarah Weksler-Zangen
Cytochrome-c-oxidase (COX) deficiency is a frequent cause of mitochondrial disease and is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. We studied mitochondrial function and biogenesis in fibroblasts derived from the Cohen (CDs) rat, an animal model of COX deficiency. COX activity in CDs-fibroblasts was 50% reduced compared to control rat fibroblasts (P<0.01). ROS-production in CDs fibroblasts increased, along with marked mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased mitochondrial membrane-potential, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742802/similar-mitochondrial-signaling-responses-to-a-single-bout-of-continuous-or-small-sided-games-based-exercise-in-sedentary-men
#5
Amy E Mendham, Rob Duffield, Aaron J Coutts, Frank E Marino, Andriy Boyko, Andrew J McAinch, David John Bishop
PURPOSE: This study assessed the mitochondrial related signaling responses to a single bout of non-contact, modified football (touch rugby), played as small-sided games (SSG), or cycling (CYC) exercise in sedentary, obese, middle-aged men. METHOD: In a randomized, cross-over design, nine middle-aged, sedentary, obese men completed two, 40-min exercise conditions (CYC and SSG) separated by a 21-d recovery period. Heart rate (HR) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion were collected during each bout...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647415/long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetase-6-regulates-lipid-synthesis-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-in-human-and-rat-skeletal-muscle
#6
Bruno G Teodoro, Igor H Sampaio, Lucas H M Bomfim, André L Queiroz, Leonardo R Silveira, Anderson O Souza, Anna M A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Tai-Yu Huang, Donghai Zheng, P Darrell Neufer, Ronald N Cortright, Luciane C Alberici
Long-chain Acyl-CoA Synthetases (ACSL 1 to 6) are key enzymes regulating partitioning of acyl-CoA species toward different metabolic fates such as lipid synthesis or β-oxidation. Despite the understanding that ecotopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with metabolic diseases like obesity and Type II Diabetes, the role of specific ACSL isoforms in lipid synthesis remains unclear. Herein we describe for the first time the presence of ACSL6 mRNA in human skeletal muscle and the role that ACSL6 plays in lipid synthesis in both rodent and human skeletal muscle...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637001/eicosapentaenoic-acid-promotes-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-beige-like-features-in-subcutaneous-adipocytes-from-overweight-subjects
#7
L M Laiglesia, S Lorente-Cebrián, P L Prieto-Hontoria, M Fernández-Galilea, S M R Ribeiro, N Sáinz, J A Martínez, M J Moreno-Aliaga
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been reported to have beneficial effects in obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of EPA on the regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, and the ability of EPA to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and beiging in subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight subjects. Fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight females (BMI: 28.1-29.8kg/m(2)) were treated with EPA (100-200 μM) for 24 h...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567882/evaluation-of-neuropathological-effects-of-a-high-fat-diet-in-a-presymptomatic-alzheimer-s-disease-stage-in-app-ps1-mice
#8
Miren Ettcheto, Dmitry Petrov, Ignacio Pedrós, Norma Alva, Teresa Carbonell, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Merce Pallas, Carme Auladell, Jaume Folch, Antoni Camins
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently an incurable aging-related neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies give support to the hypotheses that AD should be considered as a metabolic disease. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between hippocampal neuropathological amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque formation and obesity at an early presymptomatic disease stage (3 months of age). For this purpose, we used APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) in order to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms involved in both disorders...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564718/cortisol-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-through-a-membrane-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-rainbow-trout-myotubes
#9
Marlen B Espinoza, Jorge E Aedo, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Cristian Valenzuela, Alfredo Molina, Juan A Valdés
Cortisol is an essential regulator of neuroendocrine stress responses in teleosts. Cortisol predominantly affects target tissues through the genomic pathway, which involves interacting with cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors and, thereby, modulating stress-response gene expressions. Cortisol also produces rapid effects via non-genomic pathways, which do not involve gene transcription. Although cortisol-mediated genomic pathways are well documented in teleosts, non-genomic pathways are not fully understood...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561621/brown-adipose-tissue-updates-in-cellular-and-molecular-biology
#10
REVIEW
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is mainly composed of adipocytes, it is highly vascularized and innervated, and can be activated in adult humans. Brown adipocytes are responsible for performing non-shivering thermogenesis, which is exclusively mediated by uncoupling protein (UCP) -1 (a protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane), the hallmark of BAT, responsible for the uncoupling of the proton leakage from the ATP production, therefore, generating heat (i.e. thermogenesis). Besides UCP1, other compounds are essential not only to thermogenesis, but also to the proliferation and differentiation of BAT, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family, PPARgamma coactivator 1 (PGC1)-alpha, and PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain protein containing protein (PRDM) -16...
October 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521273/reducing-the-time-interval-between-concussion-and-voluntary-exercise-restores-motor-impairment-short-term-memory-and-alterations-to-gene-expression
#11
Richelle Mychasiuk, Harleen Hehar, Irene Ma, Sydney Candy, Michael J Esser
Despite the most common form of brain injury, there has been little progress in the prognosis and treatment of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Current 'return-to-play' guidelines are conservative, deterring the initiation of physical and social activity until patients are asymptomatic; but the effects of post-injury exercise have not been adequately investigated. Therefore, this study examined the effects of voluntary exercise on concussion recovery. Using a translational rodent model of concussion, we examined the influence of exercise on injury-associated behaviours that comprise post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and gene expression changes (bdnf, dnmt1, Igf-1, pgc1-a, Tert) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498120/rapamycin-reverses-age-related-increases-in-mitochondrial-ros-production-at-complex-i-oxidative-stress-accumulation-of-mtdna-fragments-inside-nuclear-dna-and-lipofuscin-level-and-increases-autophagy-in-the-liver-of-middle-aged-mice
#12
V Martínez-Cisuelo, J Gómez, I García-Junceda, A Naudí, R Cabré, N Mota-Martorell, M López-Torres, M González-Sánchez, R Pamplona, G Barja
Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver...
October 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447720/prior-exercise-training-prevent-hyperglycemia-in-stz-mice-by-increasing-hepatic-glycogen-and-mitochondrial-function-on-skeletal-muscle
#13
Afonso Kopczynski de Carvalho, Sabrina da Silva, Edenir Serafini, Daniela Roxo de Souza, Hemelin Resende Farias, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock da Silveira, Claudio Teodoro de Souza, Luis Valmor Portela, Alexandre Pastoris Muller
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. We investigated the effect of a prior thirty days voluntary exercise protocol on STZ-diabetic CF1 mice. Glycemia, and the liver and skeletal muscle glycogen, mitochondrial function and redox status were analyzed up to five days after STZ injection. Animals were engaged in the following groups: Sedentary vehicle (Sed Veh), Sedentary STZ (Sed STZ), Exercise Vehicle (Ex Veh) and Exercise STZ (Ex STZ). Exercise prevented fasting hyperglycemia in the Ex STZ group...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444302/perspectives-on-the-role-and-relevance-of-copper-in-cardiac-disease
#14
Denis M Medeiros
Cardiac hypertrophy as a result of dietary copper deficiency has been studied for 40 plus years and is the subject of this review. While connective tissue anomalies occur, a hallmark pathology is cardiac hypertrophy, increased mitochondrial biogenesis, with disruptive cristae, vacuolization of mitochondria, and deposition of lipid droplets. Electrocardiogram abnormalities have been demonstrated along with biochemical changes especially as it relates to the copper-containing enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. The master controller of mitochondrial biogenesis, PGC1-α expression and protein, along with other proteins and transcriptional factors that play a role are upregulated...
July 21, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444146/astragaloside-iv-improves-lipid-metabolism-in-obese-mice-by-alleviation-of-leptin-resistance-and-regulation-of-thermogenic-network
#15
Hui Wu, Yan Gao, Hai-Lian Shi, Li-Yue Qin, Fei Huang, Yun-Yi Lan, Bei-Bei Zhang, Zhi-Bi Hu, Xiao-Jun Wu
Obesity is a worldwide threat to public health in modern society, which may result from leptin resistance and disorder of thermogenesis. The present study investigated whether astragaloside IV (ASI) could prevent obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and db/db mice. In HFD-fed mice, ASI prevented body weight gain, lowered serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, mitigated liver lipid accumulation, reduced fat tissues and decreased the enlargement of adipose cells. In metabolic chambers, ASI lessened appetite of the mice, decreased their respiratory exchange ratio and elevated VCO2 and VO2 without altering circadian motor activity...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434863/magnesium-and-calcium-enriched-deep-sea-water-promotes-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-ampk-activated-signals-pathway-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#16
Byung Geun Ha, Deok-Soo Moon, Hyeon Ju Kim, Yun Hee Shon
Recent studies showed that deficiencies of essential minerals including Mg, Ca, and K, and trace minerals including Se, Zn, and V, have implications for the development, prevention, and treatment of several chronic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW), which is composed of desalinated water enriched with Mg and Ca, has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, to determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, expression of key transcription factors and mitochondria-specific genes, phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
July 16, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424398/-ppars-mediate-the-regulation-of-energy-metabolism-by-long-chain-fatty-acids
#17
REVIEW
Yao Yan, Zong-Bao Wang, Chao-Ke Tang
PPAR-alpha expressed primarily in liver is essential for metabolic adaptation to starvation by inducing genes for beta-oxidation and ketogenesis to increase the utility of LCFAs and fibroblast growth factor 21. PPAR-delta induces genes for LCFA oxidation during fasting and endurance exercise in skeletal muscle. PPAR-delta also regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by inducing FOXO1 and PGC1-alpha. PPAR-gamma can induces the pathways to store LCFAs as triglycerides in adipocytes. Adiponectin, another important target of PPAR-gamma may maintain insulin sensitivity between adipocytes...
February 2016: Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan [Progress in Physiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352915/food-combination-based-on-a-prehispanic-mexican-diet-decreases-metabolic-and-cognitive-abnormalities-and-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-caused-by-a-sucrose-enriched-high-fat-diet-in-rats
#18
Avila-Nava Azalia, Noriega Lg, Tovar Ar, Granados O, Perez-Cruz C, Pedraza-Chaverri José, Torres Nimbe
SCOPE: There is few information about the possible health effects of a food combination based on a prehispanic Mexican diet (PMD). This diet rich in fiber, polyphenols, a healthy ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids, and vegetable protein could improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gut microbiota and cognitive function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effect of a PMD in a sucrose enriched high-fat model. The PMD contains corn, beans, tomato, nopal, chia and pumpkin seeds in dehydrated form...
June 29, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252383/ccn6-regulates-mitochondrial-function
#19
Milan Patra, Sushil K Mahata, Deepesh K Padhan, Malini Sen
Despite established links of CCN6, or Wnt induced signaling protein-3 (WISP3), with progressive pseudo rheumatoid dysplasia, functional characterization of CCN6 remains incomplete. In light of the documented negative correlation between accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and CCN6 expression, we investigated whether CCN6 regulates ROS accumulation through its influence on mitochondrial function. We found that CCN6 localizes to mitochondria, and depletion of CCN6 in the chondrocyte cell line C-28/I2 by using siRNA results in altered mitochondrial electron transport and respiration...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230528/pgc1%C3%AE-drives-a-metabolic-block-on-prostate-cancer-progression
#20
Martina Wallace, Christian M Metallo
Metabolic rewiring is essential for cancer cell survival. PGC1α, a transcriptional co-activator that is downregulated in prostate cancer, is now shown to control prostate cancer metabolism by activating an oxidative metabolic program that prevents tumour growth and metastatic dissemination.
May 27, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
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