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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164673/nuclear-respiratory-factor-1-nrf-1-gene-expression-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-dysregulation
#1
Doaa Hashad, Iman Elgohry, Fatma Dwedar
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by progressive irreversible deterioration of renal functions. Advanced stages of CKD are associated with oxidative stress due to the imbalance between oxidant production and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Survival of patients with end stage renal diseases is maintained on variable forms of renal replacement therapies (RRT) which include peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and sometimes renal transplantation. In humans, Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 (NRF-1) gene encodes for a transcription factor that, together with the transcriptional co-activator encoded by Peroxisome Proliferator activated Receptor Gamma coactivator 1 Alpha (PGC1-a) gene, stimulates the expression of a broad set of nuclear genes (as COX6C) which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and functions...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116391/a-rich-medium-chain-triacylglycerol-diet-benefits-adiposity-but-has-adverse-effects-on-the-markers-of-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-beta-oxidation
#2
Carolina Maria de Oliveira Chamma, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
We investigated the increasing amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) in the diet on hepatic lipid metabolism. Mature C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group). The animals received their diet for 12 weeks, as a control (C group, 10% of energy from lipids); high-fat lard (HF group, isoenergetic diet, 50% of energy from lipids with lard); a mixture of lard and MCT oil (with a gradual replacement of lard by MCT: HF-MCT25%, HF-MCT75%, and HF-MCT100% groups). At euthanasia, we collected blood and dissected the liver for analyses (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICK index, and triacylglycerol, light microscopy, western blotting, and RT-qPCR)...
January 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096887/thylakoids-reduce-body-fat-and-fat-cell-size-by-binding-to-dietary-fat-making-it-less-available-for-absorption-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#3
Karin G Stenkula, Eva-Lena Stenblom, Caroline Montelius, Emil Egecioglu, Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
BACKGROUND: Dietary thylakoids derived from spinach have beneficial effects on body fat accumulation and blood lipids as demonstrated in humans and rodents. Important mechanisms established include delayed fat digestion in the intestine, without causing steatorrhea, and increased fatty acid oxidation in intestinal cells. The objective of our study was to elucidate if increased fecal fat excretion is an important mechanism to normalize adipose tissue metabolism during high-fat feeding in mice supplemented with thylakoids...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998210/metabolic-stress-induces-cognitive-disturbances-and-inflammation-in-aged-mice-protective-role-of-resveratrol
#4
Veronica Palomera-Ávalos, Christian Griñán-Ferré, Vanesa Izquierdo, Antonio Camins, Coral Sanfeliu, Mercè Pallàs
Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) are key points in age progression. Both processes impact negatively in cognition and in brain functions. Resveratrol (RV) has been postulated as a potent antioxidant natural compound, with rejuvenating properties. Inducing a metabolic stress by high-fat (HF) diet in aged C56/BL6 (24 months) led to cognitive disturbances compared with control age mated and with young mice. These changes were prevented by RV. Molecular determinations demonstrated a significant increase in some inflammatory parameters (TNF-α, Cxcl10, IL-1, IL-6, and Ccl3) in old mice, but slight changes in OS machinery...
January 25, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885055/17%C3%AE-estradiol-improves-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-through-pgc1b
#5
Bel M Galmés-Pascual, Antonia Nadal-Casellas, Marco Bauza-Thorbrügge, Miquel Sbert-Roig, Francisco J García-Palmer, Ana M Proenza, Magdalena Gianotti, Isabel Lladó
Sexual dimorphism in mitochondrial biogenesis and function has been described in many rat tissues, with females showing larger and more functional mitochondria. The family of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC1) plays a central role in the regulatory network governing mitochondrial biogenesis and function, but little is known about the different contribution of hepatic PGC1A and PGC1B in these processes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of 17β-estradiol (E2) in mitochondrial biogenesis and function in liver and assess the contribution of both hepatic PGC1A and PGC1B as mediators of these effects...
February 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836895/lifelong-quercetin-enrichment-and-cardioprotection-in-mdx-utrn-mice
#6
Christopher Ballmann, Thomas S Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Tiffany Quindry, Matthew Romero, Rajesh Amin, Joshua T Selsby, John C Quindry
: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is associated with progressive cardiac pathology; however, the SIRT1/PGC1-α activator quercetin may cardioprotect dystrophic hearts. We tested the extent to which long-term 0.2% dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates dystrophic cardiopathology in Mdx/Utrn(+/-) mice. At 2 mo, Mdx/Utrn(+/-) mice were fed quercetin-enriched (Mdx/Utrn(+/-)-Q) or control diet (Mdx/Utrn(+/-)) for 8 mo. Control C57BL/10 (C57) animals were fed a control diet for 10 mo. Cardiac function was quantified by MRI at 2 and 10 mo...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832814/obesity-induced-cardiac-lipid-accumulation-in-adult-mice-is-modulated-by-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-levels
#7
Elisa Lucas, Rocio Vila-Bedmar, Alba C Arcones, Marta Cruces-Sande, Victoria Cachofeiro, Federico Mayor, Cristina Murga
BACKGROUND: The leading cause of death among the obese population is heart failure and stroke prompted by structural and functional changes in the heart. The molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related cardiac remodeling are complex, and include hemodynamic and metabolic alterations that ultimately affect the functionality of the myocardium. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is an ubiquitous kinase able to desensitize the active form of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and is known to play an important role in cardiac GPCR modulation...
10, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780242/upregulation-of-mitochondrial-content-in-cytochrome-c-oxidase-deficient-fibroblasts
#8
Aviram Kogot-Levin, Ann Saada, Gil Leibowitz, Devorah Soiferman, Liza Douiev, Itamar Raz, Sarah Weksler-Zangen
Cytochrome-c-oxidase (COX) deficiency is a frequent cause of mitochondrial disease and is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. We studied mitochondrial function and biogenesis in fibroblasts derived from the Cohen (CDs) rat, an animal model of COX deficiency. COX activity in CDs-fibroblasts was 50% reduced compared to control rat fibroblasts (P<0.01). ROS-production in CDs fibroblasts increased, along with marked mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased mitochondrial membrane-potential, indicating mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742802/similar-mitochondrial-signaling-responses-to-a-single-bout-of-continuous-or-small-sided-games-based-exercise-in-sedentary-men
#9
Amy E Mendham, Rob Duffield, Aaron J Coutts, Frank E Marino, Andriy Boyko, Andrew J McAinch, David John Bishop
This study assessed the mitochondrial related signaling responses to a single bout of noncontact, modified football (touch rugby), played as small-sided games (SSG), or cycling (CYC) exercise in sedentary, obese, middle-aged men. In a randomized, crossover design, nine middle-aged, sedentary, obese men completed two, 40-min exercise conditions (CYC and SSG) separated by a 21-day recovery period. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected during each bout. Needle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were collected at rest and 30 and 240 min postexercise for analysis of protein content and phosphorylation (PGC-1α, SIRT1, p53, p53(Ser15), AMPK, AMPK(Thr172), CAMKII, CAMKII(Thr286), p38MAPK, and p38MAPK(Thr180/Tyr182)) and mRNA expression (PGC-1α, p53, NRF1, NRF2, Tfam, and cytochrome c)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647415/long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetase-6-regulates-lipid-synthesis-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-in-human-and-rat-skeletal-muscle
#10
Bruno G Teodoro, Igor H Sampaio, Lucas H M Bomfim, André L Queiroz, Leonardo R Silveira, Anderson O Souza, Anna M A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Tai-Yu Huang, Donghai Zheng, P Darrell Neufer, Ronald N Cortright, Luciane C Alberici
KEY POINTS: Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 6 (ACSL6) mRNA is present in human and rat skeletal muscle, and is modulated by nutritional status: exercise and fasting decrease ACSL6 mRNA, whereas acute lipid ingestion increase its expression. ACSL6 genic inhibition in rat primary myotubes decreased lipid accumulation, as well as activated the higher mitochondrial oxidative capacity programme and fatty acid oxidation through the AMPK/PGC1-α pathway. ACSL6 overexpression in human primary myotubes increased phospholipid species and decreased oxidative metabolism...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637001/eicosapentaenoic-acid-promotes-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-beige-like-features-in-subcutaneous-adipocytes-from-overweight-subjects
#11
L M Laiglesia, S Lorente-Cebrián, P L Prieto-Hontoria, M Fernández-Galilea, S M R Ribeiro, N Sáinz, J A Martínez, M J Moreno-Aliaga
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been reported to have beneficial effects in obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of EPA on the regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, and the ability of EPA to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and beiging in subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight subjects. Fully differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes from overweight females (BMI: 28.1-29.8kg/m(2)) were treated with EPA (100-200 μM) for 24 h...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567882/evaluation-of-neuropathological-effects-of-a-high-fat-diet-in-a-presymptomatic-alzheimer-s-disease-stage-in-app-ps1-mice
#12
Miren Ettcheto, Dmitry Petrov, Ignacio Pedrós, Norma Alva, Teresa Carbonell, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Merce Pallas, Carme Auladell, Jaume Folch, Antoni Camins
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently an incurable aging-related neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies give support to the hypotheses that AD should be considered as a metabolic disease. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between hippocampal neuropathological amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque formation and obesity at an early presymptomatic disease stage (3 months of age). For this purpose, we used APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) in order to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms involved in both disorders...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564718/cortisol-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-through-a-membrane-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-rainbow-trout-myotubes
#13
Marlen B Espinoza, Jorge E Aedo, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Cristian Valenzuela, Alfredo Molina, Juan A Valdés
Cortisol is an essential regulator of neuroendocrine stress responses in teleosts. Cortisol predominantly affects target tissues through the genomic pathway, which involves interacting with cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors, and thereby, modulating stress-response gene expressions. Cortisol also produces rapid effects via non-genomic pathways, which do not involve gene transcription. Although cortisol-mediated genomic pathways are well documented in teleosts, non-genomic pathways are not fully understood...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561621/brown-adipose-tissue-updates-in-cellular-and-molecular-biology
#14
REVIEW
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is mainly composed of adipocytes, it is highly vascularized and innervated, and can be activated in adult humans. Brown adipocytes are responsible for performing non-shivering thermogenesis, which is exclusively mediated by uncoupling protein (UCP) -1 (a protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane), the hallmark of BAT, responsible for the uncoupling of the proton leakage from the ATP production, therefore, generating heat (i.e. thermogenesis). Besides UCP1, other compounds are essential not only to thermogenesis, but also to the proliferation and differentiation of BAT, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family, PPARgamma coactivator 1 (PGC1)-alpha, and PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain protein containing protein (PRDM) -16...
October 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521273/reducing-the-time-interval-between-concussion-and-voluntary-exercise-restores-motor-impairment-short-term-memory-and-alterations-to-gene-expression
#15
Richelle Mychasiuk, Harleen Hehar, Irene Ma, Sydney Candy, Michael J Esser
Despite the most common form of brain injury, there has been little progress in the prognosis and treatment of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Current 'return-to-play' guidelines are conservative, deterring the initiation of physical and social activity until patients are asymptomatic; but the effects of post-injury exercise have not been adequately investigated. Therefore, this study examined the effects of voluntary exercise on concussion recovery. Using a translational rodent model of concussion, we examined the influence of exercise on injury-associated behaviours that comprise post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and gene expression changes (bdnf, dnmt1, Igf-1, pgc1-a, Tert) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498120/rapamycin-reverses-age-related-increases-in-mitochondrial-ros-production-at-complex-i-oxidative-stress-accumulation-of-mtdna-fragments-inside-nuclear-dna-and-lipofuscin-level-and-increases-autophagy-in-the-liver-of-middle-aged-mice
#16
V Martínez-Cisuelo, J Gómez, I García-Junceda, A Naudí, R Cabré, N Mota-Martorell, M López-Torres, M González-Sánchez, R Pamplona, G Barja
Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver...
October 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447720/prior-exercise-training-prevent-hyperglycemia-in-stz-mice-by-increasing-hepatic-glycogen-and-mitochondrial-function-on-skeletal-muscle
#17
Afonso Kopczynski de Carvalho, Sabrina da Silva, Edenir Serafini, Daniela Roxo de Souza, Hemelin Resende Farias, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira, Claudio Teodoro de Souza, Luis Valmor Portela, Alexandre Pastoris Muller
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. We investigated the effect of a prior 30 days voluntary exercise protocol on STZ-diabetic CF1 mice. Glycemia, and the liver and skeletal muscle glycogen, mitochondrial function, and redox status were analyzed up to 5 days after STZ injection. Animals were engaged in the following groups: Sedentary vehicle (Sed Veh), Sedentary STZ (Sed STZ), Exercise Vehicle (Ex Veh), and Exercise STZ (Ex STZ). Exercise prevented fasting hyperglycemia in the Ex STZ group...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444302/perspectives-on-the-role-and-relevance-of-copper-in-cardiac-disease
#18
REVIEW
Denis M Medeiros
Cardiac hypertrophy as a result of dietary copper deficiency has been studied for 40 plus years and is the subject of this review. While connective tissue anomalies occur, a hallmark pathology is cardiac hypertrophy, increased mitochondrial biogenesis, with disruptive cristae, vacuolization of mitochondria, and deposition of lipid droplets. Electrocardiogram abnormalities have been demonstrated along with biochemical changes especially as it relates to the copper-containing enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. The master controller of mitochondrial biogenesis, PGC1-α expression and protein, along with other proteins and transcriptional factors that play a role are upregulated...
July 21, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444146/astragaloside-iv-improves-lipid-metabolism-in-obese-mice-by-alleviation-of-leptin-resistance-and-regulation-of-thermogenic-network
#19
Hui Wu, Yan Gao, Hai-Lian Shi, Li-Yue Qin, Fei Huang, Yun-Yi Lan, Bei-Bei Zhang, Zhi-Bi Hu, Xiao-Jun Wu
Obesity is a worldwide threat to public health in modern society, which may result from leptin resistance and disorder of thermogenesis. The present study investigated whether astragaloside IV (ASI) could prevent obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and db/db mice. In HFD-fed mice, ASI prevented body weight gain, lowered serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, mitigated liver lipid accumulation, reduced fat tissues and decreased the enlargement of adipose cells. In metabolic chambers, ASI lessened appetite of the mice, decreased their respiratory exchange ratio and elevated VCO2 and VO2 without altering circadian motor activity...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434863/magnesium-and-calcium-enriched-deep-sea-water-promotes-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-ampk-activated-signals-pathway-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#20
Byung Geun Ha, Deok-Soo Moon, Hyeon Ju Kim, Yun Hee Shon
Recent studies showed that deficiencies of essential minerals including Mg, Ca, and K, and trace minerals including Se, Zn, and V, have implications for the development, prevention, and treatment of several chronic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW), which is composed of desalinated water enriched with Mg and Ca, has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, to determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, expression of key transcription factors and mitochondria-specific genes, phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
October 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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