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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168293/changes-in-intraepidermal-nerve-fiber-and-langerhans-cell-densities-in-the-plantar-skin-of-rats-after-mercuric-chloride-exposure
#1
Binbin Sun, Shuangyi Fan, Kai Yao, Yifan Li, Xusheng Huang
BACKGROUND: Mercury and its compounds possess strong neurotoxicity, and patients with mercury poisoning often report pain and numbness in the distal extremities that conform to the "stocking-glove" pattern. However, no study has investigated whether damage to small nerve fibers is associated with mercury poisoning. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of different doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2 ) on intraepidermal nerve fibers density (IENFD) and Langerhans cells (LCs) in the plantar skin of rats and to assess the possible relationship between changes in IENFD and sensory testing...
November 23, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167424/mir-92a-and-mir-486-are-potential-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-mercury-poisoning-and-jointly-sustain-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-in-mercury-toxicity
#2
Enmin Ding, Jun Guo, Ying Bai, Hengdong Zhang, Xin Liu, Wenyan Cai, Lixin Zhong, Baoli Zhu
Occupational and environmental exposure to mercury is a public health concern worldwide. Although the altered epigenetic regulatory features, such as microRNA, have been associated with mercury exposure, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well illuminated. This study aimed to confirm that hsa-miR-92a and hsa-miR-486 are novel diagnostic biomarkers of occupational mercury poisoning, and to explore the underlying mechanism of miR-92a and miR-486 in mercury toxicity. RT-qPCR assays and receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were conducted to confirm the diagnostic value of miR-92a and miR-486 as biomarkers of occupational mercury poisoning...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166784/performance-of-the-simplified-acute-physiology-score-iii-in-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-retrospective-observational-study
#3
D H Lee, B K Lee
The performances of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II have previously been evaluated in acute organophosphate poisoning. We aimed to compare the performance of the SAPS III with those of the APACHE II and SAPS II, as well as to identify the best tool for predicting case fatality using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in acute organophosphate poisoning. A retrospective analysis of organophosphate poisoning was conducted. The APACHE II, SAPS II, and SAPS III were calculated within 24 h of admission...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166008/porous-scaffolds-for-electrochemically-controlled-reversible-capture-and-release-of-ethylene
#4
Lukasz Mendecki, Michael Ko, Xiaoping Zhang, Zheng Meng, Katherine A Mirica
This Communication describes the use of porous coordination polymers (PCP) with integrated metal bis(dithiolene) units to achieve electrochemically controlled capture and release of ethylene in the solid state. Applying positive potential (+2.0 V) to these PCPs promotes ethylene capture, and subsequent dose of negative potential (-2.0 V) induces the release. These materials are resistant to poisoning by small reactive gases (CO and H2S) that may interact with embedded metallic sites.
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165802/treatment-of-severe-drug-reactions-by-hemodialysis
#5
Rokea A El-Azhary, Michael Z Wang, Ashley B Wentworth, LaTonya J Hickson
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis and plasma exchange are lifesaving measures in the treatment of drug poisoning. This treatment method generally is not used for severe cutaneous and systemic drug reactions. METHODS: Here, we describe three cases wherein hemodialysis therapy was instrumental in reversing the adverse drug reaction. RESULTS: In the cases of severe cutaneous drug reactions reviewed, patients presented with linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and toxic epidermal necrolysis...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165683/systematic-review-occupational-illness-in-the-waste-and-recycling-sector
#6
C J M Poole, S Basu
Background: The waste and recycling sector is a growing part of industry. Whether health surveillance is indicated and how it should be undertaken is unclear. Aims: To undertake a review of the literature to identify hazards to health, biological effects and occupational illnesses for workers in the sector. Methods: A systematic review of the published literature and two UK databases. Results: Rates of fatal, non-fatal injuries and self-reported work-related illness were found to be higher in the waste and recycling sector than in UK industry as a whole...
November 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164462/ameliorative-effect-of-the-anticancer-agent-salinomycin-on-cadmium-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-renal-dysfunction-in-mice
#7
Kalina Kamenova, Yordanka Gluhcheva, Ivelin Vladov, Silviya Stoykova, Juliana Ivanova
This study presents experimental data on the effects of the tetraethylammonium salt of salinomycinic acid (Sal) on Cd-induced hepatotoxicity and renal dysfunction in Cd-treated mice compared to those of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Forty 60-day-old male ICR mice were randomized into five groups: control group (untreated mice), Cd group (Cd(II) acetate 20 mg/kg body weight provided orally once per day for 14 days), Cd + DMSA group (exposed to Cd(II) acetate as the Cd-exposed group followed by DMSA 20 mg/kg body weight provided orally once per day for 14 days), and Cd + Sal group (exposed to Cd(II) acetate as the Cd-exposed group followed by Sal 20 mg/kg body weight once per day for 14 days)...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164278/metals-and-organohalogen-contaminants-in-bald-eagles-haliaeetus-leucocephalus-from-ontario-1991-2008
#8
P A Martin, K D Hughes, G D Campbell, J L Shutt
We examined the degree of exposure of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and several organohalogen contaminants and its potential impact on survival of bald eagles in Ontario from 1991 to 2008. Overall, results for 43 dead or dying bald eagles collected in the province indicate that 23% (10/43) of birds died of Pb poisoning and 9% (4/43) died of suspected Hg poisoning. Pb poisoning was diagnosed based on exceedances of toxicity thresholds in liver and kidney and supported by clinical observations, necropsy results, and histology findings when available...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161647/simple-synthesis-of-self-supported-hierarchical-aupd-alloyed-nanowire-networks-for-boosting-electrocatalytic-activity-toward-formic-acid-oxidation
#9
Tao Yuan, Hong-Yan Chen, Xiaohong Ma, Jiu-Ju Feng, Pei-Xin Yuan, Ai-Jun Wang
Herein, self-supported hierarchical AuPd alloyed interconnected nanowire networks (AuPd NCNs) were fabricated by a one-pot co-reduction method. Theophylline was acted as the capping and structure-directing agents. The product was mainly characterized by a series of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hierarchical nanostructures had the enlarged electrochemically active surface area (EASA), and the enhanced catalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) and strengthened poisoning tolerance for poisoning CO-like intermediates by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, which outperformed commercial Pd black catalyst...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160298/tdp2-top2-and-sumo-what-is-zatt-about
#10
Guido Zagnoli-Vieira, Keith W Caldecott
Recently, ZATT (also known as ZNF451 or Zpf451) was reported by Schellenberg et al. to aid the removal of Topoisomerase II cleavage complexes by stimulating the phosphodiesterase activity of Tyrosyl DNA Phosphodiesterase 2. Although the full implication of this discovery is unknown, it will help us understand how cells respond to topoisomerase-induced genome damage and chemotherapeutic topoisomerase 'poisons'.
November 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159701/residues-of-diclofenac-in-tissues-of-vultures-in-india-a-post-ban-scenario
#11
Kanthan Nambirajan, Subramanian Muralidharan, Aditya A Roy, S Manonmani
Populations of three resident Gyps species (Indian white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Indian vulture Gyps indicus, and Slender-billed vulture Gyps tenuirostris) in India have decreased by more than 90% since mid 1990s, and they continue to decline. Experimental studies showed the mortality of vultures to be due to renal failure caused by diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. India, Pakistan, and Nepal banned the veterinary usage of diclofenac in 2006 to prevent further decline in vulture population...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158734/a-study-of-the-importance-of-clonus-symptoms-in-patients-with-tramadol-poisoning
#12
Fares Najari, Anahita Alizadeh-Ghamsari, Maryam Vahabzadeh, Bita Dadpour, Seyed Reza Mousavi, Ideh Baradaran Kayal
Objectives: Clinical studies to reduce the side effects of tramadol, such as seizure, are necessary. Owing to the high prevalence of tramadol consumption and subsequent complications that result from seizures, the aim of the present study was to find a relationship between clonus and prediction of seizure outcome in patients with tramadol overdose. This can be used to determine the need for essential actions if a significant indicator of preventive medical measures is observed. Methods: In this case-control study, three groups of patients poisoned with tramadol and with marked ankle clonus were evaluated...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158500/use-dependent-potentiation-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-rescues-neurotransmission-in-nerve-terminals-intoxicated-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a
#13
Phillip H Beske, Katie M Hoffman, James B Machamer, Margaret R Eisen, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins that cleave neuronal SNARE proteins required for neurotransmission, causing flaccid paralysis and death by asphyxiation. Currently, there are no clinical treatments to delay or reverse BoNT-induced blockade of neuromuscular transmission. While aminopyridines have demonstrated varying efficacy in transiently reducing paralysis following BoNT poisoning, the precise mechanisms by which aminopyridines symptomatically treat botulism are not understood. Here we found that activity-dependent potentiation of presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) underlies 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP)-mediated rescue of neurotransmission in central nervous system synapses and mouse diaphragm neuromuscular junctions fully intoxicated by BoNT serotype A...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158002/sofc-single-cells-fed-by-biogas-experimental-tests-with-trace-contaminants
#14
Davide Papurello, Andrea Lanzini
Biogas from biological treatments and from the waste degradation in landfills generally contains a wide range of trace impurities (e.g., sulphur compounds, siloxanes, halogens, tar compounds, etc.). This paper describes an experimental analysis performed with SOFC single cells fed by a synthetic gas polluted by H2S, HCl, D4 and a mixture of H2S + C2Cl4. The aim is to detect the threshold tolerance limit on different cell performance parameters. Results show how: hydrogen sulphide has a strong impact on the polarization losses due to the nickel sulphide formation on the electrode that causes a mass transfer resistance...
November 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156998/exposures-to-automatic-dishwashing-rinse-aids-reported-to-the-united-kingdom-national-poisons-information-service-2008-2016
#15
Rachael C Day, Sally M Bradberry, Euan A Sandilands, Simon H L Thomas, John P Thompson, Allister Vale
OBJECTIVE: To determine the toxicity of rinse aids which are used as drying aids to remove water from crockery. METHODS: Enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) were analysed retrospectively for the period January 2008 to December 2016. RESULTS: There were 855 enquiries relating to 828 patients; children aged 5 years or less accounted for 91.1%. Most exposures occurred from ingestion alone (n = 778, 94.0%), but 26 involved ingestion and other routes: 21 with skin contact, 3 with eye contact, and two with both skin and eye contact...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156874/application-of-hemoperfusion-in-severe-acute-organophosphorus-pesticide-poisoning
#16
Zhenhe Li, Guixia Wang, Guodong Zhen, Yuliang Zhang, Jiaqiang Liu, Shanmei Liu
Background/aim: The aim of this research is to investigate the clinical efficacy of hemoperfusion in the treatment of severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). Materials and methods: Patients meeting the inclusion criteria were divided into Groups 1 and 2 according to whether hemoperfusion was applied or not. Group 2 was observed as the control group. Conventional therapy for AOPP was given to Groups 1 and 2. Besides conventional treatment, patients in Group 1 were also treated with hemoperfusion therapy...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156402/effect-of-initiating-drug-treatment-on-the-risk-of-drug-related-poisoning-death-and-acquisitive-crime-among-offending-heroin-users
#17
Matthias Pierce, Sheila M Bird, Matthew Hickman, John Marsden, Graham Dunn, Toby Seddon, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: A recent Cochrane review of randomised trials identified a lack of evidence for interventions provided to drug-using offenders. We use routine data to address whether contact with treatment services reduces heroin users' likelihood of a future acquisitive offence or drug-related poisoning (DRP) death. METHODS: Heroin-users were identified from probation assessments and linked to drug-treatment, mortality and offending records. The study cohort was selected to ensure that the subject was not: in prison, in treatment or had recently left treatment...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155976/description-of-a-mass-poisoning-in-a-rural-district-in-mozambique-the-first-documented-bongkrekic-acid-poisoning-in-africa
#18
Eduardo Samo Gudo, Kyla Cook, Amelia M Kasper, Alfredo Vergara, Cristolde Salomão, Fernanda Oliveira, Hamida Ismael, Cristovão Saeze, Carla Mosse, Quinhas Fernandes, Sofia Omar Viegas, Cynthia S Baltazar, Timothy J Doyle, Ellen Yard, Alaina Steck, Mayda Serret, Travis M Falconer, Sara E Kern, Jennifer L Brzezinski, James A Turner, Brian L Boyd, Ilesh V Jani
Background: On January 9, 2015, in a rural town in Mozambique, over 230 people became sick and 75 died from an illness linked to drinking pombe, a traditional alcoholic beverage. Methods: An investigation was conducted to identify cases and determine the cause of the outbreak. A case was defined as any resident of Chitima who developed any new or unexplained neurologic, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular symptom from January 9 at 6:00 a.m. through January 12. We conducted medical record reviews; healthcare worker and community surveys; anthropological and toxicological investigations of local medicinal plants and commercial pesticides; and laboratory testing of the suspect and control pombe...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154801/human-small-bowel-as-a-useful-tool-to-investigate-smooth-muscle-effects-of-potential-therapeutics-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#19
Katharina Marquart, Olga Prokopchuk, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Marc E Martignoni, Timo Wille
Isolated organs proofed to be a robust tool to study effects of (potential) therapeutics in organophosphate poisoning. Small bowel samples have been successfully used to reveal smooth muscle relaxing effects. In the present study, the effects of obidoxime, TMB-4, HI-6 and MB 327 were investigated on human small bowel tissue and compared with rat data. Hereby, the substances were tested in at least seven different concentrations in the jejunum or ileum both pre-contracted with carbamoylcholine. Additionally, the cholinesterase activity of native tissue was determined...
November 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154175/improving-human-health-outcomes-with-a-low-cost-intervention-to-reduce-exposures-from-lead-acid-battery-recycling-dong-mai-vietnam
#20
Bret Ericson, Thi To Duong, John Keith, Trong Cuu Nguyen, Deborah Havens, William Daniell, Catherine J Karr, Doan Ngoc Hai, Lo Van Tung, Tran Thi Nhi Ha, Brian Wilson, David Hanrahan, Gerry Croteau, Mark Patrick Taylor
This study details the first comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of a soil lead mitigation project in Dong Mai village, Vietnam. The village's population had been subject to severe lead poisoning for at least a decade as a result of informal Used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling. Between July 2013 to February 2015, Pure Earth and the Centre for Environment and Community Development (Hanoi, Vietnam) implemented a multi-faceted environmental and human health intervention. The intervention consisted of a series of institutional and low-cost engineering controls including the capping of lead contaminated surface soils, cleaning of home interiors, an education campaign and the construction of a work-clothes changing and bathing facility...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Research
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