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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092823/ph-lactate-and-hypoxia-reciprocity-in-regulating-high-affinity-monocarboxylate-transporter-expression-in-glioblastoma
#1
James P Caruso, Brandon J Koch, Philip D Benson, Elsa Varughese, Michael D Monterey, Amy E Lee, Ajal M Dave, Sam Kiousis, Andrew E Sloan, Saroj P Mathupala
Highly malignant brain tumors harbor the aberrant propensity for aerobic glycolysis, the excessive conversion of glucose to lactic acid even in the presence of ample tissue oxygen. Lactic acid is rapidly effluxed to the tumor microenvironment via a group of plasma-membrane transporters denoted monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to prevent "self-poisoning." One isoform, MCT2, has the highest affinity for lactate and thus should have the ability to respond to microenvironment conditions such as hypoxia, lactate, and pH to help maintain high glycolytic flux in the tumor...
January 13, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092342/integrity-of-outer-retinal-layers-after-resolution-of-central-involved-diabetic-macular-edema
#2
Ilkay Kilic Muftuoglu, Nadia Mendoza, Raouf Gaber, Mostafa Alam, Qisheng You, William R Freeman
PURPOSE: To evaluate the integrity of outer retina layers after resolution of central involved diabetic macular edema (DME) and to demonstrate the effect of various baseline factors for the final vision and final external limiting membrane (ELM) integrity. METHODS: Fifty-nine eyes of 48 patients with resolved DME were included. Several optical coherence tomography parameters including central subfield thickness, maximum foveal thickness, foveal center point thickness, and the extent of the ellipsoidal (ISe) layer and ELM damage were assessed at the time of DME and after resolution of DME...
January 13, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089841/the-birth-of-aposematism-high-phenotypic-divergence-and-low-genetic-diversity-in-a-young-clade-of-poison-frogs
#3
Rebecca Dent Tarvin, Emily A Powell, Juan C Santos, Santiago R Ron, David C Cannatella
Rapid radiation coupled with low genetic divergence often hinders species delimitation and phylogeny estimation even if putative species are phenotypically distinct. Some aposematic species, such as poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), have high levels of intraspecific color polymorphism, which can lead to overestimation of species when phenotypic divergence primarily guides species delimitation. We explored this possibility in the youngest origin of aposematism (3-7 MYA) in poison frogs, Epipedobates, by comparing genetic divergence with color and acoustic divergence...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089700/new-synthetic-route-to-ethynyl-dutp-a-means-to-avoid-formation-of-acetyl-and-chloro-vinyl-base-modified-triphosphates-that-could-poison-selex-experiments
#4
Pascal Röthlisberger, Fabienne Levi-Acobas, Marcel Hollenstein
5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine is a common base-modified nucleoside analogue that has served in various applications including selection experiments for potent aptamers and in biosensing. The synthesis of the corresponding triphosphates involves a mild acidic deprotection step. Herein, we show that this deprotection leads to the formation of other nucleoside analogs which are easily converted to triphosphates. The modified nucleoside triphosphates are excellent substrates for numerous DNA polymerases under both primer extension and PCR conditions and could thus poison selection experiments by blocking sites that need to be further modified...
January 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089692/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-of-the-marine-biotoxins-okadaic-acid-dinophysistoxin-2-and-their-7-o-acyl-fatty-acid-ester-derivatives-in-raw-and-steamed-shellfish
#5
Diana Manita, Ricardo N Alves, Ana Catarina Braga, Fabiola Fogaça, António Marques, Pedro Reis Costa
Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxins (DTX1 and DTX2) and their acyl-derivatives (DTX3) are marine toxins responsible for the human diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. To date the amount of toxins ingested from consumption of shellfish has been considered equal to the amount of toxins available for uptake by the human body. The aim of this study is to assess the OA, DTX2 and DTX3 fractions released from raw and steamed mussels and cockles into the digestive fluids (bioaccessibility) using a static in vitro digestion model...
January 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087871/poison-ivy-how-effective-are-available-treatments
#6
Cara K Vaught, James W Mold
In this study, only one treatment approach significantly reduced pruritus. Three approaches were often associated with recurrences of rash or symptoms.
November 2016: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087838/does-the-assessment-of-non-disjunction-provide-a-more-sensitive-assay-for-detection-of-aneugens
#7
Joanne M Elloway, Alexandra K Davies, Julie Hayes, Ann T Doherty
The detection of aneugenic chemicals is important due to the implications of aneuploidy for human health. Aneuploidy can result from chromosome loss or non-disjunction due to chromosome mis-segregation at anaphase. Frequently, aneugens are detected using the in vitro micronucleus assay (IVM), with either centromere or kinetochore labelling. However, this method does not consider non-disjunction, the suggested predominant mechanism of spindle poison induced aneugenicity in primary human lymphocytes. Therefore, the IVM may be relatively insensitive in detecting aneuploidy...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087833/dysregulation-of-map-kinase-signaling-pathways-including-p38mapk-sapk-jnk-and-erk1-2-in-cultured-rat-cerebellar-astrocytes-exposed-to-diphenylarsinic-acid
#8
Takayuki Negishi, Mami Matsumoto, Yayoi Kobayashi, Mikiya Kojima, Fumika Sakaguchi, Kazuaki Takahata, Tomoko Kanehira, Rina Arakaki, Yohei Aoyama, Hikari Yoshida, Rena Yamada, Nobutaka Sumiyoshi, Tomoko Tashiro, Seishiro Hirano, Kenji Yoshida, Kazunori Yukawa
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was a major compound found in the arsenic poisoning incident that occurred in Kamisu, Ibaraki, Japan in 2003. People exposed to DPAA via contaminated well water suffered from several neurological disorders, including cerebellar symptoms. We previously reported that DPAA induces cellular activation in cultured rat cerebellar astrocytes, dose-dependent promotion of cell growth (low DPAA), cell death (high DPAA), and increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (p38MAPK, SAPK/JNK, and ERK1/2)...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087659/plant-parasitic-nematodes-towards-understanding-molecular-players-in-stress-responses
#9
REVIEW
François-Xavier Gillet, Caroline Bournaud, Jose Dijair Antonino de Souza Júnior, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
BACKGROUND: Plant-parasitic nematode interactions occur within a vast molecular plant immunity network. Following initial contact with the host plant roots, plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) activate basal immune responses. Defence priming involves the release in the apoplast of toxic molecules derived from reactive species or secondary metabolism. In turn, PPNs must overcome the poisonous and stressful environment at the plant-nematode interface. The ability of PPNs to escape this first line of plant immunity is crucial and will determine its virulence...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080046/application-of-2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic-acid-as-a-forensic-marker-of-cyanide-exposure
#10
Monika Rużycka, Joanna Giebułtowicz, Marcin Fudalej, Paweł Krajewski, Piotr Wroczyński
Cyanides are infamous for their highly poisonous properties. Accidental cyanide poisoning occurs frequently, but occasionally, intentional poisonings also occur. Inhalation of fumes generated by fire may also cause cyanide poisoning. There are many limitations in direct analysis of cyanide. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), a cyanide metabolite, seems to be the only surrogate that is being used in the detection of cyanide because of its stability and its cyanide-dependent quality in biological matrix...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079530/can-intoxication-status-be-used-as-a-prediction-tool-for-manner-of-death-a-comparison-of-the-intoxication-status-in-violent-suicides-and-homicides
#11
D Kimberley Molina, Veronica M Hargrove
Determining the manner of death in medicolegal death investigations can be difficult. The investigator relies on many facets of death investigation, including the circumstances of death and autopsy examination. A study was designed to analyze whether the intoxication status of the decedent could be used as another tool in death investigations. The intoxication status of violent (nonoverdose or poisoning) suicides and homicides was retrospectively reviewed and compared. A total of 625 deaths were identified, including 366 suicides and 259 homicides...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079044/chorea-as-unusual-complication-of-fungicide-poisoning
#12
B S Paul, G Paul, J Kaur, G Singh
Chorea is a rare manifestation of poisoning. We report an index case of a young woman who developed generalized chorea following propiconazole toxin ingestion. As large series on neurological complications of toxic compounds are difficult to be compiled, it is of interest to report our experience. This report adds one more compound to the increasing list of toxic chorea.
January 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078916/in-vivo-protection-studies-of-bis-quaternary-2-hydroxyimino-n-pyridin-3-yl-acetamide-derivatives-hnk-oximes-against-tabun-and-soman-poisoning-in-swiss-albino-mice
#13
P Kumar, D Swami, D P Nagar, K P Singh, J Acharya, H N Karade, R Yadav
The study reports antidotal efficacy of three HNK [ bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives] and pralidoxime (2-PAM), against soman and tabun poisoning in Swiss albino mice. Protection index (PI) was determined (treatment doses: HNK oximes, ×0.20 of their median lethal dose (LD50) and 2-PAM, 30 mg/kg, intramuscularly (im)) together with atropine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Probit log doses with difference of 0.301 log of LD50 of the nerve agents administered and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 50% (IC50) was calculated at optimized time in brain and serum...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077781/effects-of-an-unusual-poison-identify-a-lifespan-role-for-topoisomerase-2-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
Gregory Tombline, Jonathan I Millen, Bogdan Polevoda, Matan Rapaport, Bonnie Baxter, Michael Van Meter, Matthew Gilbertson, Joe Madrey, Gary A Piazza, Lynn Rasmussen, Krister Wennerberg, E Lucile White, John L Nitiss, David S Goldfarb
A progressive loss of genome maintenance has been implicated as both a cause and consequence of aging. Here we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that an age-associated decay in genome maintenance promotes aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) due to an inability to sense or repair DNA damage by topoisomerase 2 (yTop2). We describe the characterization of LS1, identified in a high throughput screen for small molecules that shorten the replicative lifespan of yeast. LS1 accelerates aging without affecting proliferative growth or viability...
January 5, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077608/-holiday-sickness-reported-exploratory-outcome-of-over-500-united-kingdom-holidaymakers-with-travellers-diarrhoea
#15
Prof Aali J Sheen, M Saad B Zahid, Andrew Fagbemi, Catherine Fullwood, Kathryn Whitehead
AIMS: To ascertain any predictors of potential food poisoning pathogens and development of post-infective irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in UK travellers. An analysis was undertaken on prospectively collected data on 527 patients reporting symptoms of suspected food poisoning between June 2012 and June 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Positive stool sample indicative of food poisoning pathogens and diagnosis of post-infective IBS. RESULTS: Data on 527 patients were examined...
January 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077358/biological-signaling-by-carbon-monoxide-and-carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecules-co-rms
#16
Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti
Carbon monoxide (CO) is continuously produced in mammalian cells during degradation of heme. It is a stable gaseous molecule that reacts selectively with transition metals in a specific redox state and these characteristics restrict the interaction of CO with defined biological targets that transduce its signaling activity. Because of the high affinity of CO for ferrous heme, these targets can be grouped into heme-containing proteins, representing a large variety of sensors and enzymes with a series of diverse function in the cell and the organism...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076943/repetition-rate-after-non-fatal-self-poisoning-in-sri-lanka-a-one-year-prospective-longitudinal-study
#17
T N Rajapakse, K M Griffiths, S Cotton, H Christensen
Introduction: Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning is an important public health problem in Sri Lanka. Current evidence from Sri Lanka suggests that this phenomenon is more common among young people, and females, and is associated with a recent interpersonal conflict. International studies indicate that recent non-fatal selfharm is associated with an increased risk of repetition and completed suicide. Prospective follow-up data regarding rates of repetition of self-harm in Sri Lanka is limited...
30, 2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076550/suicide-in-university-students-in-bogot%C3%A3-colombia-2004-2014
#18
Saúl Alonso Franco, Martha Lucia Gutiérrez, Julián Sarmiento, Decsy Cuspoca, Javier Tatis, Alejandro Castillejo, Miguel Barrios, Magnolia Del Pilar Ballesteros-Cabrera, Sara Zamora, Carlos Iván Rodríguez
We report the results of a retrospective, descriptive, qualitative study of suicide among university students in Bogotá, Colombia. The objective of this study was to document the magnitude, principal characteristics, and impact of this phenomenon in the selected population. A semi-structured survey was employed to collect information from 66 individuals linked to the universities. A total of 45 cases of suicide were documented in the study period (2004 - 2014). Of these, 69% occurred in males and 31% in females...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074717/endosulfan-poisoning-in-canids-and-felids-in-the-calabria-region-of-southern-italy
#19
Antonella De Roma, Carmela Rossini, Caterina Riverso, Giorgio Galiero, Mauro Esposito
Endosulfan, a highly toxic insecticide and acaricide, was globally banned under the Stockholm Convention in May 2011 because of its threats to human health and the environment. Despite the ban on its use, endosulfan is still present in the environment, causing poisoning events in domestic animals and wildlife. Toxicologic analysis of poisoned animals conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno revealed that in the past 3 y, this pesticide has not disappeared in the regions of interest...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074704/the-toxicology-of-zinc-chloride-smoke-producing-bombs-and-screens
#20
Ayman El Idrissi, Lisanne van Berkel, Nadia E Bonekamp, Diana J Z Dalemans, Marcel A G van der Heyden
CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due to exposure to fumes from ZnCl2 smoke producing bombs. In addition, we give a historical overview of treatment regimens and their outcomes. METHODOLOGY: We performed a literature search on Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases using combinations of the following search terms "smoke bomb", "smoke screen", "ZnCl2", "intoxication", "poisoning", "case report", "HE smoke", "hexachloroethane smoke", "smoke inhalation" and "white smoke"...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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