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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528483/fossil-record-of-ephedra-in-the-lower-cretaceous-aptian-argentina
#1
Gabriela G Puebla, Ari Iglesias, María A Gómez, Mercedes B Prámparo
Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521510/differential-growth-promotion-of-poplar-and-birch-inoculated-with-three-dark-septate-endophytes-in-two-trace-element-contaminated-soils
#2
Charlotte Berthelot, Damien Blaudez, Corinne Leyval
Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) are abundant in stressful environments, including trace element- (TE-) enriched soils. However, knowledge about the effects of DSEs on plant growth in such soils is poor compared to the well-known mycorrhizal fungi. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of three DSE strains isolated from TE-contaminated soils on the growth and mineral nutrition of Betula pendula and Populus tremula x alba grown on two contrasting TE-polluted soils. The three DSEs evenly colonized the two plant species in both soils...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516356/morphology-ultrastructure-and-element-uptake-in-calophyllum-brasiliense-cambess-calophyllaceae-j-agardh-seedlings-under-cadmium-exposure
#3
Alezania Silva Pereira, Priscila Andressa Cortez, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Majeti Narashima Vara Prasad, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Maura da Cunha, Raildo Mota de Jesus, Pedro Antônio Oliveira Mangabeira
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal known for its genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, much concerned for its potential environmental and human health impacts. This study evaluates the toxic effect of Cd in Calophyllum brasiliense plants. The plants were cultivated for 30 days in full nutrient solution in order to adapt, and for 15 days in nutrient solution without Cd or with 4, 8, 16, and 32 μmol Cd L(-1). Anatomical analysis of the leaf showed no significant effects of Cd on epidermal thickness in abaxial and adaxial sides, palisade, and spongy parenchyma...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510204/microarray-meta-analysis-to-explore-abiotic-stress-specific-gene-expression-patterns-in-arabidopsis
#4
Po-Chih Shen, Ai-Ling Hour, Li-Yu Daisy Liu
BACKGROUND: Abiotic stresses are the major limiting factors that affect plant growth, development, yield and final quality. Deciphering the underlying mechanisms of plants' adaptations to stresses using few datasets might overlook the different aspects of stress tolerance in plants, which might be simultaneously and consequently operated in the system. Fortunately, the accumulated microarray expression data offer an opportunity to infer abiotic stress-specific gene expression patterns through meta-analysis...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502046/adapting-the-vegetative-vigour-terrestrial-plant-test-for-assessing-ecotoxicity-of-aerosol-samples
#5
Nora Kováts, Eszter Horváth, Bettina Eck-Varanka, Eszter Csajbók, András Hoffer
Plants, being recognized to show high sensitivity to air pollution, have been long used to assess the ecological effects of airborne contaminants. However, many changes in vegetation are now generally attributed to atmospheric deposition of aerosol particles; the dose-effect relationships of this process are usually poorly known. In contrast to bioindication studies, ecotoxicological tests (or bioassays) are controlled and reproducible where ecological responses are determined quantitatively. In our study, the No...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495963/arabidopsis-dna-topoisomerase-i-alpha-is-required-for-adaptive-response-to-light-and-flower-development
#6
Evgenia V Kupriyanova, Evgeniy V Albert, Aleksandra I Bliznina, Polina O Mamoshina, Tatiana A Ezhova
DNA topoisomerase TOP1α plays a specific role in Arabidopsis thaliana development and is required for stem cell regulation in shoot and floral meristems. Recently, a new role independent of meristem functioning has been described for TOP1α, namely, flowering time regulation. The same feature had been detected by us earlier for fas5, a mutant allele of TOP1α In this study we clarify the effects of fas5 on bolting initiation and analyze the molecular basis of its role in flowering time regulation. We show that fas5 mutation leads to a constitutive shade avoidance syndrome, accompanied by leaf hyponasty, petiole elongation, lighter leaf color and early bolting...
May 11, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481941/fine-structure-of-mouthparts-and-feeding-performance-of-pyrrhocoris-sibiricus-kuschakevich-with-remarks-on-the-specialization-of-sensilla-and-stylets-for-seed-feeding
#7
Yan Wang, Wu Dai
Mouthpart structure and feeding behavior in the temperate firebug, Pyrrhocoris sibiricus Kuschakevich, an important pest that feeds on seeds of leguminous and gramineous plants, are described for the first time. Mouthparts were observed using scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology, distribution and abundance of sensilla on mouthparts. Feeding performance by adults on both seeds and shoots were observed using a binocular microscope. The four-segmented labium contains 3 types of sensilla trichodea, 3 types of sensilla basiconica, 1 type of sensilla placodea and 1 type of sensilla campaniformia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480007/how-to-quantify-plant-tolerance-to-loss-of-biomass
#8
Tom J de Jong, Tiantian Lin
In some plant species the whole shoot is occasionally removed, as a result of specialist herbivory, grazing, mowing, or other causes. The plant can adapt to defoliation by allocating more to tolerance and less to growth and defense. Plant tolerance to defoliation (TOL1) is typically measured as the ratio between the average dry weight of a group of damaged plants and a control group of undamaged plants, both measured some time after recovery. We develop a model to clarify what TOL1 actually measures. We advocate keeping regrowth (REG2) and shoot-root ratio, both elements of TOL1, separate in the analysis...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461720/phenotypic-and-molecular-variation-in-drought-tolerance-of-jordanian-durum-wheat-triticum-durum-desf-landraces
#9
Wesam Al Khateeb, Ala'a Al Shalabi, Dana Schroeder, Iyad Musallam
Drought is considered one of the major constraints of plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants respond to drought through different mechanisms including physiological, biochemical, and gene expression modulation. Studying these mechanisms will provide better understanding of drought response mechanisms and will help breeders in developing new cultivars. In this study, growth, biochemical, and molecular responses of four wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) landraces to drought stress (300 mM mannitol) were investigated at the seedling stage...
April 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456824/identification-of-sesbania-sesban-l-merr-as-an-efficient-and-well-adapted-phytoremediation-tool-for-cd-polluted-soils
#10
Mayank Varun, Clement O Ogunkunle, Rohan D'Souza, Paulo Favas, Manoj Paul
A pot experiment was carried out to assess Cd uptake and accumulation efficiency of Sesbania sesban. Plants were grown in soil spiked with 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/kg Cd. After 120 days, plants were harvested and analyzed for Cd content. A steady increase in Cd accumulation with increasing metal concentration in soil was observed for all treatments. Accumulation of Cd was greatest in roots (86.7 ± 6.3 mg/kg), followed by stem (18.59 ± 1.9 mg/kg), and leaf (3.16 ± 1.1 mg/kg)...
June 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439277/expression-of-pennisetum-glaucum-eukaryotic-translational-initiation-factor-4a-pgeif4a-confers-improved-drought-salinity-and-oxidative-stress-tolerance-in-groundnut
#11
Tata Santosh Rama Bhadra Rao, Juturu Vijaya Naresh, Palakolanu Sudhakar Reddy, Malireddy K Reddy, Garladinne Mallikarjuna
Eukaryotic translational initiation factor 4A belong to family of helicases, involved in multifunctional activities during stress and non-stress conditions. The eIF4A gene was isolated and cloned from semi-arid cereal crop of Pennisetum glaucum. In present study, the PgeIF4A gene was expressed under the regulation of stress inducible Arabidopsis rd29A promoter in groundnut (cv JL-24) with bar as a selectable marker. The de-embryonated cotyledons were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404) carrying rd29A:PgeIF4A construct and generated high frequency of multiple shoots in phosphinothricin medium...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433159/glucuronoarabinoxylans-as-major-cell-walls-polymers-from-young-shoots-of-the-woody-bamboo-phyllostachys-aurea
#12
Víctor Martín Zelaya, Paula Virginia Fernández, Andrea Susana Vega, Anita Ida Mantese, Ana Ailén Federico, Marina Ciancia
Young shoots of Phyllostachys aurea showed glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX) as the major hemicellulosic components, being extracted in major amounts with 1M KOH (ratio Xyl:Ara:GlcA, 100:67:8), but also with water, showing a broad structural variability. Mixed linkage glucans were also present, but in minor amounts, mostly concentrated in the 4M KOH extracts, while pectin polymers were very scarce. Arabinogalactan proteins were an important part of water extracts, determined by the presence of the typical arabinogalactan structures (3- and 6-linked Gal p; terminal and 5-linked Ara f), in addition to small amounts of hydroxyproline (2-3% of total protein) and positive reaction to Yariv's reagent...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#13
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414068/modulation-of-anthraquinones-and-phloroglucinols-biosynthesis-in-hypericum-spp-by-cryogenic-treatment
#14
Katarína Bruňáková, Eva Čellárová
Beside the high post-cryogenic recovery rate, a reinstated scale of secondary metabolites in recovered plant tissues represents another inevitable aspect of an effective cryopreservation protocol for medicinal plants. The current study was aimed at evaluation of the elicitation potential of cryogenic treatment on secondary metabolism of some Hypericum species. In agreement with our assumption, the cold stimuli applied during the pre-cryogenic phase increased the tolerance to low temperatures (-196°C) in H...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411572/adaptive-response-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-to-accumulation-of-elements-and-translocation-in-phragmites-australis-affected-by-cadmium-stress
#15
Xiaochen Huang, Shih-Hsin Ho, Shishu Zhu, Fang Ma, Jieting Wu, Jixian Yang, Li Wang
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been reported to play a central role in improving plant tolerance to cadmium (Cd)-contaminated sites. This is achieved by enhancing both the growth of host plants and the nutritive elements in plants. This study assessed potential regulatory effects of AM symbiosis with regard to nutrient uptake and transport, and revealed different response strategies to various Cd concentrations. Phragmites australis was inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis in the greenhouse cultivation system, where it was treated with 0-20 mg L(-1) of Cd for 21days to investigate growth parameters, as well as Cd and nutritive element distribution in response to AM fungus inoculation...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401568/a-secreted-chitinase-like-protein-osclp-supports-root-growth-through-calcium-signaling-in-oryza-sativa
#16
Jingni Wu, Yiming Wang, Sang Gon Kim, Ki-Hong Jung, Ravi Gupta, Joonyup Kim, Younghoon Park, Kyu Young Kang, Sun Tae Kim
Chitinases belong to a conserved protein family and play multiple roles in defense, development, and growth regulation in plants. Here, we identified a secreted chitinase-like protein, OsCLP, which functions in rice growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant of OsCLP (osclp) showed significant retardation of root and shoot growth. A comparative proteomic analysis was carried out using root tissue of wild-type and the osclp mutant to understand the OsCLP-mediated rice growth retardation. Results obtained revealed that proteins related to glycolysis (phosphoglycerate kinase), stress adaption (chaperonin) and calcium signaling (calreticulin and CDPK1) were differentially regulated in osclp roots...
April 12, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400783/genetic-diversity-under-soil-compaction-in-wheat-root-number-as-a-promising-trait-for-early-plant-vigor
#17
Tino Colombi, Achim Walter
Soil compaction of arable land, caused by heavy machinery constitutes a major threat to agricultural soils in industrialized countries. The degradation of soil structure due to compaction leads to decreased (macro-) porosity resulting in increased mechanical impedance, which adversely affects root growth and crop productivity. New crop cultivars, with root systems that are adapted to conditions of increased soil strength, are needed to overcome the limiting effects of soil compaction on plant growth. This study aimed (i) to quantify the genetic diversity of early root system development in wheat and to relate this to shoot development under different soil bulk densities and (ii) to test whether root numbers are suitable traits to assess the genotypic tolerance to soil compaction...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394079/effect-of-phytoliths-for-mitigating-water-stress-in-durum-wheat
#18
Jean Dominique Meunier, Doris Barboni, Muhammad Anwar-Ul-Haq, Clément Levard, Perrine Chaurand, Vladimir Vidal, Olivier Grauby, Roland Huc, Isabelle Laffont-Schwob, Jacques Rabier, Catherine Keller
The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses in crops is well evidenced by empirical studies; however, the mechanisms by which it works are still poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not phytolith composition and distribution in wheat are affected by drought and, if so, why. Durum wheat was grown using hydroponics in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 to perform a water-stress simulation. We developed an original method for in situ analysis of phytoliths in leaves via X-ray imaging...
April 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392608/stem-girdling-indicates-prioritized-carbon-allocation-to-the-root-system-at-the-expense-of-radial-stem-growth-in-norway-spruce-under-drought-conditions
#19
Walter Oberhuber, Andreas Gruber, Gina Lethaus, Andrea Winkler, Gerhard Wieser
The early culmination of maximum radial growth (RG) in late spring has been found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment. We hypothesized that an early decrease in RG is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon (C) allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally subjected six-year-old Norway spruce saplings (tree height: 1.35 m; n = 80 trees) to two levels of soil water availability (watered versus drought conditions) and manipulated tree C status by physically blocking phloem transport at three girdling dates (GD)...
June 2017: Environmental and Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388893/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-cllax-clpin-and-clabcb-genes-families-in-citrullus-lanatus-under-various-abiotic-stresses-and-grafting
#20
Chenliang Yu, Wenqi Dong, Yihua Zhan, Zong-An Huang, Zhimiao Li, Il Seop Kim, Chenghao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Auxin plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development as well as in the response of plants to abiotic stresses. Auxin is transported by three kinds of major protein families, including the AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX⁄LAX) influx carriers, the PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers and the ATP binding cassette B/P-glycoprotein/Multidrug-resistance (ABCB/MDR/PGP) efflux/condition carriers. The biological function of several auxin transporter genes has been well characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 7, 2017: BMC Genetics
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