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Adaptive shooting

Muhammad Tariq Javed, Muhammad Sohail Akram, Noman Habib, Kashif Tanwir, Qasim Ali, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Huma Gul, Naeem Iqbal
Lead (Pb) stress adversely affects in planta nutrient homeostasis and metabolism when present at elevated concentration in the surrounding media. The present study was aimed at investigation of organic acid exudations, elemental contents, growth, and lipid peroxidation in two wild plants (Amaranthus viridis L. and Portulaca oleracea L.), exhibiting differential root to shoot Pb translocation, under Pb stress. Plants were placed in soil spiked with lead chloride (PbCl2) concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60 mg Pb/kg soil, in rhizoboxes supplied with nylon nets around the roots...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qin Huang, Meiping Wang, Zongliang Xia
Sulfur is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and stress responses. The family of sulfate transporters (SULTRs) mediates the uptake and translocation of sulfate in higher plants. However, basic knowledge of the SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.) is scarce. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of SULTR genes in maize was conducted, and the developmental expression patterns of the genes and their responses to sulfate starvation and abiotic stress were further investigated...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ben Scheres, Beth A Krizek
Growth at the root tip and organ generation at the shoot tip depend on the proper functioning of apical meristems and the transitioning of meristematic cell descendants from a proliferating state to cell elongation and differentiation. Members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT) transcription factor family, a clade of two-AP2 domain proteins, specify both stem cell fate and control cellular progression of stem cell daughter cells toward differentiation. Here we highlight the importance of an AIL/PLT protein gradient in controlling distinct cellular behaviors in the root through the regulation of distinct targets in different parts of the root tip...
November 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Christopher F Strock, Laurie Morrow de la Riva, Jonathan Lynch
We tested the hypothesis that reduced root secondary growth of dicotyledonous species improves phosphorus acquisition. Functional-structural modeling in SimRoot indicates that in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), reduced root secondary growth reduces root metabolic costs, increases root length, improves phosphorus capture, and increases shoot biomass in low phosphorus soil. Observations from the field and greenhouse confirm that under phosphorus stress, resource allocation is shifted from secondary to primary root growth, genetic variation exists for this response, and reduced secondary growth improves phosphorus capture from low phosphorus soil...
November 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
Chi Zhang, Hejuan Li, Jiayuan Wang, Bin Zhang, Wei Wang, Hongxuan Lin, Sheng Luan, Jiping Gao, Wenzhi Lan
Rice (Oryza sativa; background Nipponbare) contains nine HKT (high-affinity K(+) transport)-like genes encoding membrane proteins belonging to the superfamily of Ktr/TRK/HKT. OsHKTs have been proposed to include four selectivity filter-pore-forming domains homologous to the bacterial K(+) channel KcsA, and are separated into OsHKT1s with Na(+)-selective activity and OsHKT2s with Na(+)-K(+) symport activity. As a member of the OsHKT2 subfamily, OsHKT2;4 renders Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) permeability for yeast cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes, besides K(+) and Na(+)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Péter Poczai, Jaakko Hyvönen
Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) is an epiphytic bromeliad widely distributed throughout tropical and warm temperate America. This plant is highly adapted to extreme environmental conditions. Striking features of this species include specialized trichomes (scales) covering the surface of its shoots aiding the absorption of water and nutrients directly from the atmosphere and a specific photosynthesis using crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Here we report the plastid genome of Spanish moss and present the comparison of genome organization and sequence evolution within Poales...
2017: PloS One
Dong An, Jiu-Geng Chen, Yi-Qun Gao, Xiang Li, Zhen-Fei Chao, Zi-Ru Chen, Qian-Qian Li, Mei-Ling Han, Ya-Ling Wang, Yong-Fei Wang, Dai-Yin Chao
Arabidopsis thaliana high-affinity potassium transporter 1 (AtHKT1) limits the root-to-shoot sodium transportation and is believed to be essential for salt tolerance in A. thaliana. Nevertheless, natural accessions with 'weak allele' of AtHKT1, e.g. Tsu-1, are mainly distributed in saline areas and are more tolerant to salinity. These findings challenge the role of AtHKT1 in salt tolerance and call into question the involvement of AtHKT1 in salinity adaptation in A. thaliana. Here, we report that AtHKT1 indeed drives natural variation in the salt tolerance of A...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
Gareth J Norton, Anthony J Travis, John M C Danku, David E Salt, Mahmud Hossain, Md Rafiqul Islam, Adam H Price
As the global population grows, demand on food production will also rise. For rice, one limiting factor effecting production could be availability of fresh water, hence adoption of techniques that decrease water usage while maintaining or increasing crop yield are needed. Alternative wetting and drying (AWD) is one of these techniques. AWD is a method by which the level of water within a rice field cycles between being flooded and nonflooded during the growth period of the rice crop. The degree to which AWD affects cultivars differently has not been adequately addressed to date...
August 2017: Food and energy security
R G Rutledge, D Stewart, C Overton, K Klimaszewska
Within a plantation of clonal somatic embryo-derived white spruce trees that belonged to four genotypes, one genotype (G6) has consistently responded for the last 16 years, to the induction of somatic embryogenesis within primordial shoot explants. Analysis of fourteen individuals within this genotype subsequently revealed a group of clonal trees that were nonresponsive. This in turn provided a unique opportunity to conduct differential gene expression analysis in the absence of genotype-specific factors. Absolute qPCR was first used to expand the analysis of several genes previously identified via microarray analysis to be differentially expressed during SE induction, along with the inclusion of two nonresponsive genotypes...
2017: PloS One
Yansheng Li, Zhenhua Yu, Xiaobing Liu, Ulrike Mathesius, Guanghua Wang, Caixian Tang, Junjiang Wu, Judong Liu, Shaoqing Zhang, Jian Jin
Nitrogen deficiency limits crop performance under elevated CO2 (eCO2), depending on the ability of plant N uptake. However, the dynamics and redistribution of N2 fixation, and fertilizer and soil N use in legumes under eCO2 have been little studied. Such an investigation is essential to improve the adaptability of legumes to climate change. We took advantage of genotype-specific responses of soybean to increased CO2 to test which N-uptake phenotypes are most strongly related to enhanced yield. Eight soybean cultivars were grown in open-top chambers with either 390 ppm (aCO2) or 550 ppm CO2 (eCO2)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marina E Battaglia, María Victoria Martin, Leandra Lechner, Giselle M A Martínez-Noël, Graciela L Salerno
Alkaline/neutral invertases (A/N-Inv), glucosidases that irreversibly hydrolyze sucrose into glucose and fructose, play significant roles in plant growth, development, and stress adaptation. They occur as multiple isoforms located in the cytosol or organelles. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two mitochondrial A/N-Inv genes (A/N-InvA and A/N-InvC) have already been investigated. In this study, we functionally characterized A/N-InvH, a third Arabidopsis gene coding for a mitochondrial-targeted protein. The phenotypic analysis of knockout mutant plants (invh) showed a severely reduced shoot growth, while root development was not affected...
2017: PloS One
Zhe Wang, Maaike Y Bader, Xin Liu, Zhangming Zhu, Weikai Bao
Bryophyte communities can exhibit similar structural and taxonomic diversity as vascular plant communities, just at a smaller scale. Whether the physiological diversity can be similarly diverse, and whether it can explain local abundance patterns is unknown, due to a lack of community-wide studies of physiological traits. This study re-analyzed data on photosynthesis-related traits (including the nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations, photosynthetic capacities, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies) of 27 bryophyte species in a subalpine old-growth fir forest on the eastern Tibetan Plateau...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Javier Calvo-Fernández, Ángela Taboada, Andreas Fichtner, Werner Härdtle, Leonor Calvo, Elena Marcos
Ecosystems adapted to low nitrogen (N) conditions such as Calluna-heathlands are especially sensitive to enhanced atmospheric N deposition that affects many aspects of ecosystem functioning like nutrient cycling, soil properties and plant-microbial-enzyme relationships. We investigated the effects of five levels of experimentally-simulated N deposition rates (i.e., N fertilization treatments: 0, 10, 20 and 50kgNha(-1)yr(-1) for 3years, and 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) for 10years) on: plant, litter, microbial biomass and soil nutrient contents, soil extracellular enzymatic activities, and plant root ericoid mycorrhizal colonization...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shaofang Liu, Haiting Hao, Xiang Lu, Xia Zhao, Yun Wang, Yubao Zhang, Zhongkui Xie, Ruoyu Wang
Plant growth-promoting Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 induces systemic salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and enhances the fresh and dry weight. However, the underlying molecular mechanism that allows plants to respond to FZB42 and exhibit salt tolerance is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of Arabidopsis shoot tissues grown under salt stress with or without FZB42 inoculation by using Illumina sequencing to identify the key genes and pathways with important roles during this interaction...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Donghwi Ko, Ykä Helariutta
As sessile organisms, terrestrial plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to coordinate the growth and development of two distinct systems, the shoot and the root, in response to environmental fluctuations. Adaptive systemic responses are accomplished by shoot-root communication, which involves diverse long-distance signalling molecules. During the last few decades, various genetic, biochemical, molecular, and grafting studies have identified multiple long-distance signalling molecules which are crucial for plants to adapt to external changes...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Wajeeha Saeed, Saadia Naseem, Zahid Ali
Strigolactones (SLs), being a new class of plant hormones, play regulatory roles against abiotic stresses in plants. There are multiple hormonal response pathways, which are adapted by the plants to overcome these stressful environmental constraints to reduce the negative impact on overall crop plant productivity. Genetic modulation of the SLs could also be applied as a potential approach in this regard. However, endogenous plant hormones play central roles in adaptation to changing environmental conditions, by mediating growth, development, nutrient allocation, and source/sink transitions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vibha Gupta, Pradeep Kumar Jatav, Raini Verma, Shanker Lal Kothari, Sumita Kachhwaha
With the boom in industrialization, there is an increase in the level of heavy metals in the soil which drastically affect the growth and development of plants. Nickel is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, but elevated level of Ni causes stunted growth, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and alterations in the defense mechanism of plants in terms of accumulation of osmolytes or change in enzyme activities like guiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Ni-induced toxic response was studied in seedlings of finger millet, pearl millet, and oats in terms of seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, total chlorophyll, proline content, and enzymatic activities...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Arafat Abdel Hamed Abdel Latef, Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Hani Saber, Eman A Alwaleed, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The present study evaluates the potential of Sar gassum muticum (Sar) and Jan ia rubens (Jan) seaweeds for enhancing growth and mitigating soil-salinity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Under control conditions, Sar and Jan extracts improved chickpea growth which was attributed to their potential for increasing photosynthetic pigments, K(+) and amino acids, particularly proline, in comparison with water-sprayed control. Upon stress imposition, chickpea growth was reduced in NaCl concentration-dependent manner, and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed Na(+) accumulation and oxidative damage as major determinants of sensitivity at high salinity...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ehsan Mohseni Fard, Behnam Bakhshi, Mohammad Farsi, Amin Mirshamsi Kakhki, Nava Nikpay, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimi, Mohsen Mardi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous regulatory RNAs that are involved in a variety of biological processes related to proliferation, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. miRNA profiles of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64.) leaves in a partial root zone drying (PRD) system were analysed using a high-throughput sequencing approach to identify miRNAs associated with drought signalling. The treatments performed in this study were as follows: well-watered ("wet" roots, WW), wherein both halves of the pot were watered daily; drought ("dry" roots, DD), wherein water was withheld from both halves of the pot; and well-watered/drought ("wet" and "dry" roots, WD), wherein one half of each pot was watered daily, the same as in WW, and water was withheld from the other part, the same as in DD...
October 24, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
Luís F Goulao, João C Fernandes, Sara Amâncio
The noteworthy fine remodeling that plant cell walls (CWs) undergo to adapt to developmental, physiological and environmental cues and the observation that its composition and dynamics differ between species represents an opportunity to couple crop species agronomic studies with research on CW modifications. Vitis vinifera is one of the most important crops from an economic point-of-view due to the high value of the fruit, predominantly for winemaking. The availability of some information related to this species' CWs allows researching its responses to imposed conditions that affect the plant's development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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