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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755482/silicon-improves-chilling-tolerance-during-early-growth-of-maize-by-effects-on-micronutrient-homeostasis-and-hormonal-balances
#1
Narges Moradtalab, Markus Weinmann, Frank Walker, Birgit Höglinger, Uwe Ludewig, Guenter Neumann
Low soil temperature in spring is a major constraint for the cultivation of tropical and subtropical crops in temperate climates, associated with inhibition of root growth and activity, affecting early growth and frequently plant performance and final yield. This study was initiated to investigate the physiological base of cold-protective effects induced by supplementation with silicon (Si), widely recommended as a stress-protective mineral nutrient. Maize was used as a cold-sensitive model plant, exposed to chilling stress and low root-zone temperature (RZT) during early growth in a lab to field approach...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746459/parallel-altitudinal-clines-reveal-trends-in-adaptive-evolution-of-genome-size-in-zea-mays
#2
Paul Bilinski, Patrice S Albert, Jeremy J Berg, James A Birchler, Mark N Grote, Anne Lorant, Juvenal Quezada, Kelly Swarts, Jinliang Yang, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra
While the vast majority of genome size variation in plants is due to differences in repetitive sequence, we know little about how selection acts on repeat content in natural populations. Here we investigate parallel changes in intraspecific genome size and repeat content of domesticated maize (Zea mays) landraces and their wild relative teosinte across altitudinal gradients in Mesoamerica and South America. We combine genotyping, low coverage whole-genome sequence data, and flow cytometry to test for evidence of selection on genome size and individual repeat abundance...
May 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745188/-effects-of-invasive-cenchrus-spinifex-on-nitrogen-pools-in-sandy-grassland
#3
Ting Zhang, Wei Dong Fu, Rui Hai Zhang, Zhen Song, Chao Bai, Cheng Cheng Huang, Guo Liang Zhang
Cenchrus spinifex is an invasive plant found in large areas of northern China. In this study, we focused on analysis of the effects of C. spinifex on soil nitrogen and plant nitrogen pools in Horqin sandy grassland. In addition, a pot experiment with 15 N tracing techniques was designed to study the biological nitrogen fixation ability of C. spinifex, compared with two native grasses, Elymus dahuricus and Agropyron cristatum. The total soil nitrogen pool in C. spinifex invaded-area increased significantly by 47...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745185/-growth-adaptability-of-zostera-marina-at-different-habitats-of-the-swan-lake-in-rongcheng-china
#4
Mei Yu Guo, Wen Tao Li, Xiao Long Yang, Xiu Mei Zhang, Jian Ying Liu, Chang Jun Li
Eelgrass (Zostera marina), a seagrass species widely distributed in the coastal regions of northern hemisphere, has suffered with a great decline due to a variety of anthropogenic and environmental stresses. In order to examine the adaptability of eelgrass to different environmental stresses, studies on the morphology and reproductive capacity of eelgrass had been carried out monthly from November 2014 to October 2015 at four different habitats of the Swan Lake, including patch area inintertidal area and subtidal area, eelgrass meadow edge, and eelgrass meadow area...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741053/-effects-of-clipping-on-nitrogen-allocation-strategy-and-compensatory-growth-of-leymus-chinensis-under-saline-alkali-conditions
#5
Cong Cong Zheng, Yong Jing Wang, Hao Sun, Xin Yu Wang, Ying Zhi Gao
Soil salinization and overgrazing are two main factors limiting animal husbandry in the Songnen Grassland. Leymus chinensis is a dominant rhizome grass, resistant to grazing as well as to-lerant to salt stress. Foliar labeled with 15 N-urea was used to study the nitrogen allocation strategy and compensatory growth response to clipping under saline-alkali conditions. The results showed that the total absorbed 15 N allocated to the aboveground part was more than 60%. Compared with the control treatment (no saline-alkali, no clipping), saline-alkali increased the distribution of 15 N by 5...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740752/tomosynthesis-implementation-with-adaptive-online-calibration-on-clinical-c-arm-systems
#6
Khanlian Chung, Lothar R Schad, Frank G Zöllner
PURPOSE: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems offer physicians crucial 3D and 2D imaging capabilities during interventions. However, certain medical applications only require very specific information from the CBCTs (e.g., determination of the position of high-contrast objects). In diagnostics, tomosynthesis techniques can be used in these cases to minimize dose exposure. Therefore, integrating such techniques on CBCT systems could also be beneficial for interventions. In this paper, we investigate the performance of our implementation of circular tomosynthesis on a CBCT device...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736647/microarray-based-expression-analysis-of-phytohormone-related-genes-in-rice-seedlings-during-cyanide-metabolism
#7
Xiao-Zhang Yu, Yu-Juan Lin, Chun-Jiao Lu, Dharmendra K Gupta
Plants exhibit highly coordinated, dynamic reactions to various abiotic stressors. As cyanide is a non-essential element for plant growth, entry inside plants can exert toxicity at multiple levels. In plant, hormone plays a pivot role under stress conditions. The fluctuations of stress-responsive hormones help in altering cellular dynamics and hence play a central role in coordination and adaptation growth responses under stress. This study focusses on uptake of cyanide in Oryza sativa seedlings and its effect on physiological and on genetic level...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727812/effects-of-cadmium-stress-on-growth-and-amino-acid-metabolism-in-two-compositae-plants
#8
Guangxu Zhu, Huayun Xiao, Qingjun Guo, Zhongyi Zhang, Jingjing Zhao, Dan Yang
Cadmium, a high toxic heavy metal, is one of the most serious contaminants in soil and a potential threat to plant growth and human health. Amino acid metabolism has the central role in heavy metal stress resistance of plants. In this paper, a pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 3, 6, 12, 30 mg kg-1 ) on the growth, Cd accumulation and amino acid metabolism in two Compositae plants (Ageratum conyzoides L. and Crassocephalum crepidioides). The results showed that under cadmium stress, C...
May 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721285/structural-and-functional-responses-of-plant-communities-to-climate-change-mediated-alterations-in-the-hydrology-of-riparian-areas-in-temperate-europe
#9
Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Annemarie Garssen, Emma Göthe, Carl Christian Hoffmann, Andrea Oddershede, Tenna Riis, Peter M van Bodegom, Søren E Larsen, Merel Soons
The hydrology of riparian areas changes rapidly these years because of climate change-mediated alterations in precipitation patterns. In this study, we used a large-scale in situ experimental approach to explore effects of drought and flooding on plant taxonomic diversity and functional trait composition in riparian areas in temperate Europe. We found significant effects of flooding and drought in all study areas, the effects being most pronounced under flooded conditions. In near-stream areas, taxonomic diversity initially declined in response to both drought and flooding (although not significantly so in all years) and remained stable under drought conditions, whereas the decline continued under flooded conditions...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703867/plant-hormonomics-multiple-phytohormone-profiling-by-targeted-metabolomics
#10
Jan Šimura, Ioanna Antoniadi, Jitka Široká, Danuse Tarkowska, Miroslav Strnad, Karin Ljung, Ondrej Novak
Phytohormones are physiologically important small molecules, which play essential roles in intricate signaling networks that regulate diverse processes in plants. We present a method for the simultaneous targeted profiling of 101 phytohormone-related analytes from minute amounts of fresh plant material (< 20 mg). Rapid and non-selective extraction, fast one-step sample purification, and extremely sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) enable concurrent quantification of the main phytohormone classes: cytokinins, auxins, brassinosteroids, gibberellins, jasmonates, salicylates, and abscisates...
April 27, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679062/springtime-photoinhibition-constrains-regeneration-of-forest-floor-seedlings-of-abies-sachalinensis-after-a-removal-of-canopy-trees-during-winter
#11
Mitsutoshi Kitao, Hisanori Harayama, Qingmin Han, Evgenios Agathokleous, Akira Uemura, Naoyuki Furuya, Satoshi Ishibashi
A clear-cutting of canopy trees during winter often causes severe foliar damage during the following spring in forest floor seedlings of Abies sachalinensis, a typical shade-tolerant evergreen coniferous species. The maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II after an overnight dark adaptation showed a temporary decrease immediately before budbreak in 1-year-old shoots of A. sachalinensis seedlings grown under full sunlight in a nursery, suggesting "springtime photoinhibition" related to the phenology of evergreen coniferous species...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658119/rice-spx6-negatively-regulates-the-phosphate-starvation-response-through-suppression-of-the-transcription-factor-phr2
#12
Yongjia Zhong, Yuguang Wang, Jiangfan Guo, Xinlu Zhu, Jing Shi, Qiuju He, Yu Liu, Yunrong Wu, Li Zhang, Qundan Lv, Chuanzao Mao
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development, but the molecular mechanism determining how plants sense external inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels and reprogram transcriptional and adaptive responses is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the function of OsSPX6 (hereafter SPX6), an uncharacterized member of SPX domain (SYG1, Pho81 and XPR1)-containing proteins in rice, using reverse genetics and biochemical approaches. Transgenic plants overexpressing SPX6 exhibited decreased Pi concentrations and suppression of phosphate starvation-induced (PSI) genes...
April 15, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651382/impact-of-geography-on-adaptation-of-phyllanthus-amarus-seeds
#13
Karthik Sankar Narayan, Edwin Raj Esack, Parthasarathy Radhapriya, Venkatesh Babu Gopal, Sakthivel Muthu, Palani Perumal
The present study was aimed to evaluate adaptive mechanism in terms of seed characters of Phyllanthus amarus collected from ten different locations of Tamil Nadu, India. The adaptive variations among the collected populations were assessed based on the sink and float percentages of the seeds in water, the percentage of seed germination, total protein, carbohydrates and their seedling's growth ability such as shoot and root lengths. From this, we observed that the population had a significantly higher germination percentage of sinking seeds that were attributed to its relatively higher carbohydrate and protein contents than the floating seeds...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627558/water-use-patterns-of-co-occurring-c-3-and-c-4-shrubs-in-the-gurbantonggut-desert-in-northwestern-china
#14
Bahejiayinaer Tiemuerbieke, Xiao-Jun Min, Yong-Xin Zang, Peng Xing, Jian-Ying Ma, Wei Sun
In water-limited ecosystems, spatial and temporal partitioning of water sources is an important mechanism that facilitates plant survival and lessens the competition intensity of co-existing plants. Insights into species-specific root functional plasticity and differences in the water sources of co-existing plants under changing water conditions can aid in accurate prediction of the response of desert ecosystems to future climate change. We used stable isotopes of soil water, groundwater and xylem water to determine the seasonal and inter- and intraspecific differences variations in the water sources of six C3 and C4 shrubs in the Gurbantonggut desert...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625394/sulfur-dioxide-derivatives-alleviate-cadmium-toxicity-by-enhancing-antioxidant-defence-and-reducing-cd-2-uptake-and-translocation-in-foxtail-millet-seedlings
#15
Yansha Han, Mengyang Wu, Lihong Hao, Huilan Yi
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) was recently proposed as a novel bio-regulator in mammals. However, the possible advantageous effects of SO2 in plant adaptation to heavy metal-contaminated environments are largely unknown. In the present study, using Na2 SO3 /NaHSO3 derivatives as SO2 donors, we investigated the possible roles and regulation mechanisms of SO2 in alleviating Cd2+ toxicity in foxtail millet seedlings. Exogenous SO2 derivatives (0.5 mM) application significantly reduced the seedling growth inhibition caused by Cd2+ stress...
April 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618812/a-small-peptide-modulates-stomatal-control-via-abscisic-acid-in-long-distance-signalling
#16
Fuminori Takahashi, Takehiro Suzuki, Yuriko Osakabe, Shigeyuki Betsuyaku, Yuki Kondo, Naoshi Dohmae, Hiroo Fukuda, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuo Shinozaki
Mammalian peptide hormones propagate extracellular stimuli from sensing tissues to appropriate targets to achieve optimal growth maintenance1 . In land plants, root-to-shoot signalling is important to prevent water loss by transpiration and to adapt to water-deficient conditions2, 3 . The phytohormone abscisic acid has a role in the regulation of stomatal movement to prevent water loss4 . However, no mobile signalling molecules have yet been identified that can trigger abscisic acid accumulation in leaves. Here we show that the CLAVATA3/EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED 25 (CLE25) peptide transmits water-deficiency signals through vascular tissues in Arabidopsis, and affects abscisic acid biosynthesis and stomatal control of transpiration in association with BARELY ANY MERISTEM (BAM) receptors in leaves...
April 4, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596559/stochastic-modelling-of-tree-architecture-and-biomass-allocation-application-to-teak-tectona-grandis-l-f-a-tree-species-with-polycyclic-growth-and-leaf-neoformation
#17
Kodjo Tondjo, Loïc Brancheriau, Sylvie Sabatier, Adzo Dzifa Kokutse, Kouami Kokou, Marc Jaeger, Philippe de Reffye, Thierry Fourcaud
Background and aims: For a given genotype, the observed variability of tree forms results from the stochasticity of meristem functioning and from changing and heterogeneous environmental factors affecting biomass formation and allocation. In response to climate change, trees adapt their architecture by adjusting growth processes such as pre- and neoformation, as well as polycyclic growth. This is the case for the teak tree. The aim of this work was to adapt the plant model, GreenLab, in order to take into consideration both these processes using existing data on this tree species...
March 27, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594902/concentration-effects-of-the-uv-filter-oxybenzone-in-cyperus-alternifolius-assessment-of-tolerance-by-stress-related-response
#18
Feiran Chen, Sandrine Schnick, Peter Schröder
Phytoremediation has been proposed to reduce the load of the sunscreen oxybenzone (OBZ) in the aquatic environment. Despite the proven removal efficiency of this compound, little is known about its influence, particularly oxidative stress on plants. In this study, a short-term incubation of macrophytic Cyperus alternifolius was performed to prove the plant's ability to withstand the stress. Detached shoots were immersed in medium spiked with different concentrations of OBZ (50, 100, and 500 μM) for 2, 4, and 7 days, respectively...
March 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593754/magnesium-transporter-mgt6-plays-an-essential-role-in-maintaining-magnesium-homeostasis-and-regulating-high-magnesium-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#19
Yu-Wei Yan, Dan-Dan Mao, Lei Yang, Jin-Liang Qi, Xin-Xin Zhang, Qing-Lin Tang, Yang-Ping Li, Ren-Jie Tang, Sheng Luan
Magnesium (Mg) is one of the essential nutrients for all living organisms. Plants acquire Mg from the environment and distribute within their bodies in the ionic form via Mg2+ -permeable transporters. In Arabidopsis , the plasma membrane-localized magnesium transporter MGT6 mediates Mg2+ uptake under Mg-limited conditions, and therefore is important for the plant adaptation to low-Mg environment. In this study, we further assessed the physiological function of MGT6 using a knockout T-DNA insertional mutant allele...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581277/endoplasmic-reticulum-localized-ccx2-is-required-for-osmotolerance-by-regulating-er-and-cytosolic-ca-2-dynamics-in-arabidopsis
#20
Massimiliano Corso, Fabrizio G Doccula, J Romário F de Melo, Alex Costa, Nathalie Verbruggen
Ca2+ signals in plant cells are important for adaptive responses to environmental stresses. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis CATION/Ca2+ EXCHANGER2 (CCX2), encoding a putative cation/Ca2+ exchanger that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is strongly induced by salt and osmotic stresses. Compared with the WT, AtCCX2 loss-of-function mutant was less tolerant to osmotic stress and displayed the most noteworthy phenotypes (less root/shoot growth) during salt stress. Conversely, AtCCX2 gain-of-function mutants were more tolerant to osmotic stress...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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