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Adaptive shooting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433159/glucuronoarabinoxylans-as-major-cell-walls-polymers-from-young-shoots-of-the-woody-bamboo-phyllostachys-aurea
#1
Víctor Martín Zelaya, Paula Virginia Fernández, Andrea Susana Vega, Anita Ida Mantese, Ana Ailén Federico, Marina Ciancia
Young shoots of Phyllostachys aurea showed glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX) as the major hemicellulosic components, being extracted in major amounts with 1M KOH (ratio Xyl:Ara:GlcA, 100:67:8), but also with water, showing a broad structural variability. Mixed linkage glucans were also present, but in minor amounts, mostly concentrated in the 4M KOH extracts, while pectin polymers were very scarce. Arabinogalactan proteins were an important part of water extracts, determined by the presence of the typical arabinogalactan structures (3- and 6-linked Gal p; terminal and 5-linked Ara f), in addition to small amounts of hydroxyproline (2-3% of total protein) and positive reaction to Yariv's reagent...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#2
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414068/modulation-of-anthraquinones-and-phloroglucinols-biosynthesis-in-hypericum-spp-by-cryogenic-treatment
#3
Katarína Bruňáková, Eva Čellárová
Beside the high post-cryogenic recovery rate, a reinstated scale of secondary metabolites in recovered plant tissues represents another inevitable aspect of an effective cryopreservation protocol for medicinal plants. The current study was aimed at evaluation of the elicitation potential of cryogenic treatment on secondary metabolism of some Hypericum species. In agreement with our assumption, the cold stimuli applied during the pre-cryogenic phase increased the tolerance to low temperatures (-196°C) in H...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411572/adaptive-response-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-to-accumulation-of-elements-and-translocation-in-phragmites-australis-affected-by-cadmium-stress
#4
Xiaochen Huang, Shih-Hsin Ho, Shishu Zhu, Fang Ma, Jieting Wu, Jixian Yang, Li Wang
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been reported to play a central role in improving plant tolerance to cadmium (Cd)-contaminated sites. This is achieved by enhancing both the growth of host plants and the nutritive elements in plants. This study assessed potential regulatory effects of AM symbiosis with regard to nutrient uptake and transport, and revealed different response strategies to various Cd concentrations. Phragmites australis was inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis in the greenhouse cultivation system, where it was treated with 0-20 mg L(-1) of Cd for 21days to investigate growth parameters, as well as Cd and nutritive element distribution in response to AM fungus inoculation...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401568/a-secreted-chitinase-like-protein-osclp-supports-root-growth-through-calcium-signaling-in-oryza-sativa
#5
Jingni Wu, Yiming Wang, Sang Gon Kim, Ki-Hong Jung, Ravi Gupta, Joonyup Kim, Younghoon Park, Kyu Young Kang, Sun Tae Kim
Chitinases belong to a conserved protein family and play multiple roles in defense, development, and growth regulation in plants. Here, we identified a secreted chitinase-like protein, OsCLP, which functions in rice growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant of OsCLP (osclp) showed significant retardation of root and shoot growth. A comparative proteomic analysis was carried out using root tissue of wild-type and the osclp mutant to understand the OsCLP-mediated rice growth retardation. Results obtained revealed that proteins related to glycolysis (phosphoglycerate kinase), stress adaption (chaperonin) and calcium signaling (calreticulin and CDPK1) were differentially regulated in osclp roots...
April 12, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400783/genetic-diversity-under-soil-compaction-in-wheat-root-number-as-a-promising-trait-for-early-plant-vigor
#6
Tino Colombi, Achim Walter
Soil compaction of arable land, caused by heavy machinery constitutes a major threat to agricultural soils in industrialized countries. The degradation of soil structure due to compaction leads to decreased (macro-) porosity resulting in increased mechanical impedance, which adversely affects root growth and crop productivity. New crop cultivars, with root systems that are adapted to conditions of increased soil strength, are needed to overcome the limiting effects of soil compaction on plant growth. This study aimed (i) to quantify the genetic diversity of early root system development in wheat and to relate this to shoot development under different soil bulk densities and (ii) to test whether root numbers are suitable traits to assess the genotypic tolerance to soil compaction...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394079/effect-of-phytoliths-for-mitigating-water-stress-in-durum-wheat
#7
Jean Dominique Meunier, Doris Barboni, Muhammad Anwar-Ul-Haq, Clément Levard, Perrine Chaurand, Vladimir Vidal, Olivier Grauby, Roland Huc, Isabelle Laffont-Schwob, Jacques Rabier, Catherine Keller
The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses in crops is well evidenced by empirical studies; however, the mechanisms by which it works are still poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not phytolith composition and distribution in wheat are affected by drought and, if so, why. Durum wheat was grown using hydroponics in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 to perform a water-stress simulation. We developed an original method for in situ analysis of phytoliths in leaves via X-ray imaging...
April 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392608/stem-girdling-indicates-prioritized-carbon-allocation-to-the-root-system-at-the-expense-of-radial-stem-growth-in-norway-spruce-under-drought-conditions
#8
Walter Oberhuber, Andreas Gruber, Gina Lethaus, Andrea Winkler, Gerhard Wieser
The early culmination of maximum radial growth (RG) in late spring has been found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment. We hypothesized that an early decrease in RG is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon (C) allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally subjected six-year-old Norway spruce saplings (tree height: 1.35 m; n = 80 trees) to two levels of soil water availability (watered versus drought conditions) and manipulated tree C status by physically blocking phloem transport at three girdling dates (GD)...
June 2017: Environmental and Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388893/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-cllax-clpin-and-clabcb-genes-families-in-citrullus-lanatus-under-various-abiotic-stresses-and-grafting
#9
Chenliang Yu, Wenqi Dong, Yihua Zhan, Zong-An Huang, Zhimiao Li, Il Seop Kim, Chenghao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Auxin plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development as well as in the response of plants to abiotic stresses. Auxin is transported by three kinds of major protein families, including the AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX⁄LAX) influx carriers, the PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers and the ATP binding cassette B/P-glycoprotein/Multidrug-resistance (ABCB/MDR/PGP) efflux/condition carriers. The biological function of several auxin transporter genes has been well characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 7, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384230/no-evidence-for-local-adaptation-to-salt-stress-in-the-existing-populations-of-invasive-solidago-canadensis-in-china
#10
Junmin Li, Haiyan Liu, Ming Yan, Leshan Du
Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377784/flowering-and-growth-responses-of-cultivated-lentil-and-wild-lens-germplasm-toward-the-differences-in-red-to-far-red-ratio-and-photosynthetically-active-radiation
#11
Hai Y Yuan, Shyamali Saha, Albert Vandenberg, Kirstin E Bett
Understanding environmental responses of pulse crop species and their wild relatives will play an important role in developing genetic strategies for crop improvement in response to changes in climate. This study examined how cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm responded to different light environments, specifically differences in red/far-red ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Three genotypes of each the seven Lens species were grown in environmentally controlled growth chambers equipped to provide light treatments consisting of different R/FR ratios and PAR values...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376769/moose-tree-interactions-rebrowsing-is-common-across-tree-species
#12
Karen Marie Mathisen, Jos M Milner, Christina Skarpe
BACKGROUND: Plant strategies to resist herbivory include tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance strategies, such as rapid regrowth which increases the palatability of new shoots, can lead to positive feedback loops between plants and herbivores. An example of such a positive feedback occurs when moose (Alces alces) browse trees in boreal forests. We described the degree of change in tree morphology that accumulated over time in response to repeated browsing by moose, using an index of accumulated browsing...
April 4, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376429/responses-of-serpentine-plants-to-pine-invasion-vegetation-diversity-and-nickel-accumulation-in-species-with-contrasting-adaptive-strategies
#13
Federico Selvi, Elisa Carrari, Ilaria Colzi, Andrea Coppi, Cristina Gonnelli
Introduction of non-native trees is one of the major threats to ecosystem integrity and biodiversity. Stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) introduced decades ago represent a threat to the specialized plant communities of serpentine outcrops in Italy. This study investigates the effects of such invasions at the community and species level, based on vegetation sampling in three selected sites with comparable environmental conditions. Pine cover caused a decrease of α-diversity by lowering the species evenness of the community, though species richness was not negatively affected...
April 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343043/clonal-integration-increases-tolerance-of-a-phalanx-clonal-plant-to-defoliation
#14
Pu Wang, Huan Li, Xiao-Yu Pang, Ao Wang, Bi-Cheng Dong, Jing-Pin Lei, Fei-Hai Yu, Mai-He Li
Defoliation by herbivores commonly imposes negative effects on plants, and physiological integration (resource sharing) can enhance the ability of guerilla clonal plants to tolerate stresses. Here we examined whether physiological integration can increase the ability of phalanx clonal plants to withstand defoliation. On a high mountain grassland in southwestern China, we subjected the phalanx clonal plant Iris delavayi within 10cm×10cm plots to three levels of defoliation intensity, i.e., control (no defoliation), moderate (50% shoot removal to simulate moderate herbivory) and heavy defoliation (100% shoot removal to simulate heavy herbivory), and kept rhizomes at the plot edges connected (allowing physiological integration) or disconnected (preventing integration) with intact ramets outside the plots...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340155/identification-of-jasmonic-acid-and-jasmonoyl-isoleucine-and-characterization-of-aos-aoc-opr-and-jar1-in-the-model-lycophyte-selaginella-moellendorffii
#15
Putri Pratiwi, Genta Tanaka, Tomohiro Takahashi, Xiaonan Xie, Koichi Yoneyama, Hideyuki Matsuura, Kosaku Takahashi
Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in a variety of physiological responses in seed plants. However, the detection and role of JA in lycophytes, a group of seedless vascular plants, have remained elusive until recently. This study provides the first evidence of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) in the model lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Mechanical wounding stimulated the accumulation of OPDA, JA and JA-Ile. These data were corroborated by the detection of enzymatically active allene oxide synthase (AOS), allene oxide cyclase (AOC), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) and JA-Ile synthase (JAR1) in S...
April 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334100/an-organismal-concept-for-sengelia-radicans-gen-et-sp-nov-morphology-and-natural-history-of-an-early-devonian-lycophyte
#16
Kelly K S Matsunaga, Alexandru M F Tomescu
Background and Aims: Fossil plants are found as fragmentary remains and understanding them as natural species requires assembly of whole-organism concepts that integrate different plant parts. Such concepts are essential for incorporating fossils in hypotheses of plant evolution and phylogeny. Plants of the Early Devonian are crucial to reconstructing the initial radiation of tracheophytes, yet few are understood as whole organisms. Methods: This study assembles a whole-plant concept for the Early Devonian lycophyte Sengelia radicans gen...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316609/shoot-and-root-traits-contribute-to-drought-resistance-in-recombinant-inbred-lines-of-md-23-24-%C3%A3-sea-5-of-common-bean
#17
Jose Polania, Idupulapati M Rao, Cesar Cajiao, Miguel Grajales, Mariela Rivera, Federico Velasquez, Bodo Raatz, Stephen E Beebe
Drought is the major abiotic stress factor limiting yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in smallholder systems in Latin America and eastern and southern Africa; where it is a main source of protein in the daily diet. Identification of shoot and root traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of designing bean genotypes adapted to drought. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia to determine the relationship between grain yield and different shoot and root traits using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population (MD23-24 × SEA 5) of common bean...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300380/dosimetric-characteristics-of-linatech-dmlc-h-multi-leaf-collimator-monte-carlo-simulation-and-experimental-study
#18
Mikaeil Molazadeh, Ahad Zeinali, Mostafa Robatjazi, Alireza Shirazi, Ghazale Geraily
This study evaluated the basic dosimetric characteristics of a Dynamic Multi Leaf Collimator (DMLC) using a diode detector and film measurements for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance (IMRT QA). The EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) simulation system was used for the determination of MLC characteristics. Radiation transmission and abutting leaf leakage relevant to the LinaTech DMLC H were measured using an EDGE detector and EBT3 film. In this study, the BEAMnrc simulation code was used for modeling...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287426/phosphorus-and-iron-deficiencies-influences-rice-shoot-growth-in-an-oxygen-dependent-manner-insight-from-upland-and-lowland-rice
#19
Jenjira Mongon, Nanthana Chaiwong, Nadia Bouain, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, David Secco, Hatem Rouached
Rice is the main staple crop for one-third of the world population. To maximize yields, large quantities and constant input of fertilizers containing essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) are added. Rice can germinate in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but the crosstalk between oxygen (O₂) and nutrients such as P and Fe on plant growth remains obscure. The aim of this work was to test whether such interactions exist, and, if so, if they are conserved between up- and lowland rice varieties...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265496/limited-effects-of-source-population-identity-and-number-on-seagrass-transplant-performance
#20
Alyssa B Novak, Holly K Plaisted, Cynthia G Hays, Randall A Hughes
Global declines in coastal foundation species highlight the importance of effective restoration. In this study, we examined the effects of source population identity and diversity (one vs. three sources per plot) on seagrass (Zostera marina) transplant success. The field experiment was replicated at two locations in Massachusetts with adjacent natural Zostera marina beds to test for local adaptation and source diversity effects on shoot density. We also collected morphological and genetic data to characterize variation within and among source populations, and evaluate whether they were related to performance...
2017: PeerJ
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