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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097399/segregation-for-fertility-and-meiotic-stability-in-novel-brassica-allohexaploids
#1
Margaret W Mwathi, Mehak Gupta, Chaya Atri, Surinder S Banga, Jacqueline Batley, Annaliese S Mason
Allohexaploid Brassica populations reveal ongoing segregation for fertility, while genotype influences fertility and meiotic stability. Creation of a new Brassica allohexaploid species is of interest for the development of a crop type with increased heterosis and adaptability. At present, no naturally occurring, meiotically stable Brassica allohexaploid exists, with little data available on chromosome behaviour and meiotic control in allohexaploid germplasm. In this study, 100 plants from the cross B. carinata × B...
January 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087658/are-winter-and-summer-dormancy-symmetrical-seasonal-adaptive-strategies-the-case-of-temperate-herbaceous-perennials
#2
REVIEW
Lauren M Gillespie, Florence A Volaire
BACKGROUND: Dormancy in higher plants is an adaptive response enabling plant survival during the harshest seasons and has been more explored in woody species than in herbaceous species. Nevertheless, winter and summer shoot meristem dormancy are adaptive strategies that could play a major role in enhancing seasonal stress tolerance and resilience of widespread herbaceous plant communities. SCOPE: This review outlines the symmetrical aspects of winter and summer dormancy in order to better understand plant adaptation to severe stress, and highlight research priorities in a changing climate...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081272/individual-plasticity-of-the-shade-response-of-the-invasive-solidago-canadensis-in-china
#3
Leshan Du, Haiyan Liu, Ming Yan, Junmin Li, Junsheng Li
To evaluate the population variation, individual plasticity, and local adaptability of Solidago canadensis in response to shade treatment, we conducted a common pots experiment with a total of 150 ramets (5 genets, 15 populations, and 2 treatments) subjected to both control (natural light) and shady treatment (10% of natural light). Shade treatment significantly reduced growth and content of defense metabolites in S. canadensis. Compared to control, shading led to increased height, decreased basal diameter, increased leaf width, increased leaf length, increased chlorophyll content, stronger photosynthetic rate (Pn), stronger stomatal conductance (gs), and lower root to shoot ratio...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077178/ptsd-or-not-ptsd-comparing-the-proposed-icd-11-and-the-dsm-5-ptsd-criteria-among-young-survivors-of-the-2011-norway-attacks-and-their-parents
#4
G S Hafstad, S Thoresen, T Wentzel-Larsen, A Maercker, G Dyb
BACKGROUND: The conceptualization of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the upcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 differs in many respects from the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The consequences of these differences for individuals and for estimation of prevalence rates are largely unknown. This study investigated the concordance of the two diagnostic systems in two separate samples at two separate waves...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064176/root-xylem-plasticity-to-improve-water-use-and-yield-in-water-stressed-soybean
#5
Silvas J Prince, Mackensie Murphy, Raymond N Mutava, Lorellin A Durnell, Babu Valliyodan, J Grover Shannon, Henry T Nguyen
We tested the hypothesis that increasing the number of metaxylem vessels would enhance the efficiency of water uptake in soybean (Glycine max) and decrease the yield gap in water-limited environments. A panel of 41 soybean accessions was evaluated in greenhouse, rainout shelter, and rain-fed field environments. The metaxylem number influenced the internal capture of CO2 and improved stomatal conductance, enhancing water uptake/use in soybeans exposed to stress during the reproductive stage. We determined that other root anatomical features, such as cortex cell area and the percentage of stele that comprised cortical cells, also affected seed yield under similar growth parameters...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048614/su-f-t-273-using-a-diode-array-to-explore-the-weakness-of-tps-dosecalculation-algorithm-for-vmat-and-sliding-window-techniques
#6
J Park, B Lu, G Yan, J Park, F Li, J Li, C Liu
PURPOSE: To identify the weakness of dose calculation algorithm in a treatment planning system for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and sliding window (SW) techniques using a two-dimensional diode array. METHODS: The VMAT quality assurance(QA) was implemented with a diode array using multiple partial arcs that divided from a VMAT plan; each partial arc has the same segments and the original monitor units. Arc angles were less than ± 30°. Multiple arcs delivered through consecutive and repetitive gantry operating clockwise and counterclockwise...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040626/inhibition-of-ethylene-synthesis-reduces-salt-tolerance-in-tomato-wild-relative-species-solanum-chilense
#7
Emna Gharbi, Juan-Pablo Martínez, Hela Benahmed, Gilles Lepoint, Brigitte Vanpee, Muriel Quinet, Stanley Lutts
Exposure to salinity induces a burst in ethylene synthesis in the wild tomato halophyte plant species Solanum chilense. In order to gain information on the role of ethylene in salt adaptation, plants of Solanum chilense (accession LA4107) and of cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Ailsa Craig) were cultivated for 7days in nutrient solution containing 0 or 125mM NaCl in the presence or absence of the inhibitor of ethylene synthesis (aminovinylglycine (AVG) 2μM). Salt-induced ethylene synthesis in S...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036107/linkage-drag-constrains-the-roots-of-modern-wheat
#8
Kai P Voss-Fels, Lunwen Qian, Sebastian Parra-Londono, Ralf Uptmoor, Matthias Frisch, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnère, Rudi Appels, Rod J Snowdon
Roots, the hidden half of crop plants, are essential for resource acquisition. However, knowledge about the genetic control of below-ground plant development in wheat, one of the most important small-grain crops in the world, is very limited. The molecular interactions connecting root and shoot development and growth, and thus modulating the plant's demand for water and nutrients along with its ability to access them, are largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that linkage drag in European bread wheat, driven by strong selection for a haplotype variant controlling heading date, has eliminated a specific combination of two flanking, highly conserved, haplotype variants whose interaction confers increased root biomass...
December 30, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028018/ontogenesis-and-functions-of-saxophone-stem-in-acrocomia-aculeata-arecaceae
#9
Joyce Nascimento E Souza, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro, Maria Olívia Mercadante-Simões
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The underground saxophone stem systems produced by seedlings of certain palm species show peculiar growth patterns and distinctive morphologies, although little information is available concerning their development and function. We studied the ontogenesis of the saxophone stem in Acrocomia aculeata, an important neotropical oleaginous palm, and sought to experimentally define its function. METHODS: Morpho-anatomical evaluations were performed during 240 d on seedlings using traditional methodologies...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940414/cold-stress-increases-salt-tolerance-of-the-extremophytes-eutrema-salsugineum-thellungiella-salsuginea-and-eutrema-thellungiella-botschantzevii
#10
A O Shamustakimova, Т G Leonova, V V Taranov, A H de Boer, A V Babakov
A comparative study was performed to analyze the effect of cold acclimation on improving the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana, Eutrema salsugineum and Eutrema botschantzevii plants to salt stress. Shoot FW, sodium and potassium accumulation, metabolite content, expression of proton pump genes VAB1, VAB2,VAB3, VP2, HA3 and genes encoding ion transporters SOS1, HKT1, NHX1, NHX2, NHX5 located in the plasma membrane or tonoplast were determined just after the cold treatment and the onset of the salt stress. In the same cold-acclimated E...
January 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936402/influence-of-triethyl-phosphate-on-phosphatase-activity-in-shooting-range-soil-isolation-of-a-zinc-resistant-bacterium-with-an-acid-phosphatase
#11
Sandra Story, Robin L Brigmon
Phosphatase-mediated hydrolysis of organic phosphate may be a viable means of stabilizing heavy metals via precipitation as a metal phosphate in bioremediation applications. We investigated the effect of triethyl phosphate (TEP) on soil microbial-phosphatase activity in a heavy-metal contaminated soil. Gaseous TEP has been used at subsurface sites for bioremediation of organic contaminants but not applied in heavy-metal contaminated areas. Little is known about how TEP affects microbial activity in soils and it is postulated that TEP can serve as a phosphate source in nutrient-poor groundwater and soil/sediments...
March 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935412/rice-oserf71-mediated-root-modification-affects-shoot-drought-tolerance
#12
Dong-Keun Lee, Suin Yoon, Youn Shic Kim, Ju-Kon Kim
Drought is the most serious problem that impedes crop development and productivity worldwide. Although several studies have documented the root architecture adaption for drought tolerance, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our latest study demonstrated that overexpression of the OsERF71 in rice roots under drought conditions modifies root structure including larger aerenchyma and radial root growth, and thereby, protects the rice plants from drought stresses. The OsERF71-mediated root modifications are caused by combinatory overexpression of general stress-inducible, cell wall-associated and lignin biosynthesis genes that contribute to drought tolerance...
January 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933329/the-effects-of-cadmium-exposure-on-cadmium-fractionation-and-enzyme-activities-in-the-rhizosphere-of-two-radish-cultivars-raphanus-sativus-l
#13
Juan Xin, Xiaohu Zhao, Qiling Tan, Xuecheng Sun, Xin Wen, Shiyu Qin, Chengxiao Hu
The effects of increasing Cd additions on plant growth and Cd fractionation and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil of two radish cultivars were investigated. The results showed that Cd concentrations in shoot and root of cultivar 4 were both higher than for cultivar 19 under different Cd levels. Compared with cultivar 19, the total, shoot and root biomasses of cultivar 4 were significantly reduced with increasing Cd levels. A decrease in soil pH was observed for cultivar 4. The exchangeable Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly higher than for soil from cultivar 19, while the carbonate-bound Cd concentration of soil from cultivar 4 was significantly lower than for cultivar 19...
December 8, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929310/network-analysis-of-ptsd-symptoms-following-mass-violence
#14
Connor P Sullivan, Andrew J Smith, Michael Lewis, Russell T Jones
OBJECTIVE: Network analysis is a useful tool for understanding how symptoms interact with one another to influence psychopathology. However, this analytic strategy has not been fully utilized in the PTSD field. The current study utilized network analysis to examine connectedness and strength among PTSD symptoms (employing both partial correlation and regression network analyses) among a community sample of students exposed to the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings. METHOD: Respondents (N = 4,639) completed online surveys 3-4 months postshootings, with PTSD symptom severity measured via the Trauma Symptom Questionnaire...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918940/beyond-flexibility-controlling-stem-cells-in-an-ever-changing-environment
#15
REVIEW
Anne Pfeiffer, Christian Wenzl, Jan U Lohmann
Developmental plasticity is a defining feature of plants allowing them to colonize a wide range of different ecosystems by promoting environmental adaptation. Their postembryonic development requires life-long maintenance of stem cells, which are embedded into specialized tissues, called meristems. The shoot apical meristem gives rise to all above ground tissues and is a complex and dynamic three-dimensional structure harboring cells of different clonal origins and fates. Functionally divergent subdomains are stably maintained despite permanent cell division, however their relative sizes are modified in response to developmental and environmental signals...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896464/a-hypergravity-environment-increases-chloroplast-size-photosynthesis-and-plant-growth-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#16
Kaori Takemura, Hiroyuki Kamachi, Atsushi Kume, Tomomichi Fujita, Ichirou Karahara, Yuko T Hanba
The physiological and anatomical responses of bryophytes to altered gravity conditions will provide crucial information for estimating how plant physiological traits have evolved to adapt to significant increases in the effects of gravity in land plant history. We quantified changes in plant growth and photosynthesis in the model plant of mosses, Physcomitrella patens, grown under a hypergravity environment for 25 days or 8 weeks using a custom-built centrifuge equipped with a lighting system. This is the first study to examine the response of bryophytes to hypergravity conditions...
January 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891140/drought-and-heat-differentially-affect-xth-expression-and-xet-activity-and-action-in-3-day-old-seedlings-of-durum-wheat-cultivars-with-different-stress-susceptibility
#17
Andrea Iurlaro, Monica De Caroli, Erika Sabella, Mariarosaria De Pascali, Patrizia Rampino, Luigi De Bellis, Carla Perrotta, Giuseppe Dalessandro, Gabriella Piro, Stephen C Fry, Marcello S Lenucci
Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855648/genome-and-transcriptome-sequencing-characterises-the-gene-space-of-macadamia-integrifolia-proteaceae
#18
Catherine J Nock, Abdul Baten, Bronwyn J Barkla, Agnelo Furtado, Robert J Henry, Graham J King
BACKGROUND: The large Gondwanan plant family Proteaceae is an early-diverging eudicot lineage renowned for its morphological, taxonomic and ecological diversity. Macadamia is the most economically important Proteaceae crop and represents an ancient rainforest-restricted lineage. The family is a focus for studies of adaptive radiation due to remarkable species diversification in Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots, and numerous evolutionary transitions between biomes. Despite a long history of research, comparative analyses in the Proteaceae and macadamia breeding programs are restricted by a paucity of genetic information...
November 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833624/assessment-of-stress-tolerance-productivity-and-forage-quality-in-t1-transgenic-alfalfa-co-overexpressing-zxnhx-and-zxvp1-1-from-zygophyllum-xanthoxylum
#19
Peng Kang, Ai-Ke Bao, Tanweer Kumar, Ya-Qing Pan, Zhulatai Bao, Fei Wang, Suo-Min Wang
Salinization, desertification, and soil nutrient deprivation are threatening the production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in northern China. We have previously generated T0 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes with enhanced salt and drought tolerance. To further develop this excellent breeding material into the new forage cultivar, stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality of T1 transgenic alfalfa (GM) were assessed in this study. The GM inherited the traits of salt and drought tolerance from T0 generation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826829/phytoextraction-of-heavy-metals-by-potential-native-plants-and-their-microscopic-observation-of-root-growing-on-stabilised-distillery-sludge-as-a-prospective-tool-for-in-situ-phytoremediation-of-industrial-waste
#20
Ram Chandra, Vineet Kumar
The safe disposal of post-methanated distillery sludge (PMDS) in the environment is challenging due to high concentrations of heavy metals along with other complex organic pollutants. The study has revealed that PMDS contained high amounts of Fe (2403), Zn (210), Mn (126), Cu (73.62), Cr (21.825), Pb (16.33) and Ni (13.425 mg kg(-1)) along with melanoidins and other co-pollutants. The phytoextraction pattern in 15 potential native plants growing on sludge showed that the Blumea lacera, Parthenium hysterophorous, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Cannabis sativa, Basella alba, Tricosanthes dioica, Amaranthus spinosus L...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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