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Adaptive shooting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334100/an-organismal-concept-for-sengelia-radicans-gen-et-sp-nov-morphology-and-natural-history-of-an-early-devonian-lycophyte
#1
Kelly K S Matsunaga, Alexandru M F Tomescu
Background and Aims: Fossil plants are found as fragmentary remains and understanding them as natural species requires assembly of whole-organism concepts that integrate different plant parts. Such concepts are essential for incorporating fossils in hypotheses of plant evolution and phylogeny. Plants of the Early Devonian are crucial to reconstructing the initial radiation of tracheophytes, yet few are understood as whole organisms. Methods: This study assembles a whole-plant concept for the Early Devonian lycophyte Sengelia radicans gen...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316609/shoot-and-root-traits-contribute-to-drought-resistance-in-recombinant-inbred-lines-of-md-23-24-%C3%A3-sea-5-of-common-bean
#2
Jose Polania, Idupulapati M Rao, Cesar Cajiao, Miguel Grajales, Mariela Rivera, Federico Velasquez, Bodo Raatz, Stephen E Beebe
Drought is the major abiotic stress factor limiting yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in smallholder systems in Latin America and eastern and southern Africa; where it is a main source of protein in the daily diet. Identification of shoot and root traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of designing bean genotypes adapted to drought. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia to determine the relationship between grain yield and different shoot and root traits using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population (MD23-24 × SEA 5) of common bean...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300380/dosimetric-characteristics-of-linatech-dmlc-h-multi-leaf-collimator-monte-carlo-simulation-and-experimental-study
#3
Mikaeil Molazadeh, Ahad Zeinali, Mostafa Robatjazi, Alireza Shirazi, Ghazale Geraily
This study evaluated the basic dosimetric characteristics of a Dynamic Multi Leaf Collimator (DMLC) using a diode detector and film measurements for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance (IMRT QA). The EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) simulation system was used for the determination of MLC characteristics. Radiation transmission and abutting leaf leakage relevant to the LinaTech DMLC H were measured using an EDGE detector and EBT3 film. In this study, the BEAMnrc simulation code was used for modeling...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287426/phosphorus-and-iron-deficiencies-influences-rice-shoot-growth-in-an-oxygen-dependent-manner-insight-from-upland-and-lowland-rice
#4
Jenjira Mongon, Nanthana Chaiwong, Nadia Bouain, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, David Secco, Hatem Rouached
Rice is the main staple crop for one-third of the world population. To maximize yields, large quantities and constant input of fertilizers containing essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) are added. Rice can germinate in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but the crosstalk between oxygen (O₂) and nutrients such as P and Fe on plant growth remains obscure. The aim of this work was to test whether such interactions exist, and, if so, if they are conserved between up- and lowland rice varieties...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265496/limited-effects-of-source-population-identity-and-number-on-seagrass-transplant-performance
#5
Alyssa B Novak, Holly K Plaisted, Cynthia G Hays, Randall A Hughes
Global declines in coastal foundation species highlight the importance of effective restoration. In this study, we examined the effects of source population identity and diversity (one vs. three sources per plot) on seagrass (Zostera marina) transplant success. The field experiment was replicated at two locations in Massachusetts with adjacent natural Zostera marina beds to test for local adaptation and source diversity effects on shoot density. We also collected morphological and genetic data to characterize variation within and among source populations, and evaluate whether they were related to performance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264775/yield-and-quality-responses-plant-metabolism-and-metal-distribution-pattern-in-aromatic-rice-under-lead-pb-toxicity
#6
Umair Ashraf, Xiangru Tang
Present study was planned to assess the yield and quality responses, plant physio-biochemical characters and Pb distribution pattern in two aromatic rice cultivars viz., Guixiangzhan (GXZ) and Nongxiang-18 (NX-18) under four different Pb-levels viz., control (0), low (400), medium (800) and high (1200) mg kg(-1)of soil. Results revealed that Pb toxicity increased H2O2, lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage while inhibited photosynthetic pigments production, but such increment was higher in NX-18 than GXZ...
February 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261244/continuous-spectrum-leds-promote-seedling-quality-traits-and-performance-of-quercus-ithaburensis-var-macrolepis
#7
Sonia Smirnakou, Theoharis Ouzounis, Kalliopi M Radoglou
Regulation of the growth, development, and quality of plants by the control of light quality has attracted extensive attention worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of continuous LED spectrum for indoor plant pre-cultivation and to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of a common broadleaved tree species in Mediterranean environment, Quercus ithaburensis var. macrolepis at seedling developmental stage. Thus, the seedlings were pre-cultivated for 28 days, under five different LED light qualities: (1) Fluorescent (FL) as control light (2) L20AP67 (high in green and moderate in far-red), (3) AP673L (high in green and red), (4) G2 (highest in red and far-red), AP67 (high in blue, red, and far-red), and (5) NS1 (highest in blue and green and lowest in far-red) LEDs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254780/osftip1-mediated-regulation-of-florigen-transport-in-rice-is-negatively-regulated-by-a-ubiquitin-like-domain-kinase-osubdk%C3%AE-4
#8
Shiyong Song, Ying Chen, Lu Liu, Yanwen Wang, Shengjie Bao, Xuan Zhou, Zhi Wei Norman Teo, Chuanzao Mao, Yinbo Gan, Hao Yu
Flowering time is a critical agronomic trait that determines successful seed production and adaptation of crop plants. Photoperiodic control of this process in flowering plants is mediated by the long-distance mobile signal called florigen partly encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis and its orthologs in other plant species. Despite the progress in understanding FT transport in the dicot model Arabidopsis, the mechanisms of florigen transport in monocots, which provide most of the biomass in agriculture, are unknown...
March 2, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244226/no3-po4-3-and-so4-2-deprivation-reduced-lkt1-mediated-low-affinity-k-uptake-and-skor-mediated-k-translocation-in-tomato-and-arabidopsis-plants
#9
Reyes Ródenas, Manuel Francisco García-Legaz, Elvira López-Gómez, Vicente Martínez, Francisco Rubio, M Ángeles Botella
Regulation of essential macronutrients acquisition by plants in response to their availability is a key process for plant adaptation to changing environments. Here we show in tomato and Arabidopsis plants that when they are subjected to NO3(-) , PO4(3)(-) and SO4(2)(-) deprivation, low-affinity K(+) uptake and K(+) translocation to the shoot are reduced. In parallel, these nutritional deficiencies produce reductions in the messenger levels of the genes encoding the main systems for low-affinity K(+) uptake and K(+) translocation, i...
February 28, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244225/the-genetic-architecture-of-shoot-root-covariation-during-seedling-emergence-of-a-dessert-tree-populus-euphratica
#10
Miaomiao Zhang, Wenhao Bo, Fang Xu, Huan Li, Meixia Ye, Libo Jiang, Chaozhong Shi, Yaru Fu, Guomiao Zhao, Yuejiao Huang, Kirk Gosik, Dan Liang, Rongling Wu
The coordination of shoots and roots is critical for plants to adapt to changing environments by fine-tuning energy production in leaves and the availability of water and nutrients from roots. To understand the genetic architecture of how these two organs covary during developmental ontogeny, we conducted a mapping experiment using Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica), a so-called hero tree able to grow in the desert. We geminated intraspecific F1 seeds of Euphrates Poplar individually in a tube to obtain a total of 370 seedlings, whose shoot and taproot lengths were measured repeatedly during the early stage of growth...
February 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243724/in-vitro-gene-expression-and-mrna-translocation-from-transformed-walnut-juglans-regia-rootstocks-expressing-dsred-fluorescent-protein-to-wild-type-scions
#11
Xiaochen Liu, Sriema L Walawage, Charles A Leslie, Abhaya M Dandekar, David M Tricoli, Hengkang Hu, Youjun Huang, Jiaqi Zhang, Chuanmei Xv, Jianqin Huang, Qixiang Zhang
An in vitro grafting method was developed for examining gene translocation from rootstock to scion in walnut. Results showed the DsRED gene itself was not translocated but expressed mRNA was. Grafting is widely used in plants, especially in fruit and nut crops. Selected rootstocks can control scion growth and physiological traits, including shortening of the juvenile phase and controlling tree size. Rootstocks also can provide improved soil adaptation and pathogen resistance. Development of genetically modified (GM) fruit crops has progressed recently, but commercial cultivation is still limited due to the time required for evaluation and issues with deregulation...
February 27, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215019/goose-management-in-scotland-an-overview
#12
REVIEW
Ian Bainbridge
This paper reviews the changing status of goose populations in Scotland since the 1940s, and the changing policies and management activities employed over that time. The size of all goose populations has risen since the 1940s due to protection measures, changes in agriculture and levels of shooting, in the UK and elsewhere. The development of goose policies in response to public interest and pressures is described. Some changes in goose populations since 2000 can be linked to this policy development. Policy is now split between protective measures for some species and adaptive management approaches encompassing control measures for others...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177802/plant-growth-promotion-properties-of-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-the-rhizosphere-of-the-jerusalem-artichoke-helianthus-tuberosus-l-adapted-to-saline-alkaline-soils-and-their-effect-on-wheat-growth
#13
Xiaolin Liu, Xiangyue Li, Yan Li, Runzhi Li, Zhihong Xie
The Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus), known to be tolerant to saline-alkaline soil conditions, has been cultivated for many years in the Yellow River delta, Shandong Province coastal zone, in China. The aim of our study was to isolate nitrogen-fixing bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of JA and to characterize other plant growth promotion properties. The ultimate goal was to identify isolates that could be used as inoculants benefiting an economic crop, in particular for improving wheat growth production in the Yellow River delta...
November 14, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167042/effects-of-tungsten-on-uptake-transport-and-subcellular-distribution-of-molybdenum-in-oilseed-rape-at-two-different-molybdenum-levels
#14
Shiyu Qin, Xuecheng Sun, Chengxiao Hu, Qiling Tan, Xiaohu Zhao, Shoujun Xu
Due to the similarities of molybdenum (Mo) with tungsten (W) in the physical structure and chemical properties, studies involving the two elements have mainly examined their competitive relationships. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of equimolar W on Mo accumulation, transport and subcellular distribution in oilseed rape at two Mo levels with four treatments: Mo1 (1μmol/L Mo, Low Mo), Mo1+W1 (1μmol/L Mo+1μmol/LW, Low Mo with Low W), Mo200 (200μmol/L Mo, High Mo) and Mo200+W200 (200μmol/L Mo+200μmol/L Mo, High Mo with high W)...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156131/variations-in-several-morphological-characteristics-and-cd-pb-accumulation-capacities-among-different-ecotypes-of-torpedograss-responding-to-cd-pb-stresses
#15
Guijuan Gao, Xiaolong Zeng, Zhidan Li, Aikui Chen, Zhongyi Yang
Torpedograss (Panicum repens) has been recognized as a useful plant species for phytoremediation of water-level-fluctuation zones which is a worldwide challenge. In this study, 10 ecotypes collected from tropical zone and flooded habitats (Group-A) and subtropical zone and drought habitats (Group-B) were used to clarify their responses to Cd-Pb stresses and effects of long-term adaptation on their morphological features and Cd-Pb accumulation capacities. Branch capacity, shoot and root biomasses of Group-A under control were smaller than those of Group-B, while the opposite results were observed under Cd-Pb stresses...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151431/characterisation-of-noise-and-sharpness-of-images-from-four-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-systems-for-simulation-of-images-for-virtual-clinical-trials
#16
Alistair Mackenzie, Nicholas W Marshall, Andria Hadjipanteli, David R Dance, Hilde Bosmans, Kenneth C Young
In-depth evaluation of the noise and sharpness characteristics of FujiFilm Innovality, GE SenoClaire, Hologic Selenia Dimensions and Siemens Inspiration digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems was performed with the intention of improving image simulation for virtual clinical trials. Noise power spectra (NPS) and modulation transfer function curves (MTF) were measured for planar modes and for the first and central projections for DBT modes. In DBT mode, the x-ray beam was blocked for the projections before the central projection in order to remove the influence of lag and ghosting from the previous images...
March 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140388/de-novo-transcriptome-assemblies-of-four-accessions-of-the-metal-hyperaccumulator-plant-noccaea-caerulescens
#17
Daniel Blande, Pauliina Halimaa, Arja I Tervahauta, Mark G M Aarts, Sirpa O Kärenlampi
Noccaea caerulescens of the Brassicaceae family has become the key model plant among the metal hyperaccumulator plants. Populations/accessions of N. caerulescens from geographic locations with different soil metal concentrations differ in their ability to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. Comparison of transcriptomes in several accessions provides candidates for detailed exploration of the mechanisms of metal accumulation and tolerance and local adaptation. This can have implications in the development of plants for phytoremediation and improved mineral nutrition...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116587/preparing-for-disaster-a-cross-sectional-study-of-social-connection-and-gun-violence
#18
Carley Riley, Brita Roy, Nurit Harari, Anita Vashi, Pina Violano, Ann Greene, Georgina Lucas, Jerry Smart, Teresa Hines, Stacy Spell, Sharon Taylor, Barbara Tinney, Maurice Williams, Emily A Wang
Living in communities with persistent gun violence is associated with negative social, behavioral, and health outcomes, analogous to those of a natural disaster. Taking a disaster-preparedness approach may identify targets for community-based action to respond to on-going gun violence. We assessed the relevance of adapting a disaster-preparedness approach to gun violence and, specifically, the relationship between perceived collective efficacy, its subscales of social cohesion and informal social control, and exposure to gun violence...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110268/metabolic-and-physiological-adjustment-of-suaeda-maritima-to-combined-salinity-and-hypoxia
#19
Jan H Behr, Alain Bouchereau, Solenne Berardocco, Charlotte E Seal, Timothy J Flowers, Christian Zörb
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Suaeda maritima is a halophyte commonly found on coastal wetlands in the intertidal zone. Due to its habitat S. maritima has evolved tolerance to high salt concentrations and hypoxic conditions in the soil caused by periodic flooding. In the present work, the adaptive mechanisms of S. maritima to salinity combined with hypoxia were investigated on a physiological and metabolic level. METHODS: To compare the adaptive mechanisms to deficient, optimal and stressful salt concentrations, S...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107426/identification-of-micrornas-in-response-to-drought-in-common-wild-rice-oryza-rufipogon-griff-shoots-and-roots
#20
Jing-Wen Zhang, Yan Long, Man-de Xue, Xing-Guo Xiao, Xin-Wu Pei
BACKGROUND: Drought is the most important factor that limits rice production in drought-prone environments. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) contains abundant drought-resistant genes, which provide an opportunity to explore these excellent resources as contributors to improve rice resistance, productivity, and quality. RESULTS: In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries, called CL and CR from PEG6000-free samples and DL and DR from PEG6000-treated samples, where 'R' indicates the root tissue and 'L' indicates the shoot tissue...
2017: PloS One
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