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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633427/genotypic-variation-in-tolerance-to-drought-stress-is-highly-coordinated-with-hydraulic-conductivity-photosynthesis-interplay-and-aquaporin-expression-in-field-grown-mulberry-morus-spp
#1
Kanubothula Sitarami Reddy, Kalva Madhana Sekhar, Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy
Hydraulic conductivity quantifies the efficiency of a plant to transport water from root to shoot and is a major constriction on leaf gas exchange physiology. Mulberry (Morus spp.) is the most economically important crop for sericulture industry. In this study, we demonstrate a finely coordinated control of hydraulic dynamics on leaf gas exchange characteristics in 1-year-old field-grown mulberry genotypes (Selection-13 (S13); Kollegal Local (KL) and Kanva-2 (K2)) subjected to water stress by withholding water for 20 days and subsequent recovery for 7 days...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624683/drought-responsive-micrornas-in-two-barley-cultivars-differing-in-their-level-of-sensitivity-to-drought-stress
#2
Ehsan Mohseni Fard, Behnam Bakhshi, Reza Keshavarznia, Nava Nikpay, Maryam Shahbazi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of genes involved in the response to stress. Here, a comparison has been drawn between the miRNA profiles of a drought susceptible, 'Morocco 9-75', and a drought tolerant, 'Yousef', barley cultivars. Leaf water content, shoot dry matter and chlorophyll content decreased in 'Morocco 9-75' more considerably compared with 'Yousef' under drought stress. Furthermore, lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature were observed in 'Morocco 9-75' compared with 'Yousef'...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624682/effect-of-the-fungus-piriformospora-indica-on-physiological-characteristics-and-root-morphology-of-wheat-under-combined-drought-and-mechanical-stresses
#3
Fatemeh Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Mosaddeghi, Anthony Roger Dexter
This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Qp, of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611799/endophytic-paecilomyces-formosus-lhl10-augments-glycine-max-l-adaptation-to-ni-contamination-through-affecting-endogenous-phytohormones-and-oxidative-stress
#4
Saqib Bilal, Abdul L Khan, Raheem Shahzad, Sajjad Asaf, Sang-Mo Kang, In-Jung Lee
This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606179/modifying-upper-limb-inter-joint-coordination-in-healthy-subjects-by-training-with-a-robotic-exoskeleton
#5
Tommaso Proietti, Emmanuel Guigon, Agnès Roby-Brami, Nathanaël Jarrassé
BACKGROUND: The possibility to modify the usually pathological patterns of coordination of the upper-limb in stroke survivors remains a central issue and an open question for neurorehabilitation. Despite robot-led physical training could potentially improve the motor recovery of hemiparetic patients, most of the state-of-the-art studies addressing motor control learning, with artificial virtual force fields, only focused on the end-effector kinematic adaptation, by using planar devices...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603510/how-do-soccer-players-adjust-their-activity-in-team-coordination-an-enactive-phenomenological-analysis
#6
Vincent Gesbert, Annick Durny, Denis Hauw
This study examined how individual team members adjust their activity to the needs for collective behavior. To do so, we used an enactive phenomenological approach and explored how soccer players' lived experiences were linked to the active regulation of team coordination during eight offensive transition situations. These situations were defined by the shift from defensive to offensive play following a change in ball possession. We collected phenomenological data, which were processed in four steps. First, we reconstructed the diachronic and synchronic dynamics of the players' lived experiences across these situations in order to identify the units of their activity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600722/genetic-dissection-of-plant-growth-habit-in-chickpea
#7
Hari D Upadhyaya, Deepak Bajaj, Rishi Srivastava, Anurag Daware, Udita Basu, Shailesh Tripathi, Chellapilla Bharadwaj, Akhilesh K Tyagi, Swarup K Parida
A combinatorial genomics-assisted breeding strategy encompassing association analysis, genetic mapping and expression profiling is found most promising for quantitative dissection of complex traits in crop plants. The present study employed GWAS (genome-wide association study) using 24,405 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) obtained with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 92 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions of chickpea. This identified eight significant genomic loci associated with erect (E)/semi-erect (SE) vs...
June 9, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600346/genetic-control-of-plasticity-in-root-morphology-and-anatomy-of-rice-in-response-to-water-deficit
#8
Niteen Kadam, Anandhan Tamilselvan, Lovely Mae F Lawas, Cherryl Quinones, Rajeev Bahuguna, Michael J Thomson, Michael Dingkuhn, Raveendran Muthurajan, Paul Struik, Xinyou Yin, Krishna Jagadish
Elucidating the genetic control of rooting behaviour under water-deficit stress is essential to breed climate-robust rice cultivars. Using a diverse panel of 274 indica genotypes grown under control and water-deficit conditions during vegetative growth, we phenotyped 35 traits, mostly related to root morphology and anatomy, involving ~45,000 root scanning images and nearly ~25,000 cross-sections from the root-shoot junction. Phenotypic plasticity of these traits was quantified as the relative change in trait value under water-deficit compared to control conditions...
June 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597427/morphological-and-physiological-responses-of-heteropogon-contortus-to-drought-stress-in-a-dry-hot-valley
#9
Xue-Mei Wang, Li Zhao, Bang-Guo Yan, Liang-Tao Shi, Gang-Cai Liu, Yu-Xiao He
BACKGROUND: Heteropogon contortus is a valuable pasture species that is widely used for vegetation restoration in dry-hot valleys of China. However, to date, its morphological and physiological responses to drought, and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study was aimed to investigate the morphological and physiological changes of H. contortus under drought stress during the dry-hot season. Heteropogon contortus was planted in pots and subjected to four levels of soil water treatments: above 85 % (control), 70-75 % (light stress), 55-60 % (moderate stress) or 35-40 % (severe stress) of field capacity...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588602/the-sulfate-supply-maximizing-arabidopsis-shoot-growth-is-higher-under-long-than-short-term-exposure-to-cadmium
#10
Alessandro Ferri, Clarissa Lancilli, Moez Maghrebi, Giorgio Lucchini, Gian Attilio Sacchi, Fabio F Nocito
The processes involved in cadmium detoxification in plants deeply affect sulfate uptake and thiol homeostasis and generate increases in the plant nutritional request for sulfur. Here, we present an analysis of the dependence of Arabidopsis growth on the concentration of sulfate in the growing medium with the aim of providing evidence on how plants optimize growth at a given sulfate availability. Results revealed that short-term (72 h) exposure to a broad range of Cd concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) inhibited plant growth but did not produce any significant effects on the growth pattern of both shoots and roots in relation to the external sulfate...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582748/mediational-influence-of-spent-mushroom-compost-on-phytoremediation-of-black-oil-hydrocarbon-polluted-soil-and-response-of-megathyrsus-maximus-jacq
#11
Michael Dare Asemoloye, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Adeniyi A Jayeola, Rafiq Ahmad
Ability of a plant to develop different adaptive strategies can also determine its capability for effective soil remediation. In this study, influence of spent mushroom compost (SMC) was tested on the phytoremediation of black oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and the response of Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass). Studies were carried out in microcosm conditions by mixing different concentration of SMC viz., 10, 20, 30 and 40% in a 5 kg of contaminated soil along with control. Seeds of M. maximus was sown in tray for two weeks and allowed to grow for height of 10 cm and transplanted in to the different experimental pots...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582266/a-beam-monitoring-and-validation-system-for-continuous-line-scanning-in-proton-therapy
#12
Grischa Klimpki, Serena Psoroulas, Christian Bula, Urs Rechsteiner, Michael Eichin, Damien Weber, Antony Lomax, David Meer
Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional <i>step-and-shoot</i> irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility to modulate the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout beam delivery. We report on its design and implementation in this paper...
June 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552954/scaling-relationships-of-twig-biomass-allocation-in-pinus-hwangshanensis-along-an-altitudinal-gradient
#13
Man Li, Yuan Zheng, RuiRui Fan, QuanLin Zhong, DongLiang Cheng
Understanding the response of biomass allocation in twigs (the terminal branches of current-year shoots) to environmental change is crucial for elucidating forest ecosystem carbon storage, carbon cycling, and plant life history strategies under a changing climate. On the basis of interspecies investigations of broad-leaved plants, previous studies have demonstrated that plants respond to environmental factors by allocating biomass in an allometric manner between support tissues (i.e., stems) and the leaf biomass of twigs, where the scaling exponent (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548242/enhanced-root-growth-in-phosphate-starved-arabidopsis-by-stimulating-de-novo-phospholipid-biosynthesis-through-the-overexpression-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferase-2-lpat2
#14
Artik Elisa Angkawijaya, Van Cam Nguyen, Yuki Nakamura
Upon phosphate starvation, plants retard shoot growth but promote root development presumably to enhance phosphate assimilation from the ground. Membrane lipid remodeling is a metabolic adaptation that replaces membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorous galactolipids, thereby allowing plants to obtain scarce phosphate yet maintain the membrane structure. However, stoichiometry of this phospholipid-to-galactolipid conversion may not account for the massive demand of membrane lipids that enables active growth of roots under phosphate starvation, thereby suggesting the involvement of de novo phospholipid biosynthesis, which is not represented in the current model...
May 26, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528483/fossil-record-of-ephedra-in-the-lower-cretaceous-aptian-argentina
#15
Gabriela G Puebla, Ari Iglesias, María A Gómez, Mercedes B Prámparo
Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521510/differential-growth-promotion-of-poplar-and-birch-inoculated-with-three-dark-septate-endophytes-in-two-trace-element-contaminated-soils
#16
Charlotte Berthelot, Damien Blaudez, Corinne Leyval
Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) are abundant in stressful environments, including trace element- (TE-) enriched soils. However, knowledge about the effects of DSEs on plant growth in such soils is poor compared to the well-known mycorrhizal fungi. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of three DSE strains isolated from TE-contaminated soils on the growth and mineral nutrition of Betula pendula and Populus tremula x alba grown on two contrasting TE-polluted soils. The three DSEs evenly colonized the two plant species in both soils...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516356/morphology-ultrastructure-and-element-uptake-in-calophyllum-brasiliense-cambess-calophyllaceae-j-agardh-seedlings-under-cadmium-exposure
#17
Alezania Silva Pereira, Priscila Andressa Cortez, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Majeti Narashima Vara Prasad, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Maura da Cunha, Raildo Mota de Jesus, Pedro Antônio Oliveira Mangabeira
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal known for its genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, much concerned for its potential environmental and human health impacts. This study evaluates the toxic effect of Cd in Calophyllum brasiliense plants. The plants were cultivated for 30 days in full nutrient solution in order to adapt, and for 15 days in nutrient solution without Cd or with 4, 8, 16, and 32 μmol Cd L(-1). Anatomical analysis of the leaf showed no significant effects of Cd on epidermal thickness in abaxial and adaxial sides, palisade, and spongy parenchyma...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510204/microarray-meta-analysis-to-explore-abiotic-stress-specific-gene-expression-patterns-in-arabidopsis
#18
Po-Chih Shen, Ai-Ling Hour, Li-Yu Daisy Liu
BACKGROUND: Abiotic stresses are the major limiting factors that affect plant growth, development, yield and final quality. Deciphering the underlying mechanisms of plants' adaptations to stresses using few datasets might overlook the different aspects of stress tolerance in plants, which might be simultaneously and consequently operated in the system. Fortunately, the accumulated microarray expression data offer an opportunity to infer abiotic stress-specific gene expression patterns through meta-analysis...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502046/adapting-the-vegetative-vigour-terrestrial-plant-test-for-assessing-ecotoxicity-of-aerosol-samples
#19
Nora Kováts, Eszter Horváth, Bettina Eck-Varanka, Eszter Csajbók, András Hoffer
Plants, being recognized to show high sensitivity to air pollution, have been long used to assess the ecological effects of airborne contaminants. However, many changes in vegetation are now generally attributed to atmospheric deposition of aerosol particles; the dose-effect relationships of this process are usually poorly known. In contrast to bioindication studies, ecotoxicological tests (or bioassays) are controlled and reproducible where ecological responses are determined quantitatively. In our study, the No...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495963/arabidopsis-dna-topoisomerase-i-alpha-is-required-for-adaptive-response-to-light-and-flower-development
#20
Evgenia V Kupriyanova, Evgeniy V Albert, Aleksandra I Bliznina, Polina O Mamoshina, Tatiana A Ezhova
DNA topoisomerase I alpha (TOP1α) plays a specific role in Arabidopsis thaliana development and is required for stem cell regulation in shoot and floral meristems. Recently, a new role independent of meristem functioning has been described for TOP1α, namely flowering time regulation. The same feature had been detected by us earlier for fas5, a mutant allele of TOP1α In this study we clarify the effects of fas5 on bolting initiation and analyze the molecular basis of its role on flowering time regulation...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
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