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Adaptive shooting

Xiaotao Ding, Yuping Jiang, Lizhong He, Qiang Zhou, Jizhu Yu, Dafeng Hui, Danfeng Huang
To investigate the physiological responses of plants to high root-zone temperature (HT, 35 °C) stress mitigated by exogenous glutathione (GSH), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to HT with or without GSH treatment for 4 days and following with 4 days of recovery. Plant physiological variables, growth, and gene expression related to antioxidant enzymes and Calvin cycle were quantified. The results showed that HT significantly decreased GSH content, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and related gene expression, shoot height, stem diameter, as well as dry weight...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lauren A E Erland, Christina E Turi, Praveen K Saxena
Serotonin is an ancient indoleamine that was presumably part of the life cycle of the first prokaryotic life forms on Earth millions of years ago where it functioned as a powerful antioxidant to combat the increasingly oxygen rich atmosphere. First identified as a neurotransmitter signaling molecule in mammals, it is ubiquitous across all forms of life. Serotonin was discovered in plants many years after its discovery in mammals; however, it has now been confirmed in almost all plant families, where it plays important roles in plant growth and development, including functions in energy acquisition, seasonal cycles, modulation of reproductive development, control of root and shoot organogenesis, maintenance of plant tissues, delay of senescence, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses...
October 11, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Hemmat Khattab, Zeinab El Marid
Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons...
October 14, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Hugo Chauvet, Olivier Pouliquen, Yoël Forterre, Valérie Legué, Bruno Moulia
Gravity perception plays a key role in how plants develop and adapt to environmental changes. However, more than a century after the pioneering work of Darwin, little is known on the sensing mechanism. Using a centrifugal device combined with growth kinematics imaging, we show that shoot gravitropic responses to steady levels of gravity in four representative angiosperm species is independent of gravity intensity. All gravitropic responses tested are dependent only on the angle of inclination from the direction of gravity...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kohtaro Iseki, Yu Takahashi, Chiaki Muto, Ken Naito, Norihiko Tomooka
Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae) is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations...
2016: PloS One
Matteo Riboni, Alice Robustelli Test, Massimo Galbiati, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ilaria Forieri, Carsten Sticht, Michael Reichelt, Norbert Gretz, Malcolm J Hawkesford, Mario Malagoli, Markus Wirtz, Ruediger Hell
Deprivation of mineral nutrients causes significant retardation of plant growth. This retardation is associated with nutrient specific and general stress-induced transcriptional responses. In this study we adjusted the external supply of iron, potassium and sulfur to cause the same retardation of shoot growth. Nevertheless, limitation by individual nutrients resulted in specific morphological adaptations and distinct shifts within the root metabolite fingerprint. The metabolic shifts affected key metabolites of primary metabolism and the stress-related phytohormones, jasmonic-, salicylic- and abscisic acid...
October 10, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
N Fiorentino, V Ventorino, C Rocco, V Cenvinzo, D Agrelli, L Gioia, I Di Mola, P Adamo, O Pepe, M Fagnano
Phytoremediation is a cost-effective "green technology" that uses plants to improve the soil properties of polluted sites, preventing the dispersion of pollutants and reducing the mobility of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) through their adsorption and accumulation by roots or precipitation within the root zone. Being highly tolerant to pollutants and other abiotic stresses, giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a suitable biomass crop for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. We report the results of a two-year open-air lysimeter study aimed at assessing the adaptability of giant reed to grow on industrial substrates polluted by Pb and Zn and at testing commercial humic acids from leonardite as improvers of plant performance...
October 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hongping Chang, Dandan Chen, Jason Kam, Terese Richardson, Janneke Drenth, Xinhong Guo, C Lynne McIntyre, Shoucheng Chai, Anne L Rae, Gang-Ping Xue
Q-type C2H2 zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are plant-specific DNA-binding proteins containing a conserved QALGGH motif. This study investigated the function of abiotic stress-inducible and predominantly root-expressed Triticum aestivum ZFPs (TaZFP22, TaZFP34 and TaZFP46) with a focus on TaZFP34. Expression of TaZFP34 in roots was upregulated by high salinity, dehydration, oxidative and cold stresses. Overexpression of TaZFP34 in wheat roots resulted in an increased root-to-shoot ratio, a phenomenon observed during plant adaptation to drying soil...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Laëtitia Riva-Roveda, Brigitte Escale, Catherine Giauffret, Claire Périlleux
BACKGROUND: European Flint maize inbred lines are used as a source of adaptation to cold in most breeding programs in Northern Europe. A deep understanding of their adaptation strategy could thus provide valuable clues for further improvement, which is required in the current context of climate change. We therefore compared six inbreds and two derived Flint x Dent hybrids for their response to one-week at low temperature (10 °C day/7 or 4 °C night) during steady-state vegetative growth...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
He Huang, Shangmian Yie, Yuliang Liu, Chengdong Wang, Zhigang Cai, Wenping Zhang, Jingchao Lan, Xiangming Huang, Li Luo, Kailai Cai, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang
The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda's feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mariette Andersson, Helle Turesson, Alessandro Nicolia, Ann-Sofie Fält, Mathias Samuelsson, Per Hofvander
Altered starch quality with full knockout of GBSS gene function in potato was achieved using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, through transient transfection and regeneration from isolated protoplasts. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) has shown great progress in introducing precisely targeted mutations. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 has received increased focus compared to other SDM techniques, since the method is easily adapted to different targets. Here, we demonstrate that transient application of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing in protoplasts of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum) yielded mutations in all four alleles in a single transfection, in up to 2 % of regenerated lines...
October 3, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Ida Bagus Andika, Hideki Kondo, Liying Sun
Although the majority of plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and invade the host plants through the aerial parts, there is a considerable number of plant viruses that infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors such as plasmodiophorids, chytrids, and nematodes. These soil-borne viruses belong to diverse families, and many of them cause serious diseases in major crop plants. Thus, roots are important organs for the life cycle of many viruses. Compared to shoots, roots have a distinct metabolism and particular physiological characteristics due to the differences in development, cell composition, gene expression patterns, and surrounding environmental conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jianfeng Chen, Te Cao, Xiaolin Zhang, Yilong Xi, Leyi Ni, Erik Jeppesen
To evaluate the relative importance of photosynthetic versus morphological adaptations of submersed macrophytes to low light intensity in lakes, rapid light curves (RLCs), morphological parameters, relative growth rate (RGR), clonal reproduction and abundance of two submersed macrophytes (Potamogeton maackianus and Vallisneria natans) were examined under 2.8%, 7.1%, 17.1% and 39.5% ambient light in a field and outdoor experimental study. The plants increased their initial slope of RLCs (α) and decreased their minimum saturating irradiance (Ek) and maximum relative electron transport rate (ETRm) of RLCs under low light stress, but V...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rishi Srivastava, Deepak Bajaj, Ayushi Malik, Mohar Singh, Swarup K Parida
The RNA-sequencing followed by de-novo transcriptome assembly identified 11621 genes differentially xpressed in roots vs. shoots of a wild perennial Cicer microphyllum. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes between microphyllum and cultivated desi cv. ICC4958 detected 12772 including 3242 root- and 1639 shoot-specific microphyllum genes with 85% expression validation success rate. Transcriptional reprogramming of microphyllum root-specific genes implicates their possible role in regulating differential natural adaptive characteristics between wild and cultivated chickpea...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Elham Karimi, Naser Safaie, Masoud Shams-Baksh, Bagher Mahmoudi
The use of biocontrol strains recently has become a popular alternative to conventional chemical treatments. A set of bacteria isolated from sugar beet rhizosphere and from roots and shoots of apple and walnut were evaluated for their potential to control sugar beet seedling damping-off caused by R. solani AG-4 and AG2-2.The results of in vitro assays concluded that three isolates, SB6, SB14, SB15, obtained from rhizosphere of sugar beet and five isolates, AP2, AP4, AP6, AP7, AP8, obtained from shoots and roots of apple were the most effective antagonists that inhibited the mycelial growth of both R...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Iko T Koevoets, Jan Henk Venema, J Theo M Elzenga, Christa Testerink
To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as observation of root properties is more complex and asks for artificial and extensive phenotyping platforms. In addition, most root research focuses on development, while a direct link to the functionality of plasticity in root development for tolerance is often lacking...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dane T Lamb, Mohammed Kader, Hui Ming, Liang Wang, Sedigheh Abbasi, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Ravi Naidu
Cadmium accumulates in plant tissues at low soil loadings and is a concern for human health. Yet at higher levels it is also of concern for ecological receptors. We determined Cd partitioning constants for 41 soils to examine the role of soil properties controlling Cd partitioning and plant uptake. From a series of sorption and dose response studies, transfer functions were developed for predicting Cd uptake in Cucumis sativa L. (cucumber). The parameter log Kf was predicted with soil pHca, logCEC and log OC...
September 12, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Wensheng Liu, Yao Zhao, Jianling You, Danhui Qi, Yin Zhou, Jiakuan Chen, Zhiping Song
Estimating the potential of species to cope with rapid environmental climatic modifications is of vital importance for determining their future viability and conservation. The variation between existing populations along a climatic gradient may predict how a species will respond to future climate change. Stipa purpurea is a dominant grass species in the alpine steppe and meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Ecological niche modelling was applied to S. purpurea, and its distribution was found to be most strongly correlated with the annual precipitation and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter...
2016: PloS One
Feng Wang, Jingwen Gao, Zhongwei Tian, Yang Liu, Muhammad Abid, Dong Jiang, Weixing Cao, Tingbo Dai
Because soil acidification accompanies ammonium (NH4(+)) stress, the tolerance of higher plants to ammonium is associated with their adaptation to root medium acidification. However, the underlying mechanisms of this adaptation have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was thus to elucidate the effect of rhizosphere pH on NH4(+) tolerance in different winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were carried out on two wheat cultivars: AK58 (an NH4(+)-sensitive cultivar) and XM25 (an NH4(+)-tolerant cultivar)...
August 12, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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