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Adaptive shooting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910717/time-and-age-related-effects-of-experimentally-simulated-nitrogen-deposition-on-the-functioning-of-montane-heathland-ecosystems
#1
Javier Calvo-Fernández, Ángela Taboada, Andreas Fichtner, Werner Härdtle, Leonor Calvo, Elena Marcos
Ecosystems adapted to low nitrogen (N) conditions such as Calluna-heathlands are especially sensitive to enhanced atmospheric N deposition that affects many aspects of ecosystem functioning like nutrient cycling, soil properties and plant-microbial-enzyme relationships. We investigated the effects of five levels of experimentally-simulated N deposition rates (i.e., N fertilization treatments: 0, 10, 20 and 50kgNha(-1)yr(-1) for 3years, and 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) for 10years) on: plant, litter, microbial biomass and soil nutrient contents, soil extracellular enzymatic activities, and plant root ericoid mycorrhizal colonization...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904348/transcriptome-profiling-of-genes-involved-in-induced-systemic-salt-tolerance-conferred-by-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-fzb42-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Shaofang Liu, Haiting Hao, Xiang Lu, Xia Zhao, Yun Wang, Yubao Zhang, Zhongkui Xie, Ruoyu Wang
Plant growth-promoting Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 induces systemic salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and enhances the fresh and dry weight. However, the underlying molecular mechanism that allows plants to respond to FZB42 and exhibit salt tolerance is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of Arabidopsis shoot tissues grown under salt stress with or without FZB42 inoculation by using Illumina sequencing to identify the key genes and pathways with important roles during this interaction...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898670/shoot-root-communication-in-flowering-plants
#3
REVIEW
Donghwi Ko, Ykä Helariutta
As sessile organisms, terrestrial plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to coordinate the growth and development of two distinct systems, the shoot and the root, in response to environmental fluctuations. Adaptive systemic responses are accomplished by shoot-root communication, which involves diverse long-distance signalling molecules. During the last few decades, various genetic, biochemical, molecular, and grafting studies have identified multiple long-distance signalling molecules which are crucial for plants to adapt to external changes...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894457/strigolactones-biosynthesis-and-their-role-in-abiotic-stress-resilience-in-plants-a-critical-review
#4
REVIEW
Wajeeha Saeed, Saadia Naseem, Zahid Ali
Strigolactones (SLs), being a new class of plant hormones, play regulatory roles against abiotic stresses in plants. There are multiple hormonal response pathways, which are adapted by the plants to overcome these stressful environmental constraints to reduce the negative impact on overall crop plant productivity. Genetic modulation of the SLs could also be applied as a potential approach in this regard. However, endogenous plant hormones play central roles in adaptation to changing environmental conditions, by mediating growth, development, nutrient allocation, and source/sink transitions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875293/nickel-accumulation-and-its-effect-on-growth-physiological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-millets-and-oats
#5
Vibha Gupta, Pradeep Kumar Jatav, Raini Verma, Shanker Lal Kothari, Sumita Kachhwaha
With the boom in industrialization, there is an increase in the level of heavy metals in the soil which drastically affect the growth and development of plants. Nickel is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, but elevated level of Ni causes stunted growth, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and alterations in the defense mechanism of plants in terms of accumulation of osmolytes or change in enzyme activities like guiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Ni-induced toxic response was studied in seedlings of finger millet, pearl millet, and oats in terms of seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, total chlorophyll, proline content, and enzymatic activities...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874670/sargassum-muticum-and-jania-rubens-regulate-amino-acid-metabolism-to-improve-growth-and-alleviate-salinity-in-chickpea
#6
Arafat Abdel Hamed Abdel Latef, Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Hani Saber, Eman A Alwaleed, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The present study evaluates the potential of Sar gassum muticum (Sar) and Jan ia rubens (Jan) seaweeds for enhancing growth and mitigating soil-salinity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Under control conditions, Sar and Jan extracts improved chickpea growth which was attributed to their potential for increasing photosynthetic pigments, K(+) and amino acids, particularly proline, in comparison with water-sprayed control. Upon stress imposition, chickpea growth was reduced in NaCl concentration-dependent manner, and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed Na(+) accumulation and oxidative damage as major determinants of sensitivity at high salinity...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872648/micrornas-regulate-the-main-events-in-rice-drought-stress-response-by-manipulating-the-water-supply-to-shoots
#7
Ehsan Mohseni Fard, Behnam Bakhshi, Mohammad Farsi, Amin Mirshamsi Kakhki, Nava Nikpay, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimi, Mohsen Mardi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous regulatory RNAs that are involved in a variety of biological processes related to proliferation, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. miRNA profiles of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64.) leaves in a partial root zone drying (PRD) system were analysed using a high-throughput sequencing approach to identify miRNAs associated with drought signalling. The treatments performed in this study were as follows: well-watered ("wet" roots, WW), wherein both halves of the pot were watered daily; drought ("dry" roots, DD), wherein water was withheld from both halves of the pot; and well-watered/drought ("wet" and "dry" roots, WD), wherein one half of each pot was watered daily, the same as in WW, and water was withheld from the other part, the same as in DD...
September 5, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871267/how-the-depletion-in-mineral-major-elements-affects-grapevine-vitis-vinifera-l-primary-cell-wall
#8
REVIEW
Luís F Goulao, João C Fernandes, Sara Amâncio
The noteworthy fine remodeling that plant cell walls (CWs) undergo to adapt to developmental, physiological and environmental cues and the observation that its composition and dynamics differ between species represents an opportunity to couple crop species agronomic studies with research on CW modifications. Vitis vinifera is one of the most important crops from an economic point-of-view due to the high value of the fruit, predominantly for winemaking. The availability of some information related to this species' CWs allows researching its responses to imposed conditions that affect the plant's development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861748/physiological-and-molecular-responses-of-seedlings-of-an-upland-rice-tung-lu-3-to-total-submergence-compared-to-those-of-a-submergence-tolerant-lowland-rice-fr13a
#9
Si-Yu Yang, Yu-Sian Wu, Chung-Tse Chen, Ming-Hsin Lai, Hsing-Mu Yen, Chin-Ying Yang
BACKGROUND: Understanding the responses of rice to environmental stresses such as unscheduled submergence is of pressing important owing to increasing severity of weather thought to arise from global climate change. When rice is completely submerged, different types adopt either a quiescence survival strategy (i.e., minimal shoot elongation) or an escape strategy (i.e., enhanced shoot elongation). Each strategy can prolong survival depending on the circumstances. While submergence responses have been studied in rice typical of lowland and flood-prone areas, few studies have explored the physiological and molecular properties of upland rice under submergence...
August 31, 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854962/optimized-reduced-representation-bisulfite-sequencing-reveals-tissue-specific-mchh-islands-in-maize
#10
Fei-Man Hsu, Ming-Ren Yen, Chi-Ting Wang, Chien-Yu Lin, Chung-Ju Rachel Wang, Pao-Yang Chen
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays important roles in many regulatory processes in plants. It is economically infeasible to profile genome-wide DNA methylation at a single-base resolution in maize, given its genome size of ~2.5 Gb. As an alternative, we adapted region of interest (ROI)-directed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to survey genome-wide methylation in maize. RESULTS: We developed a pipeline for selecting restriction enzymes in silico and experimentally showed that, in the maize genome, MseI- and CviQI-digested fragments are precisely enriched in promoters and gene bodies, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821594/lazy-genes-mediate-the-effects-of-gravity-on-auxin-gradients-and-plant-architecture
#11
Takeshi Yoshihara, Edgar P Spalding
A rice mutant led to the discovery of a plant-specific LAZY1 protein that controls the orientation of shoots. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses six LAZY genes having spatially distinct expression patterns. Branch angle phenotypes previously associated with single LAZY genes were here studied in roots and shoots of single and higher-order atlazy mutants. The results identify the major contributors to root and shoot branch angles and gravitropic behavior of seedling hypocotyls and primary roots. AtLAZY1 is the principal determinant of inflorescence branch angle...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820887/identification-of-putative-qtls-for-seedling-stage-phosphorus-starvation-response-in-finger-millet-eleusine-coracana-l-gaertn-by-association-mapping-and-cross-species-synteny-analysis
#12
M Ramakrishnan, S Antony Ceasar, K K Vinod, V Duraipandiyan, T P Ajeesh Krishna, Hari D Upadhyaya, N A Al-Dhabi, S Ignacimuthu
A germplasm assembly of 128 finger millet genotypes from 18 countries was evaluated for seedling-stage phosphorus (P) responses by growing them in P sufficient (Psuf) and P deficient (Pdef) treatments. Majority of the genotypes showed adaptive responses to low P condition. Based on phenotype behaviour using the best linear unbiased predictors for each trait, genotypes were classified into, P responsive, low P tolerant and P non-responsive types. Based on the overall phenotype performance under Pdef, 10 genotypes were identified as low P tolerants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819808/mir398-and-mir395-are-involved-in-response-to-so2-stress-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Lihong Li, Huilan Yi, Meizhao Xue, Min Yi
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common air pollutant that has adverse effects on plants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA that play critical roles in plant development and stress response. In this study, we found that two miRNAs, miR398 and miR395, were differentially expressed in Arabidopsis shoots under SO2 stress. The expression of miR398 was down-regulated, and the transcript levels of its target genes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSD1 and CSD2), were increased during SO2 exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), one of the major antioxidant enzymes, was enhanced with the increase in the CSD transcript level, suggesting an important role of miR398 in response to SO2-induced oxidative stress...
August 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805486/cop1-integrates-light-signals-to-rop2-for-cell-cycle-activation
#14
Wenguo Cai, Xiaojuan Li, Yanlin Liu, Yaowei Wang, Yue Zhou, Tongda Xu, Yan Xiong
The exquisite regulation of cell division at the shoot apex according to the external environmental cues enables plants to adapt the ever-changing environment. We have recently shown that light direct signaling and carbohydrate (sugar) energy signaling are both essential for the activation of cell division at the shoot apex. Light is converted to auxin signal to activate small GTPase 2 (ROP2). Subsequently, the activated ROP2 directly interacts with Target of Rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase, a pivotal regulator of cell division, to promotes its kinase activity...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802165/the-world-according-to-garp-transcription-factors
#15
REVIEW
Alaeddine Safi, Anna Medici, Wojciech Szponarski, Sandrine Ruffel, Benoît Lacombe, Gabriel Krouk
Plant specific GARP transcription factor family (made of ARR-B and G2-like) contains genes with very diverse in planta functions: nutrient sensing, root and shoot development, floral transition, chloroplast development, circadian clock oscillation maintenance, hormonal transport and signaling. In this work we review: first, their structural but distant relationships with MYB transcription factors, second, their role in planta, third, the diversity of their Cis-regulatory elements, fourth, their potential protein partners...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798499/comparative-assessment-of-response-to-cadmium-in-heavy-metal-tolerant-shrubs-cultured-in-vitro
#16
A Wiszniewska, E Hanus-Fajerska, E Muszyńska, S Smoleń
Two species of Pb-adapted shrubs, Alyssum montanum and Daphne jasminea, were evaluated in vitro for their tolerance to elevated concentrations of cadmium. Shoot cultures were treated with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 μM CdCl2 for 16 weeks and analyzed for their organogenic response, biomass accretion, pigment content, and macronutrient status. Cadmium accumulation and its root-to-shoot translocation were also determined. In both species, rooted microplantlets, suitable for acclimatization, were obtained in the presence of Cd applied as selection agent...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792960/response-of-posidonia-oceanica-seagrass-and-its-epibiont-communities-to-ocean-acidification
#17
Katja Guilini, Miriam Weber, Dirk de Beer, Matthias Schneider, Massimiliano Molari, Christian Lott, Wanda Bodnar, Thibaud Mascart, Marleen De Troch, Ann Vanreusel
The unprecedented rate of CO2 increase in our atmosphere and subsequent ocean acidification (OA) threatens coastal ecosystems. To forecast the functioning of coastal seagrass ecosystems in acidified oceans, more knowledge on the long-term adaptive capacities of seagrass species and their epibionts is needed. Therefore we studied morphological characteristics of Posidonia oceanica and the structure of its epibiont communities at a Mediterranean volcanic CO2 vent off Panarea Island (Italy) and performed a laboratory experiment to test the effect of OA on P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769943/a-benzimidazole-proton-pump-inhibitor-increases-growth-and-tolerance-to-salt-stress-in-tomato
#18
Michael J Van Oosten, Silvia Silletti, Gianpiero Guida, Valerio Cirillo, Emilio Di Stasio, Petronia Carillo, Pasqualina Woodrow, Albino Maggio, Giampaolo Raimondi
Pre-treatment of tomato plants with micromolar concentrations of omeprazole (OP), a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor in mammalian systems, improves plant growth in terms of fresh weight of shoot and roots by 49 and 55% and dry weight by 54 and 105% under salt stress conditions (200 mM NaCl), respectively. Assessment of gas exchange, ion distribution, and gene expression profile in different organs strongly indicates that OP interferes with key components of the stress adaptation machinery, including hormonal control of root development (improving length and branching), protection of the photosynthetic system (improving quantum yield of photosystem II) and regulation of ion homeostasis (improving the K(+):Na(+) ratio in leaves and roots)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737742/systemic-transport-of-trans-zeatin-and-its-precursor-have-differing-roles-in-arabidopsis-shoots
#19
Asami Osugi, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Nanae Ueda, Takatoshi Kiba, Hitoshi Sakakibara
Organ-to-organ signal transmission is essential for higher organisms to ensure coordinated biological reactions during metabolism and morphogenesis. Similar to organs in animals, plant organs communicate by various signalling molecules. Among them, cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, play a key role as root-to-shoot long-distance signals, regulating various growth and developmental processes in shoots(1,2). Previous studies have proposed that trans-zeatin-riboside, a type of cytokinin precursor, is a major long-distance signalling form in xylem vessels and its action depends on metabolic conversion via the LONELY GUY enzyme in proximity to the site of action(3-5)...
July 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733885/a-simple-and-rapid-in-vitro-test-for-large-scale-screening-of-fungal-endophytes-from-drought-adapted-australian-wild-plants-for-conferring-water-deprivation-tolerance-and-growth-promotion-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-seedlings
#20
Khondoker M G Dastogeer, Hua Li, Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam, Michael G K Jones, Stephen J Wylie
Some fungal endophytes confer novel phenotypes and enhance existing ones in plants, including tolerance to water deprivation stress. A range of fungal endophytes was isolated from wild Nicotiana plants growing in arid parts of northern Australia. These were screened for ability to enhance water deprivation stress tolerance by inoculating seedlings of the model plant N. benthamiana in two in vitro tests. Sixty-eight endophyte isolates were co-cultivated with N. benthamiana seedlings on either damp filter paper or on agar medium before being subjected to water deprivation...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
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