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Patrícia Branco, Helena Albergaria, Nils Arneborg, Catarina Prista
Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which induce death of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Previously, we demonstrated that the naturally-secreted GAPDH-derived AMPs (i.e. saccharomycin) caused a loss of culturability and decreased the intracellular pH (pHi) of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii cells. In this study, we show that chemically-synthesized analogues of saccharomycin also induce a pHi drop and loss of culturability in H...
March 13, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Chaoqiong Liang, Jianjun Hao, Yan Meng, Laixin Luo, Jianqiang Li
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant reduction of both yield and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Currently, there were no satisfied strategies for controlling the disease. A better understanding of microRNA (miRNA) expression related to the regulation of plant-virus interactions and virus resistance would be of great assistance when developing control strategies for CGMMV. However, accurate expression analysis is highly dependent on robust and reliable reference gene used as an internal control for normalization of miRNA expression...
2018: PloS One
Caitlin A Wotton, Elizabeth F Quon, Ashley C Palmer, Lane K Bekar
Both serotonin (5HT) and stress exert changes in cortical inhibitory tone to shape activity of cortical networks. As astrocytes are also known to affect inhibition through established purinergic pathways, we assessed the role of GABA and purinergic pathways in rapid corticosterone (CORT) and 5HT effects on cortical inhibition. We used a paired-pulse paradigm (P1 & P2) in acutely isolated mouse brain slices to evaluate changes in cortical evoked inhibition. Normally, 5HT decreases amplitude of the first pulse P1, while increasing the amplitude of P2 (increase frequency transmission)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jessica N R Peoples, Timmi Maxmillian, Quynh Le, Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Paul S Brookes, George A Porter, Victor L Davidson, Steven N Ebert
Cardiac energy demands during early embryonic periods are sufficiently met through glycolysis, but as development proceeds, oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria becomes increasingly vital. Adrenergic hormones are known to stimulate metabolism in adult mammals and are essential for embryonic development, but relatively little is known about their effects on metabolism in the embryonic heart.  Here, we show that embryos lacking adrenergic stimulation have approximately 10-fold less cardiac ATP compared to littermate controls...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Roshan Kumar, Raniki Kumari, Sanjay Kumar, Deepak Kumar Jangir, Tushar Kanti Maiti
α-Synuclein, a major constituent of proteinaceous inclusions named Lewy body, has been shown to be released and taken up by cells, which may facilitate its progressive pathological spreading and neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. However, the pathophysiological effect and signalling cascade initiated by extracellular α-synuclein in cellular milieu are not well understood. Herein we have investigated the perturbations induced by low molecular weight α-synuclein and different types of α-synuclein oligomers in the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Meng Luo, Zhen Gao, Hui Li, Qin Li, Caixi Zhang, Wenping Xu, Shiren Song, Chao Ma, Shiping Wang
Grapevine is among the fruit crops with high economic value, and because of the economic losses caused by abiotic stresses, the stress resistance of Vitis vinifera has become an increasingly important research area. Among the mechanisms responding to environmental stresses, the role of miRNA has received much attention recently. qRT-PCR is a powerful method for miRNA quantitation, but the accuracy of the method strongly depends on the appropriate reference genes. To determine the most suitable reference genes for grapevine miRNA qRT-PCR, 15 genes were chosen as candidate reference genes...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clemens L Bockmeyer, Juliane Wittig, Karen Säuberlich, Philipp Selhausen, Marc Eßer, Philip Zeuschner, Friedrich Modde, Kerstin Amann, Christoph Daniel
BACKGROUND: Glomeruli are excellent pre-determined natural structures for laser micro-dissection. Compartment-specific glomerular gene expression analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded renal biopsies could improve research applications. The major challenge for such studies is to obtain good-quality RNA from small amounts of starting material, as applicable for the analysis of glomerular compartments. In this work, we provide data and recommendations for an optimized workflow of glomerular mRNA analysis...
March 13, 2018: BMC Molecular Biology
Jinxing Wang, Manzar Abbas, Yanzhong Wen, Dongsheng Niu, Ling Wang, Yuhan Sun, Yun Li
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is an easy to raise, fast growing, medium-sized deciduous tree species highly tolerant to harsh eco-conditions, i.e., drought and harsh winters, and it is widely adaptable to sandy, loamy, and marshy soils. The basis for this adaptability remains to be investigated at the transcriptomic level using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Selection of a reliable gene for the normalization of qPCR data is important for obtaining accurate results in gene expression. The goal of this study was to identify an appropriate reference gene from 12 candidate genes for gene expression analysis in black locust exposed to various stressors such as abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and varying temperatures...
2018: PloS One
Renée Katrin Bechmann, Emily Lyng, Stig Westerlund, Shaw Bamber, Mark Berry, Maj Arnberg, Alfhild Kringstad, Piero Calosi, Paul J Seear
Increasing use of fish feed containing the chitin synthesis inhibiting anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron (DFB) in salmon aquaculture has raised concerns over its impact on coastal ecosystems. Larvae of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were exposed to DFB medicated feed under Control conditions (7.0 °C, pH 8.0) and under Ocean Acidification and Warming conditions (OAW, 9.5 °C and pH 7.6). Two weeks' exposure to DFB medicated feed caused significantly increased mortality. The effect of OAW and DFB on mortality of shrimp larvae was additive; 10% mortality in Control, 35% in OAW, 66% in DFB and 92% in OAW + DFB...
February 28, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Shanmugasundaram Ganapathy-Kanniappan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Sheng Wang, Jianqing Wang, Xiongwen Lv
Investigations of hepatic gene expression are crucial for determining the molecular factors involved in acute alcoholic liver injury. The results of liver molecular investigations may reveal etiologically important genomic alterations. Therefore, it is necessary to normalize gene expression data to identify stable genes, which may be used as a reference under different experimental conditions. The aim of the present study was to apply reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and use analysis software to investigate the expression stability of candidate reference genes in hepatic tissues from mice with acute alcoholic liver injury...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Long-Fei Pan, Lei Yu, Li-Ming Wang, Jun-Tao He, Jiang-Li Sun, Xiao-Bo Wang, Hai Wang, Zheng-Hai Bai, Hui Feng, Hong-Hong Pei
This research aimed to explore the effect of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) in acute pancreatitis (AP) of mice and the underlying mechanism. Caerulein were given to mice to get AP models. AP mice were given saline, ALR plasmids or negative control plasmids. Then, pancreas tissues were fixed and stained for histological examination. The levels of serum amylase, serum lipase, MPO, HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1β as well as MCP-1 were detected by ELISA assay. The mRNA levels of TLR4, p65, IκBα, iNOS, COX-2 and GAPDH were examined by RT-qPCR...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Ramneek Kaur, Monika Sodhi, Ankita Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi Sharma, Preeti Verma, Shelesh Kumar Swami, Parvesh Kumari, Manishi Mukesh
Selection of reference genes has become an integral step in any real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) based expression studies. The importance of this study stems from the fact that riverine buffaloes are major dairy species of Indian sub-continent and the information generated here will be of great interest to the investigators engaged in functional genomic studies of this important livestock species. In this study, an effort was made to evaluate a panel of 10 candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta- actin (ACTB), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), ribosomal protein S15 (RPS15), ribosomal protein L-4 (RPL4), ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), β2 Microglobulin (β2M) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EEF1A1) across 12 tissues (mammary gland, kidney, spleen, liver, heart, intestine, ovary, lung, muscle, brain, subcutaneous fat and testis) of riverine buffaloes...
2018: PloS One
Eduardo H Gilglioni, Jung-Chin Chang, Suzanne Duijst, Simei Go, Aziza A A Adam, Ruurdtje Hoekstra, Arthur J Verhoeven, Emy L Ishii-Iwamoto, Ronald P J Oude Elferink
Primary hepatocyte culture is an important in vitro system for the study of liver functions. In vivo , hepatocytes have high oxidative metabolism. However, oxygen supply by means of diffusion in in vitro static cultures is much less than that by blood circulation in vivo . Therefore, we investigated whether hypoxia contributes to dedifferentiation and deregulated metabolism in cultured hepatocytes. To this end, murine hepatocytes were cultured under static or shaken (60 revolutions per minute) conditions in a collagen sandwich...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
V Guarnaccia, J Z Groenewald, G Polizzi, P W Crous
Species of Colletotrichum are considered important plant pathogens, saprobes, and endophytes on a wide range of plant hosts. Several species are well-known on citrus, either as agents of pre- or post-harvest infections, such as anthracnose, postbloom fruit drop, tear stain and stem-end rot on fruit, or as wither-tip of twigs. In this study we explored the occurrence, diversity and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. associated with Citrus and allied genera in European orchards, nurseries and gardens. Surveys were carried out during 2015 and 2016 in Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain...
December 2017: Persoonia
Sara Faccidomo, Katarina S Swaim, Briana L Saunders, Taruni S Santanam, Seth M Taylor, Michelle Kim, Grant T Reid, Vallari R Eastman, Clyde W Hodge
RATIONALE: There is a clear need for discovery of effective medications to treat behavioral pathologies associated with alcohol addiction, such as chronic drinking. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this preclinical study was to assess effects of chronic alcohol drinking on the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) proteome to identify and validate novel targets for medications development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) was used to assess effects of chronic voluntary home-cage (24-h access) alcohol drinking on the NAcb proteome of C57BL/6J mice...
March 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Agnes Thiane Pereira Machado, Marcio Silva, Jorge Iulek
Naegleria gruberi is a free life amoeba believed to have more than one billion years of existence; it is not pathogenic and had its genome sequenced, which revealed a high complexity in the metabolic pathways. This paper presents the experimental structure of GAPDH from N. gruberi, the first one belonging to the phylum Percolozoa, comparisons to structures from various species and molecular dynamics studies of some particular features. The final refined structure presents Rcryst  = 15.54% and Rfree  = 19...
February 28, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Helene Launay, Patrick Barre, Carine Puppo, Yizhi Zhang, Stéphanie Manneville, Brigitte Gontero, Véronique Receveur-Brechot
Among intrinsically disordered proteins, conditionally disordered proteins undergo dramatic structural disorder rearrangements upon environmental changes and/or post-translational modifications that directly modulate their function. Quantifying the dynamics of these fluctuating proteins is extremely challenging but paramount to understanding the regulation of their function. The chloroplast protein CP12 is a model of such proteins, and acts as a redox switch by formation/disruption of its two disulfide bridges...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Willie A S Vieira, Waléria G Lima, Eduardo S Nascimento, Sami J Michereff, Marcos P S Câmara, Vinson P Doyle
Developing a comprehensive and reliable taxonomy for the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex will require adopting data standards on the basis of an understanding of how methodological choices impact morphological evaluations and phylogenetic inference. We explored the impact of methodological choices in a morphological and molecular evaluation of Colletotrichum species associated with banana in Brazil. The choice of alignment filtering algorithm has a significant impact on topological inference and the retention of phylogenetically informative sites...
January 16, 2018: Mycologia
V A Shaydurov, A Kasianov, A P Bolshakov
Maturation of the neocortex during the first three postnatal weeks is a complex process that is characterized by different time courses of maturation of different areas of the neocortex. Analysis of gene expression using quantitative PCR after reverse transcription during this period of ontogeny and comparison of different cortical areas require optimal selection of reference genes for correct normalization of the data. Here, we compared expression of nine reference genes in the somatosensory and visual areas of the neocortex at the age of 5, 8, 10, 13, and 20 days...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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