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Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Hwan-Hee Kim, Nam-Hae Jung
[Purpose] In this study, we investigated the effects of combining exercise with a cognitive-enhancement group program on cognition and depression in a group of community-dwelling elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] The study's subjects consisted of 30 community-dwelling elderly people of both genders, whose average age was 78 years. They participated in a program of physical exercise combined with a cognitive-enhancement group training program. This consisted of sessions lasting 60 minutes that took place once a week over 3 months...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Vahid Mirshafiee, Bingbing Sun, Chong Hyun Chang, Yu-Pei Liao, Wen Jiang, Jinhong Jiang, Xiangsheng Liu, Xiang Wang, Tian Xia, Andre E Nel
The liver and the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is a frequent target for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), either as a result of particle uptake and spread from primary exposure sites or systemic administration of therapeutic and imaging nanoparticles. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the toxicological impact of 29 metal oxide (MOx) nanoparticles (NPs), some commonly used in consumer products, in transformed or primary Kupffer cells (KCs) and hepatocytes. Not only did we observe differences between KC and hepatocytes, but also differences in the toxicological profiles of transition metal oxides (TMOs, e...
March 15, 2018: ACS Nano
Mabrouka Salem, Alain Tremblay, Julie Pelletier, Bernard Robaye, Jean Sévigny
In this study, we investigated the role of extracellular nucleotides in chemokine (KC, MIP-2, MCP-1, and CXCL10) expression and secretion by murine primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with a focus on P2Y6 receptors. qRT-PCR experiments showed that P2Y6 was the dominant nucleotide receptor expressed in mouse IEC. In addition, the P2Y6 ligand UDP induced expression and secretion of CXCL10. For the other studies, we took advantage of mice deficient in P2Y6 ( P2ry6 -/- ). Similar expression levels of P2Y1 , P2Y2 , P2X2, P2X4, and A2A were detected in P2ry6 -/- and WT IEC...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Danh T Tran, Scott Esckilsen, Jennifer Mulligan, Shikhar Mehrotra, Carl Atkinson, Satish N Nadig
BACKGROUND: Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are central to an allograft's immunogenicity. Cold ischemia and reperfusion injury associated with static cold storage and warm reperfusion activates ECs and increases the immunogenicity of the allograft. Following reperfusion, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in the allograft, which correlates to alloimmune rejection. Current understanding of this relationship, however, centers on the whole allograft instead of ECs...
March 10, 2018: Transplantation
Satyanarayana Achanta, Narendranath Reddy Chintagari, Marian Brackmann, Shrilatha Balakrishna, Sven-Eric Jordt
The skin is highly sensitive to the chemical warfare agent in mustard gas, sulfur mustard (SM) that initiates a delayed injury response characterized by erythema, inflammation and severe vesication (blistering). Although SM poses a continuing threat, used as recently as in the Syrian conflict, no mechanism-based antidotes against SM are available. Recent studies demonstrated that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a chemosensory cation channel in sensory nerves innervating the skin, is activated by SM and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), an SM analog, in vitro, suggesting it may promote vesicant injury...
March 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Ezequiel Nazer, Ryan K Dale, Madoka Chinen, Behram Radmanesh, Elissa P Lei
Drosophila Argonaute2 (AGO2) has been shown to regulate expression of certain loci in an RNA interference (RNAi)-independent manner, but its genome-wide function on chromatin remains unknown. Here, we identified the nuclear scaffolding protein LaminB as a novel interactor of AGO2. When either AGO2 or LaminB are depleted in Kc cells, similar transcription changes are observed genome-wide. In particular, changes in expression occur mainly in active or potentially active chromatin, both inside and outside LaminB-associated domains (LADs)...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Sudipta Mondal, Brigitte Schwederski, Wolfgang Frey, Jan Fiedler, Stanislav Záliš, Wolfgang Kaim
The complex ions [L3 Ru(μ,η3 :η3 -BL)RuL3 ]n+ (1n+ , L3 = 4,4',4″-tri- tert-butyl-2,6,2',6″-terpyridine and H2 BL2- = 1,2-bis(salicyloyl)hydrazide(2-)) were isolated with PF6 - or ClO4 - counterions ( n = 1) and as bis(hexafluorophosphate) ( n = 2). Structural, electrochemical, and spectroscopic characterization reveals the monocation as intermediate ( Kc = 108.2 ) in the three-step reversible redox system 10/+/2+/3+ . The 1+ ion has the molecule-bridged (Ru- - -Ru 4.727 Å) ruthenium centers involved in five- and six-membered chelate rings, and it exhibits long-wavelength absorptions at λmax 2240, 1660, and 1530 nm (εmax = 1000, 3000, and 8000 M-1 cm-1 , respectively), which would be compatible with a RuIII RuII mixed-valent situation or with a coordinated radical ion bridge...
March 12, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Sam J L van der Tuin, Zhuang Li, Jimmy F P Berbée, Inge Verkouter, Linda E Ringnalda, Annette E Neele, Jan B van Klinken, Sander S Rensen, Jingyuan Fu, Menno P J de Winther, Albert K Groen, Patrick C N Rensen, Ko Willems van Dijk, Yanan Wang
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreases hepatic CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) expression albeit that the underlying mechanism is disputed. We recently showed that plasma CETP is mainly derived from Kupffer cells (KCs). In this study, we investigated the role of KC subsets in the mechanism by which LPS reduces CETP expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: In CETP-transgenic mice, LPS markedly decreased hepatic CETP expression and plasma CETP concentration without affecting hepatic macrophage number...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Alison Kitson, Alan Brook, Gill Harvey, Zoe Jordan, Rhianon Marshall, Rebekah O'Shea, David Wilson
Many representations of the movement of healthcare knowledge through society exist, and multiple models for the translation of evidence into policy and practice have been articulated. Most are linear or cyclical and very few come close to reflecting the dense and intricate relationships, systems and politics of organizations and the processes required to enact sustainable improvements. We illustrate how using complexity and network concepts can better inform knowledge translation (KT) and argue that changing the way we think and talk about KT could enhance the creation and movement of knowledge throughout those systems needing to develop and utilise it...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Roshan K Dhungana, Shekhar Kc, Prakash Basnet, Ramesh Giri
Transition metal (TM)-catalyzed difunctionalization of unactivated olefins with two carbon-based entities is a powerful method to construct complex molecular architectures rapidly from simple and readily available feedstock chemicals. While dicarbofunctionalization of unactivated olefins has a long history typically with the use of either carbon monoxide to intercept C(sp3 )-[M] (alkyl-TM) species or substrates lacking in β-hydrogen (β-Hs), development of this class of reaction still remains seriously limited due to complications of β-H elimination arising from the in situ-generated C(sp3 )-[M] intermediates...
March 8, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Jon M Florence, Agnieszka Krupa, Laela M Booshehri, Sandra A Davis, Michael A Matthay, Anna K Kurdowska
Infection with seasonal influenza A virus (IAV) leads to lung inflammation and respiratory failure, a main cause of death in influenza infected patients. Previous experiments in our laboratory indicated that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays a substantial role in regulating inflammation in the respiratory region during acute lung injury (ALI) in mice, therefore we sought to determine if blocking Btk activity had a protective effect in the lung during influenza induced inflammation. A Btk inhibitor (Btk Inh...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Mariana N Machado, Flavia Mazzoli-Rocha, Natália V Casquilho, Tatiana Maron-Gutierrez, Victor H Ortenzi, Marcelo M Morales, Rodrigo S Fortunato, Walter A Zin
Murine papain-induced emphysema is a model that reproduces many of the features found in patients. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMC) have already been used to repair the alveolar epithelium in respiratory diseases, but not in the papain model. Thus, we hypothesized that BMMC could prevent the pathophysiological processes in papain-induced experimental emphysema. Female BALB/c mice received intratracheal instillation of 50 μL of saline (S groups) or papain (P groups, 10 IU/50 μl of saline) on days 1 and 7 of the experimental protocol...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Valentina Caracciolo, Jeanette Young, Donna Gonzales, Yinchun Ni, Stephen J Flowers, Ross Summer, Scott A Waldman, Jason K Kim, Dae Young Jung, Hye Lim Noh, Taekyoon Kim, Perry J Blackshear, Danielle O'Connell, Robert C Bauer, Caleb B Kallen
Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation that contributes to insulin resistance. Zinc Finger Protein 36 (Zfp36) is an mRNA-binding protein that reduces inflammation by binding to cytokine transcripts and promoting their degradation. We hypothesized that myeloid-specific deficiency of Zfp36 would lead to increased adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice. As expected, wild type (Control) mice became obese and diabetic on a high-fat diet and obese mice with myeloid-specific loss of Zfp36 (KO) demonstrated increased adipose tissue and liver cytokine mRNA expression compared to Control mice...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jean Yoon, Ciaran S Phibbs, Adam Chow, Martin A Weinstock
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether treatment costs of Keratinocyte Carcinoma (KC) and Actinic Keratosis (AK) can be lowered by spending more on chemoprevention. OBJECTIVE: We examine the impact of one-course treatment of topical fluorouracil on the face and ears on KC and AK treatment costs over three years. METHODS: The VAKCC trial compared the efficacy of topical fluorouracil cream, 5%, vs vehicle control cream for reducing KC risk. Trial data and administrative data on costs and utilization were analyzed to measure post-randomization encounters and treatment costs for KC and AK care...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Gülce Alp, Gonca Çakmak, Murat Sert, Yavuz Burgaz
Nickel-chromium(Ni-Cr) based alloys account for the majority of the porcelain-fused-to-metal fixed dental prostheses(PFM-FDPs) on account of their superior properties despite both nickel and chromium being known as human carcinogens. Understanding the genotoxicity and the cytotoxicity alongside the characteristics of corrosion behavior of the alloy is vital for understanding their biocompatibility. This study has evaluated whether the Ni-Cr based alloys corroded in artificial saliva by analyzing alloy decomposition at different pH levels and immersion durations(7, 14, 21, and 28 days) using inductively coupled plasma-optic emission spectrophotometry(ICP-OES)...
March 2018: Mutation Research
Giuseppina Caiazzo, Roberta Di Caprio, Serena Lembo, Annunziata Raimondo, Emanuele Scala, Cataldo Patruno, Anna Balato
In this study, we investigated the role of IL-26 in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), highlighting its contribute in the cytotoxic mechanism responsible of the tissue injury. IL-26 is a signature Th17 cytokine, and immune cells are its predominant sources. Recently, it has shown that Th17 cell-derived-IL-26 functions like an antimicrobial peptide. Here, we hypothesized that IL-26 could be involved in cytotoxicity mechanism, that underlies ACD. Indeed, we have attributed a role to IL-26 in this context, through PBMC cytotoxicity assays versus Hacat...
March 2, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Fernando G Dupuy, Isabella Pagano, Kathryn Andenoro, Maria F Peralta, Yasmene Elhady, Frank Heinrich, Stephanie Tristram-Nagle
Although colistin's clinical use is limited due to its nephrotoxicity, colistin is considered to be an antibiotic of last resort because it is used to treat patients infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria. In an effort to provide molecular details about colistin's ability to kill Gram-negative (G(-)) but not Gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria, we investigated the biophysics of the interaction between colistin and lipid mixtures mimicking the cytoplasmic membrane of G(+), G(-) bacteria as well as eukaryotic cells...
February 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Eva Maria Griebeler, Jan Werner
In his 2016 paper, Myhrvold criticized ours from 2014 on maximum growth rates (Gmax, maximum gain in body mass observed within a time unit throughout an individual's ontogeny) and thermoregulation strategies (ectothermy, endothermy) of 17 dinosaurs. In our paper, we showed that Gmax values of similar-sized extant ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates overlap. This strongly questions a correct assignment of a thermoregulation strategy to a dinosaur only based on its Gmax and (adult) body mass (M). Contrary, Gmax separated similar-sized extant reptiles and birds (Sauropsida) and Gmax values of our studied dinosaurs were similar to those seen in extant similar-sized (if necessary scaled-up) fast growing ectothermic reptiles...
2018: PloS One
Michael F Nyp, Sherry M Mabry, Angels Navarro, Heather Menden, Ricardo E Perez, Venkatesh Sampath, Ikechukwu I Ekekezie
The onset and degree of injury occurring in animals that develop hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) is dependent on age at exposure, suggesting that developmentally regulated pathways/factors must underlie initiation of the epithelial injury and subsequent repair. Type II TGFβ receptor interacting protein-1 (TRIP-1) is a negative regulator of TGFβ signaling, which we have previously shown is a developmentally regulated protein with modulatory effects on epithelial-fibroblastic signaling. The aim of this study was to assess if type II alveolar epithelial cells overexpressing TRIP-1 are protected against hyperoxia-induced epithelial injury, and in turn HALI...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
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