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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774570/high-mobility-group-box-1-drives-fibrosis-progression-signaling-via-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-mice
#1
Xiaodong Ge, Elena Arriazu, Fernando Magdaleno, Daniel J Antoine, Rouchelle Dela Cruz, Neil Theise, Natalia Nieto
BACKGROUND & RATIONALE: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) increased in response to liver injury. Since HMGB1 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), we hypothesized that induction of HMGB1 could participate in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis via RAGE cell-specific signaling mechanisms. RESULTS: liver HMGB1 protein expression correlated with fibrosis stage in patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH)...
May 18, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771572/inhibition-of-ubiquitin-activating-enzyme-protects-against-organ-injury-after-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion
#2
Shingo Matsuo, Andrew Chaung, Deanna Liou, Ping Wang, Weng-Lang Yang
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs in various clinical settings, such as transplantation, acute mesenteric arterial occlusion, trauma and shock. I/R injury causes severe systemic inflammation, leading to multiple organ dysfunction associated with high mortality. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway has been indicated in the regulation of inflammation, particularly through NF-κB signaling pathway. PYR-41 is a small molecular compound that selectively inhibits ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. A mouse model of intestinal I/R injury by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 45 minutes was performed to evaluate the effect of PYR-41 treatment on organ injury and inflammation...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770139/spermine-alleviates-acute-liver-injury-by-inhibiting-liver-resident-macrophage-pro-inflammatory-response-through-atg5-dependent-autophagy
#3
Shun Zhou, Jian Gu, Rui Liu, Song Wei, Qi Wang, Hongbing Shen, Yifan Dai, Haoming Zhou, Feng Zhang, Ling Lu
Liver-resident macrophages (Kupffer cells, KCs) and autophagy play critical roles in the pathogenesis of toxin-induced liver injury. Recent evidence indicates that autophagy can regulate macrophage M1/M2 polarization under different inflammatory conditions. Polyamines, including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine (SPM), are polycations with anti-oxidative, anti-aging, and cell autophagy induction properties. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms by which SPM protects against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768009/use-of-dual-ligand-modification-in-kupffer-cell-targeted-liposomes-to-examine-the-contribution-of-kupffer-cells-to-accelerated-blood-clearance-abc-phenomenon
#4
Chaoyang Lai, Cong Li, Xiang Luo, Mengyang Liu, Xinrong Liu, Ling Hu, Le Kang, Qiujun Qiu, Yihui Deng, Yanzhi Song
The "accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon" is known to be involved in the adaptive immune system. Regretfully, the relationship between the ABC phenomenon and innate immune system, especially with respect to Kupffer cells (KCs) has been largely unexplored. In this study, the contribution of KCs to ABC was examined using the 4-aminophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside (APM) lipid derivative DSPE-PEG2000-APM (DPM) and the 4-aminophenyl-β-L-fucopyranoside (APF) lipid derivative DSPE-PEG2000-APF (DPF) as ligands for mannose/fucose receptors on KCs, which were synthesized and modified on the surface of liposomes...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758268/pathogenesis-of-keratoconus-the-intriguing-therapeutic-potential-of-prolactin-inducible-protein
#5
REVIEW
Rabab Sharif, Sashia Bak-Nielsen, Jesper Hjortdal, Dimitrios Karamichos
Keratoconus (KC) is the most common ectatic corneal disease, with clinical findings that include discomfort, visual disturbance and possible blindness if left untreated. KC affects approximately 1:400 to 1:2000 people worldwide, including both males and females. The aetiology and onset of KC remains a puzzle and as a result, the ability to treat or reverse the disease is hampered. Sex hormones are known to play a role in the maintenance of the structure and integrity of the human cornea. Hormone levels have been reported to alter corneal thickness, curvature, and sensitivity during different times of menstrual cycle...
May 11, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756365/revised-mechanism-of-carboxylation-of-ribulose-1-5-biphosphate-by-rubisco-from-large-scale-quantum-chemical-calculations
#6
Peter L Cummins, Babu Kannappan, Jill E Gready
Here, we describe a computational approach for studying enzymes that catalyze complex multi-step reactions and apply it to Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), the enzyme that fixes atmospheric carbon dioxide within photosynthesis. In the 5-step carboxylase reaction, the substrate Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) first binds Rubisco and undergoes enolization before binding the second substrate, CO2 . Hydration of the RuBP.CO2 complex is followed by CC bond scission and stereospecific protonation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753311/peritoneal-and-systemic-responses-of-obese-type-ii-diabetic-rats-to-chronic-exposure-to-a-hyperbranched-polyglycerol-based-dialysis-solution
#7
Bo La Han, Qiunong Guan, Irina Chafeeva, Asher A Mendelson, Gerald da Roza, Richard Liggins, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Caigan Du
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is commonly observed among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, and hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) is a promising glucose-sparing osmotic agent for PD. However, the biocompatibility of a HPG-based PD solution (HPG) in subjects with MetS has not been investigated. This study compared the local and systemic effects of a HPG solution with conventional Physioneal (PYS) and Icodextrin (ICO) PD solutions in rats with MetS. Obese type 2 diabetic ZSF1 rats received a daily intraperitoneal injection of PD solutions (10 mL) for 3 months...
May 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750417/hits-clip-reveals-sex-differential-rna-binding-and-alterative-splicing-regulation-of-srm160-in-drosophila
#8
Chen Qiu, Yu Zhang, Yu-Jie Fan, Ting-Lin Pang, Yan Su, Shuai Zhan, Yong-Zhen Xu
Serine/arginine (SR)-rich proteins are critical for the regulation of alternative splicing (AS), which generates multiple mRNA isoforms from one gene and provides protein diversity for cell differentiation and tissue development. Genetic evidence suggests that Drosophila genital-specific overexpression of SR-related nuclear matrix protein of 160 kDa (SRm160), an SR protein with a PWI RNA-binding motif, causes defective development only in male flies and results in abnormal male genital structures and abnormal testis...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748802/binding-of-cu-co-and-cs-to-fluorescent-components-of-natural-organic-matter-nom-from-three-contrasting-sites
#9
Scott Hume, François Caron, Stefan Siemann
Aqueous natural organic matter (NOM) contains different types of functional groups (carboxylic, phenolic, sulfidic, etc.), and hence could change the speciation of metals in environmental systems. This work is a proof-of-concept study on the interaction of three metals (Cu, Co, and Cs) with NOM using fluorescence spectroscopy. The specific aim was to determine the conditional stability constants for these three metals with NOM optical components, obtained from the quenching of fluorescence signals. Three contrasting water types were sampled in Northern Ontario: a pristine source (Cross Rd...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748216/intrinsic-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-the-serum-of-two-species-of-deep-diving-seal
#10
Aranya Bagchi, Annabelle J Batten, Milton Levin, Kaitlin N Allen, Michael L Fitzgerald, Luis A Hückstädt, Daniel P Costa, Emmanuel S Buys, Allyson G Hindle
Weddell and elephant seals are deep diving mammals, which rely on lung collapse to limit nitrogen absorption and prevent decompression injury. Repeated collapse and re-expansion exposes the lungs to multiple stressors, including ischemia/reperfusion, alveolar shear stress, and inflammation. There is no evidence, however, that diving damages pulmonary function in these species. To investigate potential protective strategies in deep-diving seals, we examined the inflammatory response of seal whole blood exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747490/health-related-quality-of-life-perceived-social-support-and-depression-in-disease-free-survivors-who-underwent-curative-surgery-only-for-prostate-kidney-and-bladder-cancer-comparison-among-survivors-and-with-the-general-population
#11
Dong Wook Shin, Hyun Sik Park, Sang Hyub Lee, Seung Hyun Jeon, Seok Cho, Seok Ho Kang, Seung Chol Park, Jong Hyock Park, Jinsung Park
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of disease-free prostate (PC), kidney (KC), and bladder cancer (BC) survivors with that of the general population. Materials and Methods: Our study included 331 urological cancer (UC) survivors (114 PC, 108 KC, and 109 BC) aged ≥ 50 years disease-free for at least 1 year after surgery. The control group included 1,177 subjects without a history of cancer. The HRQoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9...
May 4, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745431/metabolic-responses-of-meniscal-explants-to-injury-and-inflammation-ex-vivo
#12
Alex E Cook, Aaron M Stoker, Emily V Leary, Ferris M Pfeiffer, James L Cook
This study was designed to characterize metabolic responses of meniscal tissue explants to injury and inflammation. We hypothesized that impact injury and interleukin (IL-1β) stimulation of meniscal explants would result in significant increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and relevant cytokine production compared to controls. Mature canine meniscal explants (n = 9/group) were randomly assigned to: 1) IL-1β (0.1ng/ml) treated (IL), 2) 25% strain (25), 3) 75% strain (75), 4) 25% + IL-1β (25IL), 5) 75% + IL-1β (75IL), or 6) 0% + no IL-1β control (NC)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743085/determinants-of-early-neonatal-mortality-in-afghanistan-an-analysis-of-the-demographic-and-health-survey-2015
#13
Gulam Muhammed Al Kibria, Vanessa Burrowes, Allysha Choudhury, Atia Sharmeen, Swagata Ghosh, Arif Mahmud, Angela Kc
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality is declining slowly compared to under-five mortality in many developing countries including Afghanistan. About three-fourths of these deaths occur in the early neonatal period (i.e., the first week of life). Although a number of studies investigated determinants of early neonatal mortality in other countries, there is a lack of evidence regarding this in Afghanistan. This study investigated determinants of early neonatal mortality in Afghanistan. METHODS: Data from the Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey 2015 (AfDHS 2015) were analyzed...
May 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740082/transcriptome-analyses-reveal-reduced-hepatic-lipid-synthesis-and-accumulation-in-more-feed-efficient-beef-cattle
#14
Robert Mukiibi, Michael Vinsky, Kate A Keogh, Carolyn Fitzsimmons, Paul Stothard, Sinéad M Waters, Changxi Li
The genetic mechanisms controlling residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle are still largely unknown. Here we performed whole transcriptome analyses to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and their functional roles in liver tissues between six extreme high and six extreme low RFI steers from three beef breed populations including Angus, Charolais, and Kinsella Composite (KC). On average, the next generation sequencing yielded 34 million single-end reads per sample, of which 87% were uniquely mapped to the bovine reference genome...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738894/unlike-kangaroo-care-mechanically-simulated-kangaroo-care-does-not-change-heart-rate-variability-in-preterm-neonates
#15
Deedee Kommers, Rohan Joshi, Carola van Pul, Loe Feijs, Guid Oei, Sidarto Bambang Oetomo, Peter Andriessen
BACKGROUND: While numerous positive effects of Kangaroo care (KC) have been reported, the duration that parents can spend kangarooing is often limited. AIM: To investigate whether a mattress that aims to mimic breathing motion and the sounds of heartbeats (BabyBe GMBH, Stuttgart, Germany) can simulate aspects of KC in preterm infants as measured by features of heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: A within-subject study design was employed in which every routine KC session was followed by a BabyBe (BB) session, with a washout period of at least 2 h in between...
May 5, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738515/kinetic-analysis-of-freeze-thaw-stability-of-mayonnaise
#16
Islam Muhammad Shariful, Nakako Katsuno, Takahisa Nishizu
Kinetic analysis was used to study the destabilization of mayonnaise by focusing on the fat crystals. Mayonnaise prepared from rapeseed oil and soybean oil was stored at temperatures ranging from −20 to −40 °C. The destabilization kinetic parameters were measured by observing oil separation over time. The destabilization rate constant, kd , increased with decreasing temperature. The highest value of kd was 1.28 × 10−3 min−1 at −40 °C for rapeseed oil mayonnaise (RoM) and the lowest was 1...
May 8, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735233/an-evaluation-of-education-methods-used-to-train-united-states-air-force-air-medical-evacuation-crewmembers-on-aircraft-systems
#17
Mathew E Beeman, Aubray Orduna
OBJECTIVE: United States Air Force air medical evacuation crewmembers (AECMs) are responsible for the safe air medical evacuation of casualties in dynamic environments and must be highly proficient in the C-17, C-130H/J, and KC-135R/T aircraft. Current methods to train AECMs on their aircraft proficiency include computer-based simulation training (CBT) or instructor-based training (IBT) on an actual aircraft. This study compares the aircraft proficiency scores between AECMs who were trained via CBT and IBT methods...
May 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728869/targeting-oxidative-stress-for-the-treatment-of-liver-fibrosis
#18
Theerut Luangmonkong, Su Suriguga, Henricus A M Mutsaers, Geny M M Groothuis, Peter Olinga, Miriam Boersema
Oxidative stress is a reflection of the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the scavenging capacity of the antioxidant system. Excessive ROS, generated from various endogenous oxidative biochemical enzymes, interferes with the normal function of liver-specific cells and presumably plays a role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Once exposed to harmful stimuli, Kupffer cells (KC) are the main effectors responsible for the generation of ROS, which consequently affect hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and hepatocytes...
May 5, 2018: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728290/posterior-cornea-and-thickness-changes-after-scleral-lens-wear-in-keratoconus-patients
#19
Maria Serramito, Carlos Carpena-Torres, Jesús Carballo, David Piñero, Michael Lipson, Gonzalo Carracedo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in the corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth and posterior corneal curvature and aberrations after scleral lens wear in keratoconus patients with and without intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS). METHODS: Twenty-six keratoconus subjects (36.95 ± 8.95 years) were evaluated after 8 h of scleral lens wear. The subjects were divided into two groups: those with ICRS (ICRS group) and without ICRS (KC group). The study variables evaluated before and immediately after scleral lens wear included corneal thickness evaluated in different quadrants, posterior corneal curvature at 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm of corneal diameter, posterior corneal aberrations for 4, 6 and 8 mm of pupil size and anterior chamber depth...
May 1, 2018: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727773/genome-wide-scan-reveals-signatures-of-selection-related-to-pollution-adaptation-in-non-model-estuarine-atlantic-killifish-fundulus-heteroclitus
#20
J S Osterberg, K M Cammen, T F Schultz, B W Clark, R T Di Giulio
In many human-altered ecosystems, organisms are increasingly faced with more diverse and complex environmental stressors and pollutant mixtures, to which the adaptations necessary to survive exposure are likely to be numerous and varied. Improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie complex polygenic adaptations in natural settings requires significant toxicological, biochemical, physiological, and genomic data rarely available for non-model organisms. Here, we build upon two decades of study of adaptation to anthropogenic pollutants in a population of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) that inhabits the creosote-contaminated Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund (AW) site on the Elizabeth River, Virginia in the United States...
April 25, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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