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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208733/a-survey-on-banknote-recognition-methods-by-various-sensors
#1
REVIEW
Ji Woo Lee, Hyung Gil Hong, Ki Wan Kim, Kang Ryoung Park
Despite a decrease in the use of currency due to the recent growth in the use of electronic financial transactions, real money transactions remain very important in the global market. While performing transactions with real money, touching and counting notes by hand, is still a common practice in daily life, various types of automated machines, such as ATMs and banknote counters, are essential for large-scale and safe transactions. This paper presents studies that have been conducted in four major areas of research (banknote recognition, counterfeit banknote detection, serial number recognition, and fitness classification) in the accurate banknote recognition field by various sensors in such automated machines, and describes the advantages and drawbacks of the methods presented in those studies...
February 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205640/quantitative-bioassay-to-identify-antimicrobial-drugs-through-drug-interaction-fingerprint-analysis
#2
Zohar B Weinstein, Muhammad H Zaman
Drug interaction analysis, which reports the extent to which the presence of one drug affects the efficacy of another, is a powerful tool to select potent combinatorial therapies and predict connectivity between cellular components. Combinatorial effects of drug pairs often vary even for drugs with similar mechanism of actions. Therefore, drug interaction fingerprinting may be harnessed to differentiate drug identities. We developed a method to analyze drug interactions for the application of identifying active pharmaceutical ingredients, an essential step to assess drug quality...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186524/anti-counterfeiting-patterns-encrypted-with-multi-mode-luminescent-nanotaggants
#3
Tianying Sun, Bingzhe Xu, Bing Chen, Xian Chen, Mingyu Li, Peng Shi, Feng Wang
Anti-counterfeiting patterns are encrypted with nanotaggants that are selectively excited at distinct wavelengths. Decryption is realized by examining the temporal color or graphic responses of the pattern under various illumination wavelengths. The covert color and graphic codes that are designable through control of the nanotaggant composition are expected to provide high-level security.
February 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159641/micro-flow-imaging-analyses-reflect-mechanisms-of-aggregate-formation-comparing-protein-particle-data-sets-using-the-kullback-leibler-divergence
#4
Nathaniel R Maddux, Austin L Daniels, Theodore W Randolph
Sub-visible particles in therapeutic protein formulations are an increasing manufacturing and regulatory concern due to their potential to cause adverse immune responses. Flow imaging microscopy is used extensively to detect sub-visible particles and investigate product deviations, typically by comparing imaging data using histograms of particle descriptors. Such an approach discards much information, and requires effort to interpret differences, which is problematic when comparing many data sets. We propose to compare imaging data by using the Kullback-Leibler divergence, an information theoretic measure of the difference of distributions...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157916/demonstration-of-patterned-polymer-stabilized-cholesteric-liquid-crystal-textures-for-anti-counterfeiting-two-dimensional-barcodes
#5
Wen-Song Li, Yuan Shen, Zhi-Jie Chen, Qian Cui, Sen-Sen Li, Lu-Jian Chen
We evaluated the feasibility of embedding periodically arranged squares with planar and vertical texture into a background with a developable-modulation (DM) type cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) fingerprint texture by a two-step ultraviolet-induced polymerization method. Checker-patterned optical diffractive elements, which can be seen as a variation of a two-dimensional (2D) barcode, were first realized and the dependence of diffraction behaviors on incident light polarization and applied voltage were investigated...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156209/qualitative-and-semiquantitative-analysis-of-doping-products-seized-at-the-swiss-border
#6
Christina Weber, Oliver Krug, Matthias Kamber, Mario Thevis
BACKGROUND: Substances developed for therapeutic use are also known to be misused by athletes as doping agents and, outside of regulated sport, for image-enhancement. This has generated a market for counterfeit doping substances. Counterfeit doping agents may be of poor pharmaceutical quality and therefore constitute health risks to consumers. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the pharmaceutical quality of 1,190 doping products seized at the Swiss border...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153309/performance-of-nir-handheld-spectrometers-for-the-detection-of-counterfeit-tablets
#7
Aurélie Guillemain, Klara Dégardin, Yves Roggo
Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an attractive tool for pharmaceutical analyses. While lab spectrometers are very performant, they are expensive and due to their size, not adapted for field analyses. In this study, two handheld NIR spectrometers have been evaluated for the fast detection of counterfeits of pharmaceutical tablets: one low cost sensor providing a short wavelength NIR range (swNIR) and one handheld spectrometer providing a classical NIR range (cNIR). A large database containing almost all the tablets produced by the firm was created on each spectrometer...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151981/optical-measurements-of-paintings-and-the-creation-of-an-artwork-database-for-authenticity
#8
Seonhee Hwang, Hyerin Song, Soon-Woo Cho, Chang Eun Kim, Chang-Seok Kim, Kyujung Kim
Paintings have high cultural and commercial value, so that needs to be preserved. Many techniques have been attempted to analyze properties of paintings, including X-ray analysis and optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods, and enable conservation of paintings from forgeries. In this paper, we suggest a simple and accurate optical analysis system to protect them from counterfeit which is comprised of fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and line laser-based topographic analysis. The system is designed to fully cover the whole area of paintings regardless of its size for the accurate analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130773/identification-of-substandard-medicines-via-disproportionality-analysis-of-individual-case-safety-reports
#9
Zahra Anita Trippe, Bruno Brendani, Christoph Meier, David Lewis
INTRODUCTION: The distribution and use of substandard medicines (SSMs) is a public health concern worldwide. The detection of SSMs is currently limited to expensive large-scale assay techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Since 2013, the Pharmacovigilance Department at Novartis Pharma AG has been analyzing drug-associated adverse events related to 'product quality issues' with the aim of detecting defective medicines using spontaneous reporting. The method of identifying SSMs with spontaneous reporting was pioneered by the Monitoring Medicines project in 2011...
January 28, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120513/x-ray-powder-diffraction-for-characterization-of-raw-materials-in-banknotes
#10
Domenica Marabello, Paola Benzi, Antonietta Lombardozzi, Morela Strano
We report about the X-ray powder diffraction characterization of crystalline materials used to produce genuine and counterfeit banknotes, performed with a single-crystal diffractometer that permits fast and nondestructive measurements in different 0.5-mm sized areas; 20-euro denomination genuine banknotes were analyzed, and results were compared with counterfeit banknotes. The analysis shows that the papers used to print real banknotes are composed, as expected, of cotton-based cellulose and titanium dioxide as crystalline additive, but different polymorphs of TiO2 for different emission countries are evidenced...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103977/-differential-textual-research-and-analysis-on-the-evolution-of-fritillaria-species-in-successive-dynasties
#11
L Qiu
Rhizoma bolbostemmae was the earliest applied fritillaria species during the period of pre-Qin to Han Dynasties in China. In the period of Wei-Jin, the fritillaria species presented diversities, with Zhejiang-fritillary also appeared for the first time. During the period of the Tang Dynasty to late Ming Dynasty, the fritillaria species kept expanding, Fritillaria hupehensis and Zhejiang-fritillary were deemed authentic species all the time. To the end of the Ming Dynasty, Fritillaria hupehensis withdrew from the stage of history gradually, Fritillaria cirrhosa came into being and then Fritillaria cirrhosa and Zhejiang-fritillary both appeared and became two important species of medicinal fritillarias after late Ming dynasty until today...
November 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059090/characterization-of-chinese-liquor-aroma-components-during-aging-process-and-liquor-age-discrimination-using-gas-chromatography-combined-with-multivariable-statistics
#12
M L Xu, Y Yu, H S Ramaswamy, S M Zhu
Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040654/verification-of-the-authenticity-of-drugs-by-means-of-nmr-relaxometry-viagra-%C3%A2-as-an-example
#13
S Wilczyńki, M Petelenz, M Florek-Wojciechowska, S Kulesza, Sz Brym, B Błońska-Fajfrowska, D Kruk
(1)H spin-lattice Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry, vibrational spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) have been applied to differentiate between original and counterfeit Viagra(®). The relaxation studies have been performed in a frequency range covering four orders of magnitude, from 4kHz to 40MHz. It has been shown that for the counterfeit product the relaxation is bi-exponential in the whole frequency range, while for the original Viagra(®) the relaxation process is always single exponential...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982567/poly-aryleneethynylene-tongue-that-identifies-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-water-a-test-case-for-combating-counterfeit-drugs
#14
Jinsong Han, Benhua Wang, Markus Bender, Soh Kushida, Kai Seehafer, Uwe H F Bunz
We report a sensor array composed of a highly fluorescent positively charged poly(para-phenyleneethynylene) P1 and its complex C with a negatively charged pyridine-containing poly(para-aryleneethynylene) P2 (quencher) at pH 10 and pH 13; a sensor field composed of four elements, P1 (pH 10), P1 (pH 13), C (pH 10), and C (pH 13), results. The elements of this small sensor field experience either fluorescence turn on or fluorescence quenching upon exposure toward nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, or naproxen...
December 22, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940634/effectiveness-of-medicines-authentication-technology-to-detect-counterfeit-recalled-and-expired-medicines-a-two-stage-quantitative-secondary-care-study
#15
Bernard Naughton, Lindsey Roberts, Sue Dopson, Stephen Chapman, David Brindley
OBJECTIVES: To identify the authentication and detection rate of serialised medicines using medicines authentication technology. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: 4192 serialised medicines were entered into a hospital dispensary over two separate 8-week stages in 2015. Medicines were authenticated using secure external database cross-checking, triggered by the scanning of a two-dimensional data matrix with a unit specific 12-digit serial code. 4% of medicines included were preprogrammed with a message to identify the product as either expired, pack recalled, product recalled or counterfeit...
December 9, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933251/robust-image-hashing-using-ring-partition-pgnmf-and-local-features
#16
Ram Kumar Karsh, R H Laskar, Bhanu Bhai Richhariya
BACKGROUND: Image authentication is one of the challenging research areas in the multimedia technology due to the availability of image editing tools. Image hash may be used for image authentication which should be invariant to perceptually similar image and sensitive to content changes. The challenging issue in image hashing is to design a system which simultaneously provides rotation robustness, desirable discrimination, sensitivity and localization of forged area with minimum hash length...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929032/ecdysteroid-containing-food-supplements-from-cyanotis-arachnoidea-on-the-european-market-evidence-for-spinach-product-counterfeiting
#17
Attila Hunyadi, Ibolya Herke, Katalin Lengyel, Mária Báthori, Zoltán Kele, András Simon, Gábor Tóth, Kálmán Szendrei
Phytoecdysteroids like 20-hydroxyecdysone ("ecdysterone") can exert a mild, non-hormonal anabolic/adaptogenic activity in mammals, and as such, are frequently used in food supplements. Spinach is well-known for its relatively low ecdysteroid content. Cyanotis arachnoidea, a plant native in China, is among the richest sources of phytoecdysteroids, and extracts of this plant are marketed in tons per year amounts via the internet at highly competitive prices. Here we report the investigation of a series of food supplements produced in Germany and claimed to contain spinach extracts...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912756/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-responses-and-development-of-insulin-resistance-how-are-they-interlinked
#18
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the etiology of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive online English literature was searched using various electronic search databases...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907866/chemical-profiling-and-adulteration-screening-of-aquilariae-lignum-resinatum-by-fourier-transform-infrared-ft-ir-spectroscopy-and-two-dimensional-correlation-infrared-2d-ir-spectroscopy
#19
Lei Qu, Jian-Bo Chen, Gui-Jun Zhang, Su-Qin Sun, Jing Zheng
As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR...
March 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905619/highly-fluorescent-nitrogen-doped-carbon-dots-with-excellent-thermal-and-photo-stability-applied-as-invisible-ink-for-loading-important-information-and-anti-counterfeiting
#20
Yingbo Liu, Liang Zhou, Yanan Li, Ruiping Deng, Hongjie Zhang
High quantum yields (QY) and stable performances are prerequisites for implementing carbon dots in practical applications. In this study, we demonstrate that nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs), which were prepared via the hydrothermal treatment of citric acid (CA) and tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl aminomethane (Tris), have a high QY of 75%, together with excellent thermal and photo stability. These N-CDs deliver an excellent thermal stability performance over the temperature range of 25 °C to 95 °C, and even at a heating temperature of 90 °C for 360 min...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
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