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Chunlei Xia, Songyuan Tao, Shoujun Zhu, Yubin Song, Tanglue Feng, Qingsen Zeng, Junjun Liu, Bai Yang
Hydrothermal/solvothermal treatment have been widely used to prepare carbonized polymer dots (CPDs) by the condensation and carbonization of small molecules and/or polymers. However, the basic scientific issues of nucleation and growth process, morphology and size control, yield increase, and PL mechanism have not been well-investigated. In this work, enlightened by the principle of soap-free emulsion polymerization, CPDs with ultrahigh yield rate (ca. 85%) were obtained by hydrothermal addition polymerization and carbonization (HAPC) of monomer...
June 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jean-Pierre Mufusama, Karine Ndjoko Ioset, Doris Feineis, Ludwig Hoellein, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Gerhard Bringmann
In the context of post-marketing surveillance supporting public-health authorities to take evidence-based decisions to fight the spread of poor-quality medicines, the quality of antimalarial artemether-lumefantrine (AL) medicines was assessed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). A total of 150 samples of AL containing products was collected from private pharmaceutical outlets in eight main cities: Goma, Kikwit, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Lubumbashi, Matadi, Mbandaka, and Mbuji-Mayi. All drug samples were successively analyzed by visual inspection, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following The International Pharmacopoeia...
June 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
M P Nikitin, A V Orlov, I L Sokolov, A A Minakov, P I Nikitin, J Ding, S D Bader, E A Rozhkova, V Novosad
Geometrically confined magnetic particles due to their unique response to external magnetic fields find a variety of applications, including magnetic guidance, heat and drug delivery, magneto-mechanical actuation, and contrast enhancement. Highly sensitive detection and imaging techniques based on the nonlinear properties of nanomagnets were recently proposed as innovative strong-translational potential methods applicable in complex, often opaque, biological systems. Here we report on the significant enhancement of the detection capability using optical-lithography-defined, ferromagnetic iron-nickel alloy disk-shaped particles...
June 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Jeremy Jost, Voa Ratsimbazafy, Thu Trang Nguyen, Thuy Linh Nguyen, Hanh Dufat, Annabelle Dugay, Alassane Ba, Guilhem Sivadier, Yattussia Mafilaza, Cyril Jousse, Mounir Traïkia, Martin Leremboure, Emilie Auditeau, Adeline Raharivelo, Edgard Ngoungou, Symon M Kariuki, Charles R Newton, Pierre-Marie Preux
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a major public health issue in low- and middle-income countries, where the availability and accessibility of quality treatment remain important issues, the severity of which may be aggravated by poor quality antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The primary objective of this study was to measure the quality of AEDs in rural and urban areas in 3 African countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Gabon, Kenya, and Madagascar. Both official and unofficial supply chains in urban and rural areas were investigated...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsia
Heidi Collins Fantasia, Katherine M Vooys
Counterfeit medications are broadly defined as drugs that can contain inadequate amounts of active ingredients, contain the wrong active ingredients, be contaminated with harmful substances, and/or be falsely labeled. These medications are a public health issue globally, and their presence in the United States is growing. Counterfeit medications are produced without regulatory oversight and are distributed illegally, often via online sources. Use of these medications can result in adverse effects or a lack of improvement in a person's health condition...
June 2018: Nursing for Women's Health
K Scotcher, R Bradshaw
In September 2016, the UK adopted a new Bank of England (BoE) £5 polymer banknote, followed by the £10 polymer banknote in September 2017. They are designed to be cleaner, stronger and have increased counterfeit resilience; however, fingermark development can be problematic from the polymer material as various security features and coloured/textured areas have been found to alter the effectiveness of conventional fingermark enhancement techniques (FETs). As fingermarks are one of the most widely used forms of identification in forensic cases, it is important that maximum ridge detail be obtained in order to allow for comparison...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yong-Mei Wang, Xue-Tao Tian, Hui Zhang, Zhong-Rui Yang, Xue-Bo Yin
Counterfeiting is a global epidemic that is compelling the development of new anti-counterfeiting strategy. Herein, we report a novel multiple anti-counterfeiting encoding strategy of invisible fluorescent quick response (QR) codes with emission color as information storage unit. The strategy requires red, green, and blue (RGB) light-emitting materials for different emission colors as encrypting information, single excitation for all of the emission for practicability, and ultraviolet (UV) excitation for invisibility under slight...
June 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jen-Hung Tseng, Yen-Chih Liao, Bin Chong, Shih-Wei Liao
As a trust machine, blockchain was recently introduced to the public to provide an immutable, consensus based and transparent system in the Fintech field. However, there are ongoing efforts to apply blockchain to other fields where trust and value are essential. In this paper, we suggest Gcoin blockchain as the base of the data flow of drugs to create transparent drug transaction data. Additionally, the regulation model of the drug supply chain could be altered from the inspection and examination only model to the surveillance net model, and every unit that is involved in the drug supply chain would be able to participate simultaneously to prevent counterfeit drugs and to protect public health, including patients...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Onur Gökçe, Cristina Mercandetti, Emmanuel Delamarche
Warnings and reports on counterfeit diagnostic devices are released several times a year by regulators and public health agencies. Unfortunately, mishandling, altering, and counterfeiting point-of-care diagnostics (POCDs) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is lucrative, relatively simple and can lead to devastating consequences. Here, we demonstrate how to implement optical security codes in silicon- and nitrocellulose-based flow paths for device authentication using a smartphone. The codes are created by inkjet spotting inks directly on nitrocellulose or on micropillars...
June 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Tianyi Xin, Zhichao Xu, Jing Jia, Christine Leon, Songnian Hu, Yulin Lin, Subramanyam Ragupathy, Jingyuan Song, Steven G Newmaster
Global concerns have been paid to the potential hazard of traditional herbal medicinal products (THMPs). Substandard and counterfeit THMPs, including traditional Chinese patent medicine, health foods, dietary supplements, etc. are potential threats to public health. Recent marketplace studies using DNA barcoding have determined that the current quality control methods are not sufficient for ensuring the presence of authentic herbal ingredients and detection of contaminants/adulterants. An efficient biomonitoring method for THMPs is of great needed...
May 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Ruiqi Bao, Zhiyi Chen, Zhiwei Zhao, Xuan Sun, Jinyang Zhang, Linrui Hou, Changzhou Yuan
Fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have held great promise in analytical and environmental fields thanks to their congenitally fascinating virtues. However, low quantum yield (QY) and modest fluorescent stability still restrict their practical applications. In this investigation, a green hydrothermal strategy has been devised to produce water-soluble nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) co-doped CQDs from edible Eleocharis dulcis with multi-heteroatoms. Without any additives and further surface modifications, the resultant CQDs exhibited tunable photoluminescence just by changing hydrothermal temperatures...
May 31, 2018: Nanomaterials
Grzegorz Ciepielowski, Barbara Pacholczyk-Sienicka, Tomasz Frączek, Kamila Klajman, Piotr Paneth, Łukasz Albrecht
BACKGROUND: The production of "Polish Vodka" is restricted by law to the ethyl alcohol of agricultural origins obtained from rye, wheat, barley, oat, triticale and potatoes grown on the territory of the Republic of Poland. The current labeling system should guarantee that the spirit is authentic and of good quality but not all producers are honest. Unfortunately, the authentic "Polish Vodka" is the most often counterfeited by the addition of cheaper and more accessible maize spirits...
May 31, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Marin Kurti, Yi He, Diana Silver, Margaret Giorgio, Klaus von Lampe, James Macinko, Hua Ye, Fidelis Tan, Victoria Mei
Background: There are no independent studies measuring the availability of premium brand counterfeit cigarettes in New York City from licensed retailers. Methods: We forensically analyzed the cigarette packaging of Marlboro Gold (n = 1021) purchased from licensed tobacco retailers in New York City, using ultraviolet irradiation and light microscopy to determine whether they were counterfeit. Results: We find that while only 0.5% (n = 5) of our sample exhibits at least one characteristic synonymous with counterfeit packaging, none of our packs can be conclusively classified as counterfeit...
May 26, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Bipin Kumar Gupta, Amit Kumar Gangwar, Ashish Gupta, Garima Kedawat, Pawan Kumar, Bhanu Pratap Singh, Nidhi Singh, Avanish K Srivastava, Sanjay R Dhakate
Recently, increasing trend of counterfeiting of the important data, currency, stamp papers, branded products etc. has become a major security threat which could lead to a serious damage to global economy. Consequences of these damages are enforcing to researcher for developing new high-end security features to address its full proof solutions. Herein, we report a dual mode flexible highly luminescent white security paper and nanotaggants composed of nanophosphors incorporated in polymer metrics to form the nanofibers based mat for anti-counterfeiting applications...
May 23, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Eman Abdel Monaem Abdel Rashid, Nashwa Mohamed El-Mahdy, Huda Shehata Kharoub, Ahmed Salah Gouda, Naglaa Ahmed ElNabarawy, Bruno Mégarbane
Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N=7), spastic dystonia (N=1), and hyperhidrosis (N=1). Detailed findings were available in 5/9 cases. Patients were admitted to the hospital 5-10 days after the BoNT-A injection...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Marco Abbatangelo, Estefanía Núñez-Carmona, Veronica Sberveglieri, Dario Zappa, Elisabetta Comini, Giorgio Sberveglieri
Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is one of the most appreciated and consumed foods worldwide, especially in Italy, for its high content of nutrients and taste. However, these characteristics make this product subject to counterfeiting in different forms. In this study, a novel method based on an electronic nose has been developed to investigate the potentiality of this tool to distinguish rind percentages in grated Parmigiano Reggiano packages that should be lower than 18%. Different samples, in terms of percentage, seasoning and rind working process, were considered to tackle the problem at 360°...
May 18, 2018: Sensors
Karis Maria de Pinho Rodrigues, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Providing advice for travelers embarking on long-term trips poses a challenge in travel medicine. A long duration of risk exposure is associated with underuse of protective measures and poor adherence to chemoprophylaxis, increasing the chances of acquiring infections. Recently, in our clinic, we observed an increase in the number of travelers undertaking round-the-world trips. These individuals are typically aged around 32 years and quit their jobs to embark on one-to-two-year journeys. Their destinations include countries in two or more continents, invariably Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and mostly involve land travel and visiting rural areas...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Long Gu, Huifang Shi, Mingxing Gu, Kun Ling, Huili Ma, Suzhi Cai, Lulu Song, Chaoqun Ma, Hai Li, Guichuan Xing, Xiaochun Hang, Jiewei Li, Yaru Gao, Wei Yao, Zhigang Shuai, Zhongfu An, Xiaogang Liu, Wei Huang
Smart materials with ultralong phosphorescence are rarely investigated and reported. Herein we report on a series of molecules with unique dynamic ultralong organic phosphorescence (UOP) features, enabled by manipulating intermolecular interactions through UV light irradiation. Our experimental data reveals that a prolonged irradiation of single-component organic phosphors of PCzT, BCzT, and FCzT under ambient conditions can activate UOP with emission lifetimes spanning from 1.8 to 1330 ms. These phosphors can also be deactivated back to their original states with short-lived phosphorescence after 3 h of UV irradiation at room temperature or through thermal treatment...
May 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Hao Wan, Haodong Xue, Yuan Ling, Yanjun Qiao, Yijing Chen, Gang Zhou
Electron-donating triphenylamine and/or electron-withdrawing pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) are functionalized on dithienylethene (DTE) and three novel photochromic materials have been designed and successfully synthesized. All the compounds display reversible photochromism due to the molecular switching between ring-closed isomers upon UV light irradiation and ring-open isomers upon exposure to visible light. Thus they can be applied as an anti-counterfeiting ink. Moreover, the study of the photoswitching kinetics reveals that both the ring-closing and ring-opening reactions are first-order reactions...
May 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiumei Yin, Hong Wang, Ying Tian, Mingming Xing, Yao Fu, Xixian Luo
The achievement of three-primary-color luminescence in a single material will lead to revolutionary developments of many advanced applications such as dynamic display with ultra-high resolution, and complex anti-counterfeiting. Here we report the realization of steady-state three-primary-color emission in single multilayered NaYF4 upconversion (UC) nanoparticles. In this core-shell structure, a novel design of a tri-sensitizer, i.e., Nd3+, Yb3+ and Er3+ ions, is utilized, which effectively absorbs the excitation photons of 808, 980 and 1550 nm, and then exhibits blue, red and green emissions, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Nanoscale
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