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Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Carlos Cardoso-Palacios, Ingela Lanekoff
Counterfeit pharmaceutical drugs imply an increasing threat to the global public health. It is necessary to have systems to control the products that reach the market and to detect falsified medicines. In this work, molecules in several pharmaceutical tablets were directly analyzed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS). Nano-DESI is an ambient surface sampling technique which enables sampling of molecules directly from the surface of the tablets without any sample pretreatment...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Racha Fadlallah, Fadi El-Jardali, Farah Annan, Hayat Azzam, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: A recent systematic review suggested that drug registrations and onsite quality inspections may be effective in reducing the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs. However, simply replicating the most effective interventions is problematic, as it denotes implementing the intervention without further adaptation. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to systematically review the evidence beyond effectiveness for systems-level interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting...
2016: Pharmaceutical Medicine
Artur Carnicer, Oriol Arteaga, Josep M Suñé-Negre, Bahram Javidi
The counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products represents concerns for both industry and the safety of the general public. Falsification produces losses to companies and poses health risks for patients. In order to detect fake pharmaceutical tablets, we propose producing film-coated tablets with gold nanoparticle encoding. These coated tablets contain unique polarimetric signatures. We present experiments to show that ellipsometric optical techniques, in combination with machine learning algorithms, can be used to distinguish genuine and fake samples...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Xiaoyue Wang, Yang Liu, Lili Wang, Jianping Han, Shilin Chen
It is very difficult to identify Angelicae sinensis radix (Danggui) when it is processed into Chinese patent medicines. The proposed internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is not sufficient to resolve heavily processed materials. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed materials is urgently needed. In this study, 265 samples of Angelicae sinensis radix and adulterants were collected. The ITS2 region was sequenced, and based on one single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) site unique to Angelica sinensis, a nucleotide signature consisting of 37-bp (5'-aatccgcgtc atcttagtga gctcaaggac ccttagg-3') was developed...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sanyang Han, Xian Qin, Zhongfu An, Yihan Zhu, Liangliang Liang, Yu Han, Wei Huang, Xiaogang Liu
Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over crystal nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. Here we demonstrate the use of a cation exchange strategy for expeditiously accessing large classes of such nanocrystals...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
Hebert Vinicius Pereira, Victória Silva Amador, Marcelo Martins Sena, Rodinei Augusti, Evandro Piccin
Paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for the first time in a forensic context to a fast and effective differentiation of beers. Eight different brands of American standard lager beers produced by four different breweries (141 samples from 55 batches) were studied with the aim at performing a differentiation according to their market prices. The three leader brands in the Brazilian beer market, which have been subject to fraud, were modeled as the higher-price class, while the five brands most used for counterfeiting were modeled as the lower-price class...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Danuta Piniewska, Marek Sanak, Marta Wojtas, Nina Polanska
Advances in forensic identification using molecular genetics are helpful in resolving some historical mysteries. The aim of this study was to confirm the authenticity of shrunken-head artifacts exhibited by two Polish museums. Shrunken heads, known as tsantsas, were headhunting trophies of South American Indians (Jivaroan). A special preparation preserved their hair and facial appearance. However, it was quite common to offer counterfeit shrunken heads of sloths or monkeys to collectors of curiosities. We sampled small skin specimens of four shrunken-head skin from the museum collection from Warsaw and Krakow, Poland...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Shen Xu, Runfeng Chen, Chao Zheng, Wei Huang
Organic afterglow materials, developed recently by breaking through the difficulties in modulating ultrafast-decayed excited states, exhibit ultralong-lived emission for persistent luminescence with lifetimes of several orders of magnitude longer than traditional fluorescent and phosphorescent emissions at room temperature. Their exceptional properties, namely ultralong luminescent lifetime, large Stokes shifts, facile excited state transformation, and environmentally sensitive emission, have led to a diverse range of advanced optoelectronic applications...
September 16, 2016: Advanced Materials
Daniela D'Almeida Peres, Maira Bueno Ariede, Thalita Marcilio Candido, Tania Santos de Almeida, Felipe Rebello Lourenço, Vladi Olga Consiglieri, Telma Mary Kaneko, Maria Valéria Robles Velasco, André Rolim Baby
Multifunctional formulations are of great importance to ensure better skin protection from harm caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV). Despite the advantages of Quality by Design and Process Analytical Technology approaches to the development and optimization of new products, we found in the literature only a few studies concerning their applications in cosmetic product industry. Thus, in this research work, we applied the QbD and PAT approaches to the development of multifunctional sunscreens containing bemotrizinol, ethylhexyl triazone, and ferulic acid...
October 13, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Ho-Yi Wong, Bin Hu, Pui-Kin So, Chi-On Chan, Daniel Kam-Wah Mok, Gui-Zhong Xin, Ping Li, Zhong-Ping Yao
In this study, direct ionization mass spectrometry (DI-MS) for rapid authentication of Gastrodiae rhizoma (known as Tianma in Chinese), a popular herbal medicine, has been developed. This method is rapid, simple and allows direct generation of characteristic mass spectra from the raw herbal medicines with the application of some solvents and a high voltage. The acquired DI-MS spectra showed that gastrodin, parishin B/parishin C and parishin, the major active components of Gastrodiae rhizoma, could be found only in genuine Gastrodiae rhizoma samples, but not in counterfeit samples, thus allowing rapid authentication of Gastrodiae rhizoma...
September 28, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yifei Liu, Xing Su, Yi Wang, Xiaofeng Fang, Yu-Mo Zhang, Ting Zhang, Minjie Li, Tingting Lin, Sean Xiao-An Zhang
A high contrast tri-state fluorescent switch (FSPTPE) with both emission color change and on/off switching is achieved in a single molecular system by fusing the aggregation-induced emissive tetraphenylethene (TPE) with a molecular switch of spiropyran (SP). In contrast to most of the reported solid state fluorescent switches, FSPTPE only exists in amorphous phase in the ring-closed form due to its highly asymmetric molecular geometry and weak intermolecular interactions, which leads to its grinding-inert stable cyan emission in solid state...
September 12, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Sławomir Wilczyński, Robert Koprowski, Mathieu Marmion, Piotr Duda, Barbara Błońska-Fajfrowska
The risk of death from taking counterfeit drugs is now greater than the probability of dying from malaria and AIDS combined (at least half a million deaths each year). At the same time, counterfeit medicines are falsified more and more "skillfully". According to WHO about 10% of counterfeit drugs are copies of original products. The methods of hyperspectral imaging and image analysis and processing were used to detect counterfeit drugs. Original Viagra® (Pfizer) and counterfeit tablets were compared. Hyperspectral imaging was used to acquire hyperspectral data cubes from both original and counterfeit tablets in the spectral range of 400-2500nm...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Quanxi Mei, Xiaolu Chen, Li Xiang, Yue Liu, Yanyan Su, Yuqiao Gao, Weibo Dai, Pengpeng Dong, Shilin Chen
Folium Artemisiae Argyi is an important herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It is commonly used in moxibustion, medicine, etc. However, identifying Artemisia argyi is difficult because this herb exhibits similar morphological characteristics to closely related species and counterfeits. To verify the applicability of DNA barcoding, ITS2 and psbA-trnH were used to identify A. argyi from 15 closely related species and counterfeits. Results indicated that total DNA was easily extracted from all the samples and that both ITS2 and psbA-trnH fragments can be easily amplified...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Natalie Richards, Ian Hudson
The medicines regulatory environment is evolving rapidly in response to the changing environment. Advances in science and technology have led to a vast field of increasingly complicated pharmaceutical and medical device products; increasing globalisation of the pharmaceutical industry, advances in digital technology and the internet, changing patient populations, and shifts in society also impact the regulatory environment. In the UK the MHRA regulates medicines, medical devices and blood products to protect and improve public health; and supports innovation through scientific research and development...
August 31, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Y V Zontov, K S Balyklova, A V Titova, O Ye Rodionova, A L Pomerantsev
The progress in instrumentation technology has led to miniaturization of NIR instruments. Fast systems that contain no moving parts were developed to be used in the field, warehouses, drugstores, etc. At the same time, in general these portable/handheld spectrometers have a lower spectral resolution and a narrower spectral region than stationary ones. Vendors of portable instruments supply their equipment with special software for spectra processing, which aims at simplifying the analyst's work to the highest degree possible...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Traci C Green, Michael Gilbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Ann M Arens, Xander M R van Wijk, Kathy T Vo, Kara L Lynch, Alan H B Wu, Craig G Smollin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
William Edryd Stephens
BACKGROUND: Illicit tobacco products have a disproportionately negative effect on public health. Counterfeits and cheap whites as well as legal brands smuggled from countries not adopting track and trace technologies will require novel forensic tools to aid the disruption of their supply chains. METHODS: Data sets of trace element concentrations in tobacco were obtained using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on samples of legal and illicit products mainly from Europe...
August 16, 2016: Tobacco Control
Leire Pérez-Ibarbia, Tobias Majdanski, Stephanie Schubert, Norbert Windhab, Ulrich S Schubert
Color selection is one of the key elements of building a strong brand development and product identity in the pharmaceutical industry, besides to prevent counterfeiting. Moreover, colored pharmaceutical dosage forms may increase patient compliance and therapy enhancement. Although most synthetic dyes are classified as safe, their regulations are stricter than other classes of excipients. Safety concerns have increased during the last years but the efforts to change to natural dyes seem to be not promising. Their instability problems and the development of "non-toxic" dyes is still a challenge...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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