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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103977/-differential-textual-research-and-analysis-on-the-evolution-of-fritillaria-species-in-successive-dynasties
#1
L Qiu
Rhizoma bolbostemmae was the earliest applied fritillaria species during the period of pre-Qin to Han Dynasties in China. In the period of Wei-Jin, the fritillaria species presented diversities, with Zhejiang-fritillary also appeared for the first time. During the period of the Tang Dynasty to late Ming Dynasty, the fritillaria species kept expanding, Fritillaria hupehensis and Zhejiang-fritillary were deemed authentic species all the time. To the end of the Ming Dynasty, Fritillaria hupehensis withdrew from the stage of history gradually, Fritillaria cirrhosa came into being and then Fritillaria cirrhosa and Zhejiang-fritillary both appeared and became two important species of medicinal fritillarias after late Ming dynasty until today...
November 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059090/characterization-of-chinese-liquor-aroma-components-during-aging-process-and-liquor-age-discrimination-using-gas-chromatography-combined-with-multivariable-statistics
#2
M L Xu, Y Yu, H S Ramaswamy, S M Zhu
Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040654/verification-of-the-authenticity-of-drugs-by-means-of-nmr-relaxometry-viagra-%C3%A2-as-an-example
#3
S Wilczyńki, M Petelenz, M Florek-Wojciechowska, S Kulesza, Sz Brym, B Błońska-Fajfrowska, D Kruk
(1)H spin-lattice Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry, vibrational spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) have been applied to differentiate between original and counterfeit Viagra(®). The relaxation studies have been performed in a frequency range covering four orders of magnitude, from 4kHz to 40MHz. It has been shown that for the counterfeit product the relaxation is bi-exponential in the whole frequency range, while for the original Viagra(®) the relaxation process is always single exponential...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982567/poly-aryleneethynylene-tongue-that-identifies-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-water-a-test-case-for-combating-counterfeit-drugs
#4
Jinsong Han, Benhua Wang, Markus Bender, Soh Kushida, Kai Seehafer, Uwe H F Bunz
We report a sensor array composed of a highly fluorescent positively charged poly(para-phenyleneethynylene) P1 and its complex C with a negatively charged pyridine-containing poly(para-aryleneethynylene) P2 (quencher) at pH 10 and pH 13; a sensor field composed of four elements, P1 (pH 10), P1 (pH 13), C (pH 10), and C (pH 13), results. The elements of this small sensor field experience either fluorescence turn on or fluorescence quenching upon exposure toward nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, or naproxen...
December 22, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940634/effectiveness-of-medicines-authentication-technology-to-detect-counterfeit-recalled-and-expired-medicines-a-two-stage-quantitative-secondary-care-study
#5
Bernard Naughton, Lindsey Roberts, Sue Dopson, Stephen Chapman, David Brindley
OBJECTIVES: To identify the authentication and detection rate of serialised medicines using medicines authentication technology. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: 4192 serialised medicines were entered into a hospital dispensary over two separate 8-week stages in 2015. Medicines were authenticated using secure external database cross-checking, triggered by the scanning of a two-dimensional data matrix with a unit specific 12-digit serial code. 4% of medicines included were preprogrammed with a message to identify the product as either expired, pack recalled, product recalled or counterfeit...
December 9, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933251/robust-image-hashing-using-ring-partition-pgnmf-and-local-features
#6
Ram Kumar Karsh, R H Laskar, Bhanu Bhai Richhariya
BACKGROUND: Image authentication is one of the challenging research areas in the multimedia technology due to the availability of image editing tools. Image hash may be used for image authentication which should be invariant to perceptually similar image and sensitive to content changes. The challenging issue in image hashing is to design a system which simultaneously provides rotation robustness, desirable discrimination, sensitivity and localization of forged area with minimum hash length...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929032/ecdysteroid-containing-food-supplements-from-cyanotis-arachnoidea-on-the-european-market-evidence-for-spinach-product-counterfeiting
#7
Attila Hunyadi, Ibolya Herke, Katalin Lengyel, Mária Báthori, Zoltán Kele, András Simon, Gábor Tóth, Kálmán Szendrei
Phytoecdysteroids like 20-hydroxyecdysone ("ecdysterone") can exert a mild, non-hormonal anabolic/adaptogenic activity in mammals, and as such, are frequently used in food supplements. Spinach is well-known for its relatively low ecdysteroid content. Cyanotis arachnoidea, a plant native in China, is among the richest sources of phytoecdysteroids, and extracts of this plant are marketed in tons per year amounts via the internet at highly competitive prices. Here we report the investigation of a series of food supplements produced in Germany and claimed to contain spinach extracts...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912756/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-responses-and-development-of-insulin-resistance-how-are-they-interlinked
#8
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the etiology of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive online English literature was searched using various electronic search databases...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907866/chemical-profiling-and-adulteration-screening-of-aquilariae-lignum-resinatum-by-fourier-transform-infrared-ft-ir-spectroscopy-and-two-dimensional-correlation-infrared-2d-ir-spectroscopy
#9
Lei Qu, Jian-Bo Chen, Gui-Jun Zhang, Su-Qin Sun, Jing Zheng
As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR...
November 10, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905619/highly-fluorescent-nitrogen-doped-carbon-dots-with-excellent-thermal-and-photo-stability-applied-as-invisible-ink-for-loading-important-information-and-anti-counterfeiting
#10
Yingbo Liu, Liang Zhou, Yanan Li, Ruiping Deng, Hongjie Zhang
High quantum yields (QY) and stable performances are prerequisites for implementing carbon dots in practical applications. In this study, we demonstrate that nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs), which were prepared via the hydrothermal treatment of citric acid (CA) and tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl aminomethane (Tris), have a high QY of 75%, together with excellent thermal and photo stability. These N-CDs deliver an excellent thermal stability performance over the temperature range of 25 °C to 95 °C, and even at a heating temperature of 90 °C for 360 min...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905577/infrared-spectroscopy-and-spectroscopic-imaging-in-forensic-science
#11
REVIEW
Andrew V Ewing, Sergei G Kazarian
Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications...
December 1, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895526/development-of-a-simple-and-specific-direct-competitive-elisa-for-the-determination-of-artesunate-using-an-anti-artesunate-polyclonal-antiserum
#12
Yoshinori Mitsui
BACKGROUND: Since artesunate (ART) became a vital component of artemisinin (ARM)-based combination therapies for the treatment for malaria, counterfeit ART drugs have spread in regions of Southeast Asia and Africa. The consumption of counterfeit ART drugs has resulted in the death of many patients. Thus, evaluating the quality of ART drugs is needed. There are several methods for quantitating the ART content in tablets, the most common being a high-performance liquid chromatography. However, that method is hampered by the need for expensive equipment and a rather time-consuming process of extraction...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882847/fakes-hoaxes-counterfeits-and-deception-in-early-modern-science
#13
Robert G W Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857110/mhra-joins-forces-with-bdia-against-counterfeit-devices
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856691/optical-spectroscopic-analysis-for-the-discrimination-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil
#15
Naomi McReynolds, Juan M Auñón Garcia, Zoe Guengerich, Terry K Smith, Kishan Dholakia
We demonstrate the ability to discriminate between five brands of commercially available extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) using Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence spectroscopy. Data was taken on both a 'bulk optics' free space system and on a compact handheld device, each capable of taking both Raman and fluorescence data. With the compact Raman device we achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 98.4% and 99.6% for discrimination, respectively. Our approach illustrates that both Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for portable discrimination of EVOOs...
November 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813026/research-on-design-of-tri-color-shift-device
#16
Ping Xu, Xia Yuan, Haixuan Huang, Tuo Yang, Yanyan Huang, Tengfei Zhu, Shaotuo Tang, Wenda Peng
An azimuth-tuned tri-color shift device based on an embedded subwavelength one-dimensional rectangular structure with single period is proposed. High reflection efficiencies for both TE and TM polarizations can be achieved simultaneously. Under an oblique incidence of 60°, the reflection efficiencies can reach up to 85, 86, and 100 % in blue (azimuth of 24°), green (azimuth of 63°), and red (azimuth of 90°) waveband, respectively. Furthermore, the laws of influence of device period, groove depth, coating thickness, and incident angle on reflection characteristics are investigated and exposed, and feasibility of the device is demonstrated...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806197/dual-colorimetric-and-fluorescent-imaging-of-latent-fingerprints-on-both-porous-and-nonporous-surfaces-with-near-infrared-fluorescent-semiconducting-polymer-dots
#17
You-Hong Chen, Shih-Yu Kuo, Wei-Kai Tsai, Chi-Shiang Ke, Chia-Hsien Liao, Chuan-Pin Chen, Yeng-Tseng Wang, Hsiu-Wei Chen, Yang-Hsiang Chan
Semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have recently been proven as a novel type of ultrabright fluorescent probes that can be extensively used in analytical detection. Here, we developed a dual visual sensor based on Pdots for fingerprint imaging. We first designed and synthesized two types of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent polymers and then embedded ninhydrin into the Pdot matrix. The resulting Pdot assays showed the colorimetric and fluorescent dual-readout abilities to detect latent fingerprints on both porous and nonporous surfaces...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792890/micronucleated-erythrocytes-in-newborns-rats-exposed-to-three-different-types-of-ultraviolet-a-uva-lamps-from-commonly-uses-devices
#18
Guillermo M Zúñiga-González, Belinda C Gómez-Meda, Ana L Zamora-Perez, María A Martínez-González, Miguel A Bautista-Bejarano, Sebastián Patiño-Valenzuela, Juan Armendáriz-Borunda, Blanca P Lazalde-Ramos, María G Sánchez-Parada, Martha P Gallegos-Arreola
Exposure to ultraviolet-A (UVA) light can accidentally cause adverse effects in the skin and eyes. UVA induces DNA damage directly by creating pyrimidine dimers or by the formation of reactive oxygen species that can indirectly affect DNA integrity. UVA radiation is emitted by lamps from everyday devices. In adult rats, micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) are removed from the circulation by the spleen. However, in newborn rats, MNE have been observed in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The objective of this study was to use micronucleus tests to evaluate the DNA damage caused in newborn rats exposed to UVA light from three different types of UVA lamps obtained from commonly used devices: counterfeit detectors, insecticide devices, and equipment used to harden resins for artificial nails...
December 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790465/an-examination-of-income-effect-on-consumers-ethical-evaluation-of-counterfeit-drugs-buying-behaviour-a-cross-sectional-study-in-qatar-and-sudan
#19
Abubakr Abdelraouf Alfadl, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Fatima Abdulla Maraghi, Khadijah Shhab Mohammad
INTRODUCTION: There are limited studies on consumer behaviour toward counterfeit products and the determining factors that motivate willingness to purchase counterfeit items. AIM: This study aimed to fill this literature gap through studying differences in individual ethical evaluations of counterfeit drug purchase and whether that ethical evaluation affected by difference in income. It is hypothesized that individuals with lower/higher income make a more/less permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drug purchase...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788677/quality-of-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy-for-malaria-found-in-ghanaian-markets-and-public-health-implications-of-their-use
#20
Mathilda Tivura, Isaac Asante, Albert van Wyk, Stephaney Gyaase, Naiela Malik, Emmanuel Mahama, Dana M Hostetler, Facundo M Fernandez, Kwaku Poku Asante, Harparkash Kaur, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: Ghana changed their antimalarial drug policy from monotherapies to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies in 2004 in order to provide more efficacious medicines for treatment of malaria. The policy change can be eroded if poor quality Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies are allowed to remain on the Ghanaian market unchecked by regulatory bodies and law enforcement agencies. The presence and prevalence of substandard and counterfeit Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies need to be determined on open markets in Ghana; a review of the current policy; identifying any gaps and making recommendations on actions to be taken in addressing gaps identified are essential as the data provided and recommendations made will help in ensuring effective control of malaria in Ghana...
October 28, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
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