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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912756/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-responses-and-development-of-insulin-resistance-how-are-they-interlinked
#1
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the etiology of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive online English literature was searched using various electronic search databases...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907866/chemical-profiling-and-adulteration-screening-of-aquilariae-lignum-resinatum-by-fourier-transform-infrared-ft-ir-spectroscopy-and-two-dimensional-correlation-infrared-2d-ir-spectroscopy
#2
Lei Qu, Jian-Bo Chen, Gui-Jun Zhang, Su-Qin Sun, Jing Zheng
As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR...
November 10, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905619/highly-fluorescent-nitrogen-doped-carbon-dots-with-excellent-thermal-and-photo-stability-applied-as-invisible-ink-for-loading-important-information-and-anti-counterfeiting
#3
Yingbo Liu, Liang Zhou, Yanan Li, Ruiping Deng, Hongjie Zhang
High quantum yields (QY) and stable performances are prerequisites for implementing carbon dots in practical applications. In this study, we demonstrate that nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs), which were prepared via the hydrothermal treatment of citric acid (CA) and tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl aminomethane (Tris), have a high QY of 75%, together with excellent thermal and photo stability. These N-CDs deliver an excellent thermal stability performance over the temperature range of 25 °C to 95 °C, and even at a heating temperature of 90 °C for 360 min...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905577/infrared-spectroscopy-and-spectroscopic-imaging-in-forensic-science
#4
REVIEW
Andrew V Ewing, Sergei G Kazarian
Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications...
December 1, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895526/development-of-a-simple-and-specific-direct-competitive-elisa-for-the-determination-of-artesunate-using-an-anti-artesunate-polyclonal-antiserum
#5
Yoshinori Mitsui
BACKGROUND: Since artesunate (ART) became a vital component of artemisinin (ARM)-based combination therapies for the treatment for malaria, counterfeit ART drugs have spread in regions of Southeast Asia and Africa. The consumption of counterfeit ART drugs has resulted in the death of many patients. Thus, evaluating the quality of ART drugs is needed. There are several methods for quantitating the ART content in tablets, the most common being a high-performance liquid chromatography. However, that method is hampered by the need for expensive equipment and a rather time-consuming process of extraction...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882847/fakes-hoaxes-counterfeits-and-deception-in-early-modern-science
#6
Robert G W Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857110/mhra-joins-forces-with-bdia-against-counterfeit-devices
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856691/optical-spectroscopic-analysis-for-the-discrimination-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil
#8
Naomi McReynolds, Juan M Auñón Garcia, Zoe Guengerich, Terry K Smith, Kishan Dholakia
We demonstrate the ability to discriminate between five brands of commercially available extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) using Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence spectroscopy. Data was taken on both a 'bulk optics' free space system and on a compact handheld device, each capable of taking both Raman and fluorescence data. With the compact Raman device we achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 98.4% and 99.6% for discrimination, respectively. Our approach illustrates that both Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for portable discrimination of EVOOs...
November 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813026/research-on-design-of-tri-color-shift-device
#9
Ping Xu, Xia Yuan, Haixuan Huang, Tuo Yang, Yanyan Huang, Tengfei Zhu, Shaotuo Tang, Wenda Peng
An azimuth-tuned tri-color shift device based on an embedded subwavelength one-dimensional rectangular structure with single period is proposed. High reflection efficiencies for both TE and TM polarizations can be achieved simultaneously. Under an oblique incidence of 60°, the reflection efficiencies can reach up to 85, 86, and 100 % in blue (azimuth of 24°), green (azimuth of 63°), and red (azimuth of 90°) waveband, respectively. Furthermore, the laws of influence of device period, groove depth, coating thickness, and incident angle on reflection characteristics are investigated and exposed, and feasibility of the device is demonstrated...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806197/dual-colorimetric-and-fluorescent-imaging-of-latent-fingerprints-on-both-porous-and-nonporous-surfaces-with-near-infrared-fluorescent-semiconducting-polymer-dots
#10
You-Hong Chen, Shih-Yu Kuo, Wei-Kai Tsai, Chi-Shiang Ke, Chia-Hsien Liao, Chuan-Pin Chen, Yeng-Tseng Wang, Hsiu-Wei Chen, Yang-Hsiang Chan
Semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have recently been proven as a novel type of ultrabright fluorescent probes that can be extensively used in analytical detection. Here we developed a dual visual sensor based on Pdots for fingerprint imaging. We first designed and synthesized two types of near-infrared fluorescent polymers and then embedded ninhydrin into the Pdot matrix. The resulting Pdot assays showed the colorimetric and fluorescent dual-readout abilities to detect latent fingerprints on both porous and nonporous surfaces...
November 2, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792890/micronucleated-erythrocytes-in-newborns-rats-exposed-to-three-different-types-of-ultraviolet-a-uva-lamps-from-commonly-uses-devices
#11
Guillermo M Zúñiga-González, Belinda C Gómez-Meda, Ana L Zamora-Perez, María A Martínez-González, Miguel A Bautista-Bejarano, Sebastián Patiño-Valenzuela, Juan Armendáriz-Borunda, Blanca P Lazalde-Ramos, María G Sánchez-Parada, Martha P Gallegos-Arreola
Exposure to ultraviolet-A (UVA) light can accidentally cause adverse effects in the skin and eyes. UVA induces DNA damage directly by creating pyrimidine dimers or by the formation of reactive oxygen species that can indirectly affect DNA integrity. UVA radiation is emitted by lamps from everyday devices. In adult rats, micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) are removed from the circulation by the spleen. However, in newborn rats, MNE have been observed in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The objective of this study was to use micronucleus tests to evaluate the DNA damage caused in newborn rats exposed to UVA light from three different types of UVA lamps obtained from commonly used devices: counterfeit detectors, insecticide devices, and equipment used to harden resins for artificial nails...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790465/an-examination-of-income-effect-on-consumers-ethical-evaluation-of-counterfeit-drugs-buying-behaviour-a-cross-sectional-study-in-qatar-and-sudan
#12
Abubakr Abdelraouf Alfadl, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Fatima Abdulla Maraghi, Khadijah Shhab Mohammad
INTRODUCTION: There are limited studies on consumer behaviour toward counterfeit products and the determining factors that motivate willingness to purchase counterfeit items. AIM: This study aimed to fill this literature gap through studying differences in individual ethical evaluations of counterfeit drug purchase and whether that ethical evaluation affected by difference in income. It is hypothesized that individuals with lower/higher income make a more/less permissive evaluation of ethical responsibility regarding counterfeit drug purchase...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788677/quality-of-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy-for-malaria-found-in-ghanaian-markets-and-public-health-implications-of-their-use
#13
Mathilda Tivura, Isaac Asante, Albert van Wyk, Stephaney Gyaase, Naiela Malik, Emmanuel Mahama, Dana M Hostetler, Facundo M Fernandez, Kwaku Poku Asante, Harparkash Kaur, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: Ghana changed their antimalarial drug policy from monotherapies to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies in 2004 in order to provide more efficacious medicines for treatment of malaria. The policy change can be eroded if poor quality Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies are allowed to remain on the Ghanaian market unchecked by regulatory bodies and law enforcement agencies. The presence and prevalence of substandard and counterfeit Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies need to be determined on open markets in Ghana; a review of the current policy; identifying any gaps and making recommendations on actions to be taken in addressing gaps identified are essential as the data provided and recommendations made will help in ensuring effective control of malaria in Ghana...
October 28, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766667/captagon-use-and-trade-in-the-middle-east
#14
Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766177/direct-analysis-of-pharmaceutical-drugs-using-nano-desi-ms
#15
Carlos Cardoso-Palacios, Ingela Lanekoff
Counterfeit pharmaceutical drugs imply an increasing threat to the global public health. It is necessary to have systems to control the products that reach the market and to detect falsified medicines. In this work, molecules in several pharmaceutical tablets were directly analyzed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS). Nano-DESI is an ambient surface sampling technique which enables sampling of molecules directly from the surface of the tablets without any sample pretreatment...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752221/strategies-and-systems-level-interventions-to-combat-or-prevent-drug-counterfeiting-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-beyond-effectiveness
#16
Racha Fadlallah, Fadi El-Jardali, Farah Annan, Hayat Azzam, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: A recent systematic review suggested that drug registrations and onsite quality inspections may be effective in reducing the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs. However, simply replicating the most effective interventions is problematic, as it denotes implementing the intervention without further adaptation. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to systematically review the evidence beyond effectiveness for systems-level interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting...
2016: Pharmaceutical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749867/authentication-of-gold-nanoparticle-encoded-pharmaceutical-tablets-using-polarimetric-signatures
#17
Artur Carnicer, Oriol Arteaga, Josep M Suñé-Negre, Bahram Javidi
The counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products represents concerns for both industry and the safety of the general public. Falsification produces losses to companies and poses health risks for patients. In order to detect fake pharmaceutical tablets, we propose producing film-coated tablets with gold nanoparticle encoding. These coated tablets contain unique polarimetric signatures. We present experiments to show that ellipsometric optical techniques, in combination with machine learning algorithms, can be used to distinguish genuine and fake samples...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713564/a-nucleotide-signature-for-the-identification-of-angelicae-sinensis-radix-danggui-and-its-products
#18
Xiaoyue Wang, Yang Liu, Lili Wang, Jianping Han, Shilin Chen
It is very difficult to identify Angelicae sinensis radix (Danggui) when it is processed into Chinese patent medicines. The proposed internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is not sufficient to resolve heavily processed materials. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed materials is urgently needed. In this study, 265 samples of Angelicae sinensis radix and adulterants were collected. The ITS2 region was sequenced, and based on one single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) site unique to Angelica sinensis, a nucleotide signature consisting of 37-bp (5'-aatccgcgtc atcttagtga gctcaaggac ccttagg-3') was developed...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698348/multicolour-synthesis-in-lanthanide-doped-nanocrystals-through-cation-exchange-in-water
#19
Sanyang Han, Xian Qin, Zhongfu An, Yihan Zhu, Liangliang Liang, Yu Han, Wei Huang, Xiaogang Liu
Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over crystal nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. Here we demonstrate the use of a cation exchange strategy for expeditiously accessing large classes of such nanocrystals...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662764/paper-spray-mass-spectrometry-and-pls-da-improved-by-variable-selection-for-the-forensic-discrimination-of-beers
#20
Hebert Vinicius Pereira, Victória Silva Amador, Marcelo Martins Sena, Rodinei Augusti, Evandro Piccin
Paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied for the first time in a forensic context to a fast and effective differentiation of beers. Eight different brands of American standard lager beers produced by four different breweries (141 samples from 55 batches) were studied with the aim at performing a differentiation according to their market prices. The three leader brands in the Brazilian beer market, which have been subject to fraud, were modeled as the higher-price class, while the five brands most used for counterfeiting were modeled as the lower-price class...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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