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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936203/modulation-of-gut-microbiome-composition-and-function-in-experimental-colitis-treated-with-sulfasalazine
#1
Haihui Zheng, Mingyi Chen, Yuan Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Lin Wei, Ziqiong Liao, Mengxia Wang, Fangli Ma, Qiongfeng Liao, Zhiyong Xie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from alterations in intestinal flora and the immune system. Sulfasalazine (SASP) is a sulfa antimicrobial used to treat IBD in clinic for years. However, how SASP affects gut microbes and its potential functions remains unclear. To investigate the relationships of SASP, IBD, and gut microbiome, we used 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce experimental colitis in rats, and analyzed the microbiota in the fecal samples, which come from the control group (treated with ethanol + saline), the model group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + saline) and the SASP group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + SASP), with 16S gene sequencing and followed up a subset sample using shotgun sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935240/the-neural-development-of-conditional-reasoning-in-children-different-mechanisms-for-assessing-the-logical-validity-and-likelihood-of-conclusions
#2
Flora Schwartz, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Jessica Léone, Jérôme Prado
Scientific and mathematical thinking relies on the ability to evaluate whether conclusions drawn from conditional (if-then) arguments are logically valid. Yet, the neural development of this ability -- termed deductive reasoning -- is largely unknown. Here we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms that underlie the emergence of deductive reasoning with conditional rules in children. We further tested whether these mechanisms have their roots in the neural mechanisms involved in judging the likelihood of conclusions...
September 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933492/the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-the-probiotic-clostridium-butyricum-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-acute-liver-damage-in-mice
#3
Jiaming Liu, Yaoyang Fu, Hao Zhang, Jindan Wang, Jing Zhu, Yaqi Wang, Yuegui Guo, Guocan Wang, Tianqi Xu, Maoping Chu, Fangyan Wang
Previous studies have revealed that the probiotic Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) can attenuate cirrhosis in chronic non-alcoholic liver disease. However, the effects of C. butyricum on acute liver injury (ALI) remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the hepatoprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms employed by C. butyricum in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced ALI murine model. Here, we evaluated the survival rate and the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), anti-oxidants, cytokines and the gut microbiota to elucidate the potential mechanisms by which C...
September 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933074/-genomic-research-of-traditional-chinese-medicines-in-vivo-metabolism
#4
Shui-Ming Xiao, Rui Bai, Xiao-Yan Zhang
Gene is the base of in vivo metabolism and effectiveness for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), and the gene expression, regulation and modification are used as the research directions to perform the TCM multi-component, multi-link and multi-target in vivo metabolism studies, which will improve the research on TCM metabolic proecess, effect target and molecular mechanism. Humans are superorganisms with 1% genes inherited from parents and 99% genes from various parts of the human body, mainly coming from the microorganisms in intestinal flora...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931016/insight-into-central-asian-flora-from-the-cenozoic-tianshan-montane-origin-and-radiation-of-lagochilus-lamiaceae
#5
Ming-Li Zhang, Xiao-Qing Zeng, Stewart C Sanderson, Vyacheslav V Byalt, Alexander P Sukhorukov
The Tianshan Mountains play a significant role in the Central Asian flora and vegetation. Lagochilus has a distribution concentration in Tianshan Mountains and Central Asia. To investigate generic spatiotemporal evolution, we sampled most Lagochilus species and sequenced six cpDNA locations (rps16, psbA-trnH, matK, trnL-trnF, psbB-psbH, psbK-psbI). We employed BEAST Bayesian inference for dating, and S-DIVA, DEC, and BBM for ancestral area/biome reconstruction. Our results clearly show that the Tianshan Mountains, especially the western Ili-Kirghizia Tianshan, as well as Sunggar and Kaschgar, was the ancestral area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930242/essential-oils-from-leaves-of-medicinal-plants-of-brazilian-flora-chemical-composition-and-activity-against-candida-species
#6
Maria da Conceição Mendes Ferreira da Costa, Alexandre Gomes da Silva, Ana Paula Sant'Anna da Silva, Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima, Patrícia Cristina Bezerra-Silva, Suyana Karolyne Lino da Rocha, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Márcia Vanusa da Silva, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva
Background: The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril, Myroxylon peruiferum, and Vismia guianensis. Methods: The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry...
May 3, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930224/aromatic-medicinal-plants-of-the-lamiaceae-family-from-uzbekistan-ethnopharmacology-essential-oils-composition-and-biological-activities
#7
REVIEW
Nilufar Z Mamadalieva, Davlat Kh Akramov, Elisa Ovidi, Antonio Tiezzi, Lutfun Nahar, Shahnoz S Azimova, Satyajit D Sarker
Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation...
February 10, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930147/profiling-of-polyphenol-composition-and-antiradical-capacity-of-erica-cinerea
#8
Alfredo Aires, Rosa Carvalho
The aim of the current study was to determine the profile and content of polyphenols present in Erica cinerea, an important plant species from Northern Portuguese flora and often reported as having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-radical activity. The analysis of polyphenols was performed by HPLC-DAD/UV-Vis, and the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) method was used to evaluate its radical scavenging activity. HPLC analysis showed that both plants presented a great diversity of compounds, with 33% flavones, 28% flavanols, and 26% hydroxycinnamic acids...
September 20, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929824/size-and-methylation-mosaicism-in-males-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#9
Poonnada Jiraanont, Madhur Kumar, Hiu-Tung Tang, Glenda Espinal, Paul J Hagerman, Randi J Hagerman, Nuanchan Chutabhakdikul, Flora Tassone
OBJECTIVES: Size and methylation mosaicism are a common phenomenon in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Here, the authors report a study on twelve fragile X males with atypical mosaicism, seven of whom presented with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: Southern Blot and PCR analysis was used for CGG allele sizing and methylation. FMR1 mRNA and FMRP expression were measured by qRT-PCR and by Homogeneous Time Resolved Fluorescence methodology respectively. RESULTS: DNA analysis showed atypical size- or methylation-mosaicism with both, full mutation and smaller (normal to premutation) alleles, as well as a combination of methylated and unmethylated alleles...
September 20, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929776/lactulose-enemas-in-the-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-do-we-help-or-harm
#10
Ana de Lorenzo-Pinto, Raquel García-Sánchez, Almudena Lorenzo-Salinas
The administration of lactulose enemas instead of or in combination with oral lactulose is common practice in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Lactulose is a non-absorbable disaccharide that is catabolized by the bacterial flora to short chain fatty acids (e.g., lactic acid and acetic acid) which lower the colonic pH. This pH favors the formation of non-absorbable NH4+ from NH3, trapping NH4+ in the colon and thus reducing plasma ammonia concentrations. Lactulose therapy is considered as a first-line treatment and can be administered both orally and rectally...
September 18, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929664/-metabolism-of-paeoniflorin-by-rat-intestinal-flora-in-vitro
#11
Zhong-Cheng Ke, Nan Yang, Xue-Feng Hou, Ai-Dong Wang, Liang Feng, Xiao-Bin Jia
In order to clarify the effect of intestinal flora on the absorption and metabolism of paeoniflorin in vivo, the metabolism of paeoniflorin by rat intestinal flora was studied under the in vitro anaerobic condition. Paeoniflorin was incubated with rat anaerobic intestinal flora for 48 h, and UPLC was used to detect the changes of paeoniflorin at different incubation time points under the following chromatographic conditions:WelchromTM C₁₈ chromatographic column (4.6 mm×100 mm, 5 μm), with 0.1% formic acid(A)-acetonitrile(B) as the mobile phase for gradient elution...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929052/simultaneous-determination-of-rutin-isoquercetin-and-quercetin-flavonoids-in-nelumbo-nucifera-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method
#12
P Naveen, H B Lingaraju, Anitha, K Shyam Prasad
OBJECTIVE: The present study was investigated to provide a documentary evidence for the determination of rutin, isoquercetin, and quercetin flavonoids from the flora of Nelumbo nucifera by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: RP-HPLC analysis was performed by gradient elution with a low-pressure gradient using 0.5% acetic acid: acetonitrile as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The separation was done at 26°C using a Kinetex XB-C18 column as stationary phase and the detection wavelength at 356 nm...
April 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927679/-mediastinitis-after-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration
#13
D Basille, F De Dominicis, E Magois, C Andrejak, P Berna, V Jounieaux
INTRODUCTION: Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive procedure used for the diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. OBSERVATION: We describe a case of mediastinitis appearing 15 days after an EBUS-TBNA procedure in a 79 years old male patient. The mediastinitis was treated surgically by thoracotomy with a wide excision of infected tissue requiring transplantation of a serratus anterior muscle flap pedicled on a branch of the thoracodorsal artery...
September 16, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927421/a-25-gene-classifier-predicts-overall-survival-in-resectable-pancreatic-cancer
#14
David J Birnbaum, Pascal Finetti, Alexia Lopresti, Marine Gilabert, Flora Poizat, Jean-Luc Raoul, Jean-Robert Delpero, Vincent Moutardier, Daniel Birnbaum, Emilie Mamessier, François Bertucci
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the most lethal human cancers. In patients with resectable tumors, surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the only curative treatment. However, the 5-year survival is 20%. Because of a strong metastatic propensity, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being tested in randomized clinical trials. In this context, improving the selection of patients for immediate surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy is crucial, and high-throughput molecular analyses may help; the present study aims to address this...
September 20, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926834/heme-oxygenase-activity-and-heme-binding-in-a-neonatal-mouse-model
#15
Stephanie Kourula, Joyce Ang, Hui Zhao, Flora Kalish, Peter Vandenabeele, Karl G Sylvester, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn leads to the release of pro-oxidative free heme (FH). Heme oxygenase (HO) is primarily responsible for detoxifying FH. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of HO in a model of heme overload. METHODS: For in vitro studies, NIH3T3 HO-1-luc cells were incubated with 10, 30, or 60 µM FH or methemalbumin (MHA). HO-1 promoter activity was assessed 3, 6, and 24 h after treatment. Cell survival was indexed by viability assays...
September 20, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924941/erratum-to-automatic-change-detection-in-vision-adaptation-memory-mismatch-or-both-ii-oddball-and-adaptation-effects-on-event-related-potentials
#16
Flóra Bodnár, Domonkos File, István Sulykos, Krisztina Kecskés-Kovács, István Czigler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920824/baseline-health-and-nutrition-evaluation-of-two-sympatric-nocturnal-lemur-species-avahi-laniger-and-lepilemur-mustelinus-residing-near-an-active-mine-site-at-ambatovy-madagascar
#17
Randall E Junge, Cathy V Williams, Hajanirina Rakotondrainibe, Karine L Mahefarisoa, Tsiky Rajaonarivelo, Charles Faulkner, Vanessa Mass
Extractive industries can have significant impacts on ecosystems through loss of habitat, degradation of water quality, and direct impact on floral and faunal biodiversity. When operations are located in sensitive regions with high biodiversity containing endangered or threatened species, it is possible to minimize impact on the environment by developing programs to scientifically monitor the impact on resident flora and fauna species in the early phases of operation so that effects can be mitigated whenever possible...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920780/use-of-composite-materials-as-a-component-of-tusk-fracture-management-in-an-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-and-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#18
Richard R Sim, Elizabeth Stringer, Dennis Donovan, Rachael Chappell, Pat Flora, Jon Hall, Selvum Pillay, Benjamin G Willis, Stephanie McCain
Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920776/establishing-normal-fecal-flora-in-wild-australian-passerine-birds-by-use-of-the-fecal-gram-stain
#19
Benjamin Latham, Alan Leishman, John Martin, David Phalen
The purpose of this study was to determine the normal fecal bacterial and fungal flora and parasite prevalence in wild passerine birds found at the Australian Botanic Garden (Mount Annan, New South Wales). Wild passerine birds (n = 186) from 28 species were captured with mist nets. Fecal Gram stains (n = 155) were made from 26 species and analyzed for bacterial density, Gram stain morphology, and the presence of yeast. Fecal wet preparations (n = 139) were made from 24 passerine species and were analyzed for parasites...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920714/expansible-thermal-gelling-foam-aerosol-for-vaginal-drug-delivery
#20
Liling Mei, Jintian Chen, Siqin Yu, Ying Huang, Yecheng Xie, Hui Wang, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
Vaginal delivery of antimicrobial drugs is the most effective method for the local treatment of the vaginal infections. However, current vaginal drug delivery systems (VDDS), including gel, lotion, aerosol and cream, are suffering from low penetration in the deep vaginal rugae and easy elimination by self-cleaning of vaginal canal. To address these issues, a foam aerosol based on the thermal transformation was designed to improve penetration efficiency and achieve the extended retention. The expansible thermal gelling foam aerosol (ETGFA) consisting of thermal sensitive matrix, silver nanoparticle, adhesive agent and propellant, was optimized by evaluations of precursor viscosity, foam expansion, thermal gelation, gel adhesiveness, antimicrobial effects and tissue irritation...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
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