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Charles-Antoine Guilloux, Claudie Lamoureux, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud
Lungs were considered as sterile for a long time. However, it is now evident that the lungs of healthy people are colonized by microorganisms. Among the bacteria present in the pulmonary microbiota, a significant proportion is anaerobic (strict or facultative). Even though interest in the pulmonary microbiota is increasing, few studies have focused on these unknowns that represent the lung resident anaerobic bacteria. This review describes the biodiversity of anaerobes in physiological conditions, and in different chronic respiratory diseases (cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma)...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Kris Poppe, Candice Autin, Flora Veltri, Pierre Kleynen, Lidia Grabczan, Serge Rozenberg, Lieveke Ameye
Background: Since 2010, three meta-analyses have been published on the impact of thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) on pregnancy outcomes in infertile women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART). The initially observed high risk of miscarriage became very low in the most recent meta-analysis published in 2016. Objective: To investigate whether the lower risk of miscarriage in the latest meta-analysis was associated with the increased use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in recent studies...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Dan Zhu, Yong Ma, Sujuan Ding, Hongmei Jiang, Jun Fang
This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and intestinal bacteria community in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. Twenty mice were randomly assigned to two treatments: mice with colitis induced by 5% DSS (DSS group) and mice with colitis induced by 5% DSS that also received melatonin treatment (MEL group). The DSS group showed significantly less antioxidant capability than the MEL group, but the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of diversity index (Shannon and Simpson), bacterial culture abundance (Chao1 and ACE), and coverage (Good's coverage estimator)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Emeli Månsson, Berolla Sahdo, Åsa Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Eva Särndahl, Bo Söderquist
Nosocomial sequence types of Staphylococcus epidermidis dominate in prosthetic joint infections. We examined caspase-1 activation in human neutrophils after incubation with Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections and normal skin flora. Active caspase-1 was lower after incubation with isolates from prosthetic joint infections than after incubation with commensal isolates. Both host and isolate dependent differences in active caspase-1 were noted. Our results indicate that there might be a host-dependent incapacity to elicit a strong caspase-1 response towards certain strains of S...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Albert Boada, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Jordi Real, Elisabet Grezner, Bonventura Bolíbar, Carl Llor
INTRODUCTION: Commensal flora of healthy people is becoming an important reservoir of resistant bacteria. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship of previous antibiotic-dispensed and resistance pattern of strains of Staphylococcus aureus in primary care patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain, from October 2010 to May 2011, as part of the APRES (The appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics in primary care in Europe concerning antibiotic resistance) study...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
Eleni M Rettig, Carole Fakhry, Russell K Hales, Flora Kisuule, Harry Quon, Ana P Kiess, Linda X Yin, Yuehan Zhang, Amanda L Blackford, M Bradley Drummond, Christine G Gourin, Wayne M Koch, David W Eisele, Gypsyamber D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Smoking among patients with cancer is associated with poor outcomes, however, smoking cessation interventions have had limited success. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial compared a novel smoking cessation intervention ("intervention") with enhanced usual care ("control"). Participants were smokers with head and neck or thoracic malignancies undergoing radiation. Controls received brief counseling. Intervention participants received intensive counseling, pharmacotherapy, text-messaging, and financial incentives...
March 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Jie-Wei Luo, Cong-Huai Lin, Yao-Bin Zhu, Xing-Yu Zheng, Yong-Xi Wu, Wei-Wei Chen, Xiao Yang
Structural changes in symbiotic human microorganisms can affect host phenotype. Liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome (LFHS) presents as bitter taste, halitosis, xerostomia, odontalgia, and other oral symptoms. LFHS is associated with hypertension (EH). In this study, tongue flora was analyzed to further understand the intrinsic relationship between tongue flora and LFHS. Samples of tongue coating, from 16 patients with EH-LFHS, 16 with EH-non-LFHS, and 16 controls, were obtained; then, 16S rRNA variable (V3-V4) regions were amplified and sequenced by MiSeq PE300 Sequencing...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Yvonne Gräser, Michel Monod, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Karolina Dukik, Pietro Nenoff, Alexandra Kargl, Christiane Kupsch, Ping Zhan, Ann Packeu, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Sybren de Hoog
Dermatophyte research has renewed interest because of changing human floras with changing socioeconomic conditions, and because of severe chronic infections in patients with congenital immune disorders. Main taxonomic traits at the generic level have changed considerably, and now fine-tuning at the species level with state-of-the-art technology has become urgent. Research on virulence factors focuses on secreted proteases now has support in genome data. It is speculated that most protease families are used for degrading hard keratin during nitrogen recycling in the environment, while others, such as Sub6 may have emerged as a result of ancestral gene duplication, and are likely to have specific roles during infection...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Manuel Minteguiaga, H Andrés González, Eduardo Cassel, Noelia Umpierrez, Laura Fariña, Eduardo Dellacassa
Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Siraj Bahadur, Mushtaq Ahmad, Sehrosh Mir, Muhammad Zafar, Shazia Sultana, Shomaila Ashfaq, Muhammad Arfan
Pollen used to track structural and functional evolution in plants as well as to investigate the problems relative to plant classification. Pollen characters including ornamentation, shape, apertural pattern, pollen symmetry, colpus length, width, and margins used to detect the similarities and dissimilarities between genera and also species of the same genus. In this study pollen features of 20 monocot species belonging to 15 genera of the Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae, Iridaceae, Ixioliriaceae, Liliaceae, and Xanthorrhoeaceae were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM)...
March 14, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Michaela M Hofmann, Andreas Fleischmann, Susanne S Renner
Botanical gardens represent artificial, but stable environments. With this premise, we analyzed the Munich Botanical Garden's bee fauna in 1997/1999 and again in 2015/2017. The garden covers 20 ha, uses no bee-relevant insecticides, has a protected layout, and on three sides abuts protected areas. Outdoors, it cultivates some 10,871 species/subspecies, many suitable as pollen and nectar sources for bees. The first survey found 79 species, the second 106, or 55% of the 192 species recorded for Munich since 1990...
March 14, 2018: Oecologia
Kelly Barbosa Gama, Dourivaldo Silva Santos, Afrânio Ferreira Evangelista, Daniela Nascimento Silva, Adriano Costa de Alcântara, Ricardo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares, Cristiane Flora Villarreal
Neuropathic pain is a type of chronic pain caused by injury or dysfunction of the nervous system, without effective therapeutic approaches. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), through their paracrine action, have great potential in the treatment of this syndrome. In the present study, the therapeutic potential of MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM) was investigated in a mouse model of neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL). PSL mice were treated by endovenous route with bone marrow-derived MSCs (1 × 106 ), CM, or vehicle...
2018: Stem Cells International
Kennedy Daniel Mwambete, Mathias Eulambius
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of otitis media (OM)-associated bacterial flora of asymptomatic people living with HIV (PLH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and assess antibiotic resistance profiles of the bacteria. METHODOLOGY: Ear secretion specimens were collected by syringe or cotton swabs. Isolated bacteria were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests. RESULTS: Of 290 recruited PLH, 81.7% were females and 18...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Josef Greimler, Christian H Schulze, Patricio López Sepúlveda, Patricio Novoa, Alejandro Gatica, Karl Reiter, Johannes Wessely, Carlos Baeza, Patricio Peñailillo, Eduardo Ruiz, Tod Stuessy
Oceanic islands are vulnerable ecosystems and their flora has been under pressure since the arrival of the first humans. Human activities and both deliberately and inadvertently introduced biota have had and continue to have a severe impact on island endemic plants. The number of alien plants has increased nearly linearly on many islands, perhaps resulting in extinction-based saturation of island floras. Here, we provide evidence for such a scenario in Alejandro Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe Islands (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ahmed Moustafa, Weizhong Li, Harinder Singh, Kelvin J Moncera, Manolito G Torralba, Yanbao Yu, Oriol Manuel, William Biggs, J Craig Venter, Karen E Nelson, Rembert Pieper, Amalio Telenti
Urine culture and microscopy techniques are used to profile the bacterial species present in urinary tract infections. To gain insight into the urinary flora, we analyzed clinical laboratory features and the microbial metagenome of 121 clean-catch urine samples. 16S rDNA gene signatures were successfully obtained for 116 participants, while metagenome sequencing data was successfully generated for samples from 49 participants. Although 16S rDNA sequencing was more sensitive, metagenome sequencing allowed for a more comprehensive and unbiased representation of the microbial flora, including eukarya and viral pathogens, and of bacterial virulence factors...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karthikeyan Mohanraj, Bagavathy Shanmugam Karthikeyan, R P Vivek-Ananth, R P Bharath Chand, S R Aparna, Pattulingam Mangalapandi, Areejit Samal
Phytochemicals of medicinal plants encompass a diverse chemical space for drug discovery. India is rich with a flora of indigenous medicinal plants that have been used for centuries in traditional Indian medicine to treat human maladies. A comprehensive online database on the phytochemistry of Indian medicinal plants will enable computational approaches towards natural product based drug discovery. In this direction, we present, IMPPAT, a manually curated database of 1742 Indian Medicinal Plants, 9596 Phytochemicals, And 1124 Therapeutic uses spanning 27074 plant-phytochemical associations and 11514 plant-therapeutic associations...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jin-Min Chen, Nikolay A Poyarkov, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Amy Lathrop, Yun-He Wu, Wei-Wei Zhou, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Jie-Qiong Jin, Hong-Man Chen, He-Qun Liu, Truong Quang Nguyen, Sang Ngoc Nguyen, Tang Van Duong, Koshiro Eto, Kanto Nishikawa, Masafumi Matsui, Nikolai L Orlov, Bryan L Stuart, Rafe M Brown, Jodi J L Rowley, Robert W Murphy, Ying-Yong Wang, Jing Che
Southeast Asia and southern China (SEA-SC) harbor a highly diverse and endemic flora and fauna that is under increasing threat. An understanding of the biogeographical history and drivers of this diversity is lacking, especially in some of the most diverse and threatened groups. The Asian leaf-litter frog genus Leptolalax Dubois 1980 is a forest-dependent genus distributed throughout SEA-SC, making it an ideal study group to examine specific biogeographic hypotheses. In addition, the diversity of this genus remains poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leptolalax and closely related Leptobrachella Smith 1928 remain unclear...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sze Lin Yoong, Emily Stockings, Li Kheng Chai, Flora Tzelepis, John Wiggers, Christopher Oldmeadow, Christine Paul, Armando Peruga, Melanie Kingsland, John Attia, Luke Wolfenden
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and change in prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use in youth by country and combustible smoking status. METHODS: Databases and the grey literature were systematically searched to December 2015. Studies describing the prevalence of ENDS use in the general population aged ≤20 years in a defined geographical region were included. Where multiple estimates were available within countries, prevalence estimates of ENDS use were pooled for each country separately...
March 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Rosemary S C Horne, Sunjuri Sun, Stephanie R Yiallourou, Karinna L Fyfe, Alexsandria Odoi, Flora Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Periodic breathing and short apnoeas are common in infants, particularly those born preterm, but are thought to be benign. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence and impact of periodic breathing and apnoea on heart rate, oxygen saturation and brain tissue oxygenation index (TOI) in infants born at term and preterm over the first 6 months after term equivalent age. STUDY DESIGN: 19 infants born at (38-42 weeks gestational age) and 24 preterm infants (born at 27-36 weeks gestational age) were studied at 2-4 weeks, 2-3 months and 5-6 months post-term corrected age during sleep...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Michael E Snavely, Michael J Maze, Charles Muiruri, Lilian Ngowi, Flora Mboya, Julia Beamesderfer, Glory F Makupa, Anthon G Mwingwa, Bingileki F Lwezaula, Blandina T Mmbaga, Venance P Maro, John A Crump, Jan Ostermann, Matthew P Rubach
Introduction: Communicable diseases are the leading causes of death in Tanzania despite the existence of effective treatment tools. We aimed to assess the sociocultural and health system factors associated with mortality from febrile illness in northern Tanzania. Methods: We interviewed febrile inpatients to determine prevalence of barriers in seeking or receiving care and grouped these barriers using the Three Delays model (delays at home, in transport and at healthcare facilities)...
2018: BMJ Global Health
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