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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925823/deep-learning-mr-imaging-based-attenuation-correction-for-pet-mr-imaging
#1
Fang Liu, Hyungseok Jang, Richard Kijowski, Tyler Bradshaw, Alan B McMillan
Purpose To develop and evaluate the feasibility of deep learning approaches for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based attenuation correction (AC) (termed deep MRAC) in brain positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging. Materials and Methods A PET/MR imaging AC pipeline was built by using a deep learning approach to generate pseudo computed tomographic (CT) scans from MR images. A deep convolutional auto-encoder network was trained to identify air, bone, and soft tissue in volumetric head MR images coregistered to CT data for training...
September 19, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923066/data-integration-from-pathology-slides-for-quantitative-imaging-of-multiple-cell-types-within-the-tumor-immune-cell-infiltrate
#2
Zhaoxuan Ma, Stephen L Shiao, Emi J Yoshida, Steven Swartwood, Fangjin Huang, Michael E Doche, Alice P Chung, Beatrice S Knudsen, Arkadiusz Gertych
BACKGROUND: Immune cell infiltrates (ICI) of tumors are scored by pathologists around tumor glands. To obtain a better understanding of the immune infiltrate, individual immune cell types, their activation states and location relative to tumor cells need to be determined. This process requires precise identification of the tumor area and enumeration of immune cell subtypes separately in the stroma and inside tumor nests. Such measurements can be accomplished by a multiplex format using immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
September 18, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922110/an-automated-system-for-the-detection-and-classification-of-retinal-changes-due-to-red-lesions-in-longitudinal-fundus-images
#3
Kedir M Adal, Peter G van Etten, Jose P Martinez, Kenneth W Rouwen, Koenraad A Vermeer, Lucas J van Vliet
People with diabetes mellitus need annual screening to check for the development of diabetic retinopathy. Tracking small retinal changes due to early diabetic retinopathy lesions in longitudinal fundus image sets is challenging due to intra- and inter-visit variability in illumination and image quality, the required high registration accuracy, and the subtle appearance of retinal lesions compared to other retinal features. This paper presents a robust and flexible approach for automated detection of longitudinal retinal changes due to small red lesions by exploiting normalized fundus images that significantly reduce illumination variations and improve the contrast of small retinal features...
September 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921541/automatic-labeling-of-mr-brain-images-through-extensible-learning-and-atlas-forests
#4
Lijun Xu, Hong Liu, Enmin Song, Meng Yan, Renchao Jin, Chih-Cheng Hung
PURPOSE: Multi-atlas-based method is extensively used in MR brain images segmentation because of its simplicity and robustness. This method provides excellent accuracy while time-consuming and limited in terms of obtaining information about new atlases. In this study, an automatic labeling of MR brain images through extensible learning and atlas forest is presented to address these limitations. METHODS: We propose an extensible learning model which allows the multi-atlas-based framework capable of managing the datasets with numerous atlases or dynamic atlas datasets and simultaneously ensure the accuracy of automatic labeling...
September 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921538/a-fast-inverse-treatment-planning-strategy-facilitating-optimized-catheter-selection-in-image-guided-high-dose-rate-interstitial-gynecologic-brachytherapy
#5
Christian V Guthier, Antonio L Damato, Juergen W Hesser, Akila N Viswanathan, Robert A Cormack
PURPOSE: Interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of locally advanced gynecologic (GYN) cancers. The outcome of this therapy is determined by the quality of dose distribution achieved. This paper focuses on a novel yet simple heuristic for catheter selection for GYN HDR brachytherapy and their comparison against state of the art optimization strategies. The proposed technique is intended to act as a decision-supporting tool to select a favorable needle configuration...
September 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920557/automated-microspect-microct-image-analysis-of-the-mouse-thyroid-gland
#6
Peng Cheng, Brynn Hollingsworth, Daniel Scarberry, Daniel Hueng-Yuan Shen, Kimerly Powell, Sean C Smart, John Beech, Xiaochao Sheng, Lawrence S Kirschner, Chia-Hsiang Menq, Sissy M Jhiang
<b>Background:</b> The ability of thyroid follicular cells to take up iodine enables the use of radioactive iodine (RAI) for imaging and targeted killing of RAI-avid thyroid cancer following thyroidectomy. To facilitate identifying novel strategies to improve <sup>131</sup>I therapeutic efficacy for patients with RAI refractory disease, it is desired to optimize image acquisition and analysis for preclinical mouse models of thyroid cancer. <b>Methods:</b> A customized mouse cradle was designed and used for microSPECT/CT image acquisition at 1 hour (t1) and 24 hours (t24) post-injection of <sup>123</sup>I, which mainly reflect RAI influx/efflux equilibrium and RAI retention in the thyroid, respectively...
September 16, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920537/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-brain-injury-in-the-chronic-phase-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review
#7
Bertine L Stehouwer, Lisa A van der Kleij, Jeroen Hendrikse, Gabriel Je Rinkel, Jill B De Vis
Background Case-fatality rates after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have decreased over the past decades. However, many patients who survive an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have long-term functional and cognitive impairments. Aims We sought to review all data on conventional brain MRI obtained in the chronic phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to (1) analyze the proportion of patients with cerebral infarction or brain volume changes; (2) investigate baseline determinants predictive of MRI-detected damage; and (3) assess if brain damage is predictive of patient outcome...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919835/high-resolution-infrared-thermography-a-new-tool-to-assess-tungiasis-associated-inflammation-of-the-skin
#8
Angela Schuster, Marlene Thielecke, Vaomalala Raharimanga, Charles Emile Ramarokoto, Christophe Rogier, Ingela Krantz, Hermann Feldmeier
BACKGROUND: Tungiasis is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries but remains often under diagnosed and untreated eventually leading to chronic sequels. The objective of the study was to assess whether tungiasis-associated inflammation can be detected and quantified by high-resolution infrared thermography (HRIT) and whether after removal of the parasite inflammation resolves rapidly. METHODS: Patients with tungiasis were identified through active case finding...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918063/a-pca-based-method-for-determining-craniofacial-relationship-and-sexual-dimorphism-of-facial-shapes
#9
Wuyang Shui, Mingquan Zhou, Steve Maddock, Taiping He, Xingce Wang, Qingqiong Deng
Previous studies have used principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the craniofacial relationship, as well as sex determination using facial factors. However, few studies have investigated the extent to which the choice of principal components (PCs) affects the analysis of craniofacial relationship and sexual dimorphism. In this paper, we propose a PCA-based method for visual and quantitative analysis, using 140 samples of 3D heads (70 male and 70 female), produced from computed tomography (CT) images...
September 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916139/online-adaptive-radiation-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Stephanie Lim-Reinders, Brian M Keller, Shahad Al-Ward, Arjun Sahgal, Anthony Kim
The current paradigm of radiation therapy has the treatment planned on a snapshot dataset of the patient's anatomy taken at the time of simulation. Throughout the course of treatment, this snapshot may vary from initial simulation. Although there is the ability to image patients within the treatment room with technologies such as cone beam computed tomography, the current state of the art is largely limited to rigid-body matching and not accounting for any geometric deformations in the patient's anatomy. A plan that was once attuned to the initial simulation can become suboptimal as the treatment progresses unless improved technologies are brought to bear...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910949/-china-hainan-centenarian-cohort-study-study-design-and-preliminary-results
#11
Y He, F X Luan, Y Yao, S S Yang, H G Xie, J Li, M Liu, J H Wang, L Wu, Q Zhu, X P Chen, C X Ning, L N Wang, X Y Li, S B Zhang, F Zhang, Y L Zhao
Objective: To investigate the health status, functional ability, mental psychology, health care and other longevity-related characteristics of individuals aged ≥100 years as well as risk factors in Hainan province, China. Methods: China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study (CHCCS) is a community-based, prospective cohort study to establish multi-dimensional database consisting of questionnaire findings, anthropometric parameters and biological specimens as well as imaging features. With the household registration information provided by the Department of Civil Affairs of Hainan province, a baseline survey was conducted in centenarians in 18 counties in Hainan with the oldest old in 5 counties as controls between 2014 and 2017...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906205/preventing-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-from-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-the-laci-1-trial-protocol-and-statistical-analysis-plan-of-a-phase-iia-dose-escalation-trial-testing-tolerability-safety-and-effect-on-intermediary-endpoints-of-isosorbide-mononitrate
#12
Gordon W Blair, Jason P Appleton, Zhe Kang Law, Fergus Doubal, Katie Flaherty, Richard Dooley, Kirsten Shuler, Carla Richardson, Iona Hamilton, Yulu Shi, Michael Stringer, Julia Boyd, Michael J Thrippleton, Nikola Sprigg, Philip M Bath, Joanna M Wardlaw
Rationale The pathophysiology of most lacunar stroke, a form of small vessel disease, is thought to differ from large artery atherothrombo- or cardio-embolic stroke. Licensed drugs, isosorbide mononitrate and cilostazol, have promising mechanisms of action to support their testing to prevent stroke recurrence, cognitive impairment, or radiological progression after lacunar stroke. Aim LACI-1 will assess the tolerability, safety, and efficacy, by dose, of isosorbide mononitrate and cilostazol, alone and in combination, in patients with ischemic lacunar stroke...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903358/mri-based-radiotherapy-planning-method-using-rigid-image-registration-technique-combined-with-outer-body-correction-scheme-a-feasibility-study
#13
Ki Mun Kang, Hoon Sik Choi, Bae Kwon Jeong, Jin Ho Song, In-Bong Ha, Yun Hee Lee, Chul Hang Kim, Hojin Jeong
An alternative pseudo CT generation method for magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based radiotherapy planning was investigated in the work. A pseudo CT was initially generated using the rigid image registration between the planning MRI and previously acquired diagnostic CT scan. The pseudo CT generated was then refined to have the same morphology with that of the referenced planning image scan by applying the outer body correction scheme. This method was applied to some sample of brain image data and the feasibility of the method was assessed by comparing dosimetry results with those from the current gold standard CT-based calculations...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902466/learning-based-deformable-registration-for-infant-mri-by-integrating-random-forest-with-auto-context-model
#14
Lifang Wei, Xiaohuan Cao, Zhensong Wang, Yaozong Gao, Shunbo Hu, Li Wang, Guorong Wu, Dinggang Shen
PURPOSE: Accurately analyzing the rapid structural evolution of human brain in the first year of life is a key step in early brain development studies, which requires accurate deformable image registration. However, due to 1) dynamic appearance and 2) large anatomical changes, very few methods in the literature can work well for the registration of two infant brain MR images acquired at two arbitrary development phases, such as birth and one-year-old. METHODS: To address these challenging issues, we propose a learning-based registration method, which can handle the anatomical structures and the appearance changes between the two infant brain MR images with possible time gap...
September 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901951/real-time-non-rigid-target-tracking-for-ultrasound-guided-clinical-interventions
#15
Cornel Zachiu, Mario G Ries, Pascal Ramaekers, Jean-Luc Guey, Chrit T W Moonen, Baudouin Denis de Senneville
Biological motion is a problem for non- or mini-invasive interventions when conducted in mobile/deformable organs due to the targeted pathology moving/deforming with the organ. This may lead to high miss rates and/or incomplete treatment of the pathology. Therefore, real-time tracking of the target anatomy during the intervention would be beneficial for such applications. Since the aforementioned interventions are often conducted under B-mode ultrasound (US) guidance, target tracking can be achieved via image registration, by comparing the acquired US images to a separate image established as positional reference...
September 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901622/assessment-of-prior-image-induced-nonlocal-means-regularization-for-low-dose-ct-reconstruction-change-in-anatomy
#16
Hao Zhang, Jianhua Ma, Jing Wang, William Moore, Zhengrong Liang
PURPOSE: Repeated computed tomography (CT) scans are prescribed for some clinical applications such as lung nodule surveillance. Several studies have demonstrated that incorporating a high-quality prior image into the reconstruction of subsequent low-dose CT (LDCT) acquisitions can either improve image quality or reduce data fidelity requirements. Our proposed previous normal-dose image induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM) regularization method for LDCT is an example of such a method. However, one major concern with prior image based methods is that they might produce false information when the prior image and the current LDCT image show different structures (for example, if a lung nodule emerges, grows, shrinks, or disappears over time)...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901611/consistency-based-respiratory-motion-estimation-in-rotational-angiography
#17
Mathias Unberath, André Aichert, Stephan Achenbach, Andreas Maier
PURPOSE: Rotational coronary angiography enables 3D reconstruction but suffers from intra-scan cardiac and respiratory motion. While gating handles cardiac motion, respiratory motion requires compensation. State-of-the-art algorithms rely on 3D-2D registration that depends on initial reconstructions of sufficient quality. We propose a compensation method that is applied directly in projection domain. It overcomes the need for reconstruction and thus complements the state-of-the-art. METHODS: Virtual single-frame background subtraction based on vessel segmentation and spectral deconvolution yields non-truncated images of the contrasted lumen...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901573/validation-of-a-novel-cartoseg%C3%A2-segmentation-module-software-for-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-guided-radiofrequency-ablation-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#18
EDITORIAL
Hasan Imanli, Shaun Bhatty, Jean Jeudy, Yousra Ghzally, Kiddy Ume, Rama Vunnam, Refael Itah, Mati Amit, John Duell, Vincent See, Stephen Shorofsky, Timm M Dickfeld
INTRODUCTION: Visualization of left atrial (LA) anatomy using image integration modules has been associated with decreased radiation exposure and improved procedural outcome when used for guidance of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. We evaluated the CARTOSEG™ CT Segmentation Module (Biosense Webster, Inc.) that offers a new CT-specific semi-automatic reconstruction of the atrial endocardium. METHODS: The CARTOSEG™ CT Segmentation Module software was assessed prospectively in 80 patients undergoing AF ablation...
September 13, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899745/primatologist-a-modular-segmentation-pipeline-for-macaque-brain-morphometry
#19
Yaël Balbastre, Denis Rivière, Nicolas Souedet, Clara Fischer, Anne-Sophie Hérard, Susannah Williams, Michel E Vandenberghe, Julien Flament, Romina Aron-Badin, Philippe Hantraye, Jean-François Mangin, Thierry Delzescaux
Because they bridge the genetic gap between rodents and humans, non-human primates (NHPs) play a major role in therapy development and evaluation for neurological disorders. However, translational research success from NHPs to patients requires an accurate phenotyping of the models. In patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with automated segmentation methods has offered the unique opportunity to assess in vivo brain morphological changes. Meanwhile, specific challenges caused by brain size and high field contrasts make existing algorithms hard to use routinely in NHPs...
September 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898423/iterative-volume-of-interest-based-4d-cone-beam-ct
#20
Rachael Martin, Moiz Ahmad, Geoffrey Hugo, Tinsu Pan
PURPOSE: 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) has potential applications in soft tissue alignment and tumor motion verification at the time of radiation treatment. However, prominent streak artifacts with conventional image reconstructions have limited its clinical use and alternative reconstructions are generally too computationally expensive for the time available. We propose an iterative volume of interest based (I4D VOI) reconstruction technique, where 4D reconstruction is only performed within a VOI, to limit streak artifacts with limited added computation time...
September 12, 2017: Medical Physics
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