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Micro-computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451816/effects-of-teriparatide-on-morphology-of-aortic-calcification-in-aged-hyperlipidemic-mice
#1
Jeffrey J Hsu, Jinxiu Lu, Soban Umar, Jason T Lee, Rajan Kulkarni, Yichen Ding, Chih-Chiang Chang, Tzung K Hsiai, Akishige Hokugo, Ioannis Gkouveris, Sotirios Tetradis, Ichiro Nishimura, Linda L Demer, Yin Tintut
Calcific aortic vasculopathy correlates with bone loss in osteoporosis in an age-independent manner. Prior work suggests that teriparatide, the bone anabolic treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis, may inhibit onset of aortic calcification. Whether teriparatide affects progression of pre-existing aortic calcification, widespread among this patient population, is unknown. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were aged for over one year to induce aortic calcification, treated for 4.5 weeks with daily injections of control vehicle (PBS), teriparatide 40 µg/kg (PTH40) or 400 µg/kg (PTH400), and assayed for aortic calcification by micro-computed tomography (microCT) before and after treatment...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451298/micro-computed-tomography-visualization-of-the-vestigial-alimentary-canal-in-adult-oestrid-flies
#2
D Martín-Vega, A Garbout, F Ahmed, L M Ferrer, J Lucientes, D D Colwell, M J R Hall
Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
February 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450473/elevated-blood-viscosity-and-micro-recirculation-linked-to-coronary-stent-malapposition
#3
Eric Poon, Vikas Thondapu, Umair Hayat, Peter Barlis, Chooi Yap, Po Kuo, Qisen Wang, Jiawei Ma, Shuang Zhu, Stephen Moore, Andrew Ooi
One particular complexity of coronary artery is the natural tapering of the vessel with proximal segments having larger caliber and distal tapering as the vessel get smaller. The natural tapering of a coronary artery often leads to proximal incomplete stent apposition (ISA). ISA alters coronary hemodynamics and creates pathological path to develop complications such as in-stent restenosis, and more worryingly, stent thrombosis. By employing state-of-the-art computer-aided design software, generic stent hoops were virtually deployed in an idealized tapered coronary artery with decreasing malapposition distance...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449035/usage-of-density-analysis-based-on-micro-ct-for-studying-lung-injury-associated-with-burn-blast-combined-injury
#4
Yang Chang, Dong-Hai Zhang, Quan Hu, Ling-Ying Liu, Yong-Hui Yu, Jia-Ke Chai
BACKGROUND: Burn-blast combined injury is a kind of injury caused by heat and blast at the same time. The lung injury after burn-blast combined injuries is of primary importance, and investigation of lung injury is needed in the clinical care of patients. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the standard tools used to observe the anatomical basis and pathophysiology of acute lung injury. METHODS: We applied a method of fast 3D (three-dimensional) reconstruction to calculate the density value of the lung injury by CT analysis...
February 12, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444912/analysis-of-airway-pathology-in-copd-using-a-combination-of-computed-tomography-micro-computed-tomography-and-histology
#5
Naoya Tanabe, Dragoş M Vasilescu, Miranda Kirby, Harvey O Coxson, Stijn E Verleden, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Daisuke Kinose, Yasutaka Nakano, Peter D Paré, James C Hogg
The small conducting airways are the major site of obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study examined small airway pathology using a novel combination of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), micro-computed tomography (microCT) and histology.Airway branches visible on specimen MDCT were counted and the dimensions of the third- to fifth-generation airways were computed, while the terminal bronchioles (designated TB), preterminal bronchioles (TB-1) and pre-preterminal bronchioles (TB-2) were examined with microCT and histology in eight explanted lungs with end-stage COPD and seven unused donor lungs that served as controls...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443548/sex-and-bone-specific-responses-in-bone-structure-to-exogenous-leptin-and-leptin-receptor-antagonism-in-the-ovine-fetus
#6
Miles J De Blasio, Stuart A Lanham, Dominique Blache, Richard Oc Oreffo, Abigail L Fowden, Alison J Forhead
Widespread expression of leptin and its receptor in developing cartilage and bone suggests that leptin may regulate bone growth and development in the fetus. Using micro-computed tomography, this study investigated the effects of exogenous leptin and leptin receptor antagonism on aspects of bone structure in the sheep fetus during late gestation. From 125-130 days of gestation (term ~145 days), chronically-catheterised singleton sheep fetuses were infused intravenously for five days with either saline (0.9% saline, n=13), recombinant ovine leptin at two doses (0...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438824/low-bone-toughness-in-the-tallyho-model-of-juvenile-type-2-diabetes-does-not-worsen-with-age
#7
Amy Creecy, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Mustafa Unal, R Clay Bunn, Paul Voziyan, Jeffry S Nyman
Fracture risk increases as type 2 diabetes (T2D) progresses. With the rising incidence of T2D, in particular early-onset T2D, a representative pre-clinical model is needed to study mechanisms for treating or preventing diabetic bone disease. Towards that goal, we hypothesized that fracture resistance of bone from diabetic TallyHO mice decreases as the duration of diabetes increases. Femurs and lumbar vertebrae were harvested from male, TallyHO mice and male, non-diabetic SWR/J mice at 16 weeks (n ≥ 12 per strain) and 34 weeks (n ≥ 13 per strain) of age...
February 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438657/biocompatibility-and-efficiency-of-biodegradable-magnesium-based-plates-and-screws-in-the-facial-fracture-model-of-beagles
#8
Byung Jun Kim, Yinglan Piao, Maierdanjiang Wufuer, Woo-Chan Son, Tae Hyun Choi
PURPOSE: A biodegradable magnesium alloy system has been developed as a substitute for conventional plates and screws made of titanium or absorbable polymer. However, previous studies were limited to small animal experiments using screws or wires. In the present study, we preliminarily evaluated the biocompatibility and effectiveness of human standard-size biodegradable magnesium-based plates and screws in facial fractures of beagles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fracture lines were created bilaterally in the zygomatic arches of 6 beagles...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438203/does-periosteal-graft-combined-with-platelet-rich-plasma-enhance-the-healing-of-bone-defect
#9
Arzu Türkseven, Derya Özçelik, Mert Çaliş, Hakan Hamdi Celik, Fahri Yilmaz, Ömer Önbaş, Alper Vatansever, Gaye Toplu
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effect of periosteal graft + platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combination on facial bone defect healing. METHODS: Five-millimeter critical sized defects in zygomatic arches of 12 adult New Zealand rabbits were created. Rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: First group (control group): bone defects of left zygomatic arches of 6 rabbits were wrapped with a silicone tube. Second group (periosteal graft group): bone defects of left zygomatic arches of 6 rabbits were wrapped with periosteal graft...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436921/volumetric-and-linear-measurements-of-lung-tumor-burden-from-non-gated-micro-ct-imaging-correlate-with-histological-analysis-in-a-genetically-engineered-mouse-model-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Aitor Gallastegui, James Cheung, Teresa Southard, Kelly R Hume
In vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging allows longitudinal studies of pulmonary neoplasms in genetically engineered mouse models. Respiratory gating increases the accuracy of lung tumor measurements but lengthens anesthesia time in animals that may be at increased risk for complications. We hypothesized that semiautomated, volumetric, and linear tumor measurements performed in micro-CT images from non-gated scans would have correlation with histological findings. Primary lung tumors were induced in eight FVB mice with two transgenes (FVB/N-Tg(tetO-Kras2)12Hev/J; FVB...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435992/feasibility-and-safety-of-a-cemented-peek-on-pe-knee-replacement-in-a-goat-model-a-preliminary-study
#11
Zhe Du, Zhonglin Zhu, Bing Yue, Zhanchun Li, You Wang
Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a potential alternative to metal alloys for use in the orthopedic implants; however, an in vivo study in an appropriate animal model is essential and has not yet been initiated. The aim of the present study was to gather some preliminary evidence regarding the performance and safety of a cemented PEEK-based knee replacement device in a goat model. Fifteen adult goats were randomly divided into two groups; the control group (n = 5), which received a sham operation, and the experimental group (n = 10), which received a total knee arthroplasty with a PEEK-based knee replacement device...
February 13, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435662/novel-evaluation-method-of-dentin-repair-by-direct-pulp-capping-using-high-resolution-micro-computed-tomography
#12
Motoki Okamoto, Yusuke Takahashi, Shungo Komichi, Manahil Ali, Naomichi Yoneda, Takuya Ishimoto, Takayoshi Nakano, Mikako Hayashi
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated a novel micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) assessment for quality and quantity of dentin repair, which is difficult to visualize by histological analysis, after direct pulp capping under standardized cavity preparation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standardized cavities were prepared on Wistar rats and direct pulp capping was performed using two commercial bioceramics, ProRoot MTA, and iRoot BP Plus. After 2 or 4 weeks, quality and quantity of tertiary dentin formation were evaluated using high-resolution micro-CT analyses including dentin mineral density, dentin mineral contents, compactness and integrity of tertiary dentin, and dentin volume with/without void space...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435154/efficacy-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-combined-with-metronomic-paclitaxel-in-the-treatment-of-lewis-lung-carcinoma-transplanted-in-mice
#13
Nengping Zhu, Rongsheng Qin, Qin Zhang, Shaozhi Fu, Shanshan Liu, Yue Chen, Juan Fan, Yunwei Han
Metronomic chemotherapy in combination with immunotherapy is an attractive approach in cancer therapy. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in combination with metronomic paclitaxel (MET PTX) on Lewis lung carcinoma transplanted in mice. In the present study, tumor-bearing mice survival time and tumor growth were monitored. The day after the end of the treatment, white blood cells were counted, and the number and maturation of dendritic cell were determined by flow cytometry...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434773/human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-media-suppresses-inflammatory-bone-loss-in-a-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-model
#14
Yu Li, Xin Gao, Jinbing Wang
Conditioned media (CM) from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contains various cytokines, growth factors and microRNAs, which may serve important roles in modulating the inflammatory process. However, the effect of MSC-CM on inflammatory bone loss remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of conditioned media from human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSC-CM) on the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated bone loss in mice. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this effect, the effects of AMSC-CM on serum levels of inflammation-associated cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and IL-10] in LPS-treated mice, in addition to their mRNA expression in LPS-treated macrophages, was investigated...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434267/early-changes-of-articular-cartilage-and-subchondral-bone-in-the-dmm-mouse-model-of-osteoarthritis
#15
Hang Fang, Lisi Huang, Ian Welch, Chris Norley, David W Holdsworth, Frank Beier, Daozhang Cai
To examine the early changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the DMM mouse model of osteoarthritis, mice were subjected to DMM or SHAM surgery and sacrificed at 2-, 5- and 10-week post-surgery. Catwalk gait analyses, Micro-Computed Tomography, Toluidine Blue, Picrosirius Red and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining were used to investigate gait patterns, joint morphology, subchondral bone, cartilage, collagen organization and osteoclasts activity, respectively. Results showed OA progressed over 10-week time-course...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434189/ablation-of-protein-phosphatase-5-pp5-leads-to-enhanced-both-bone-and-cartilage-development-in-mice
#16
Jun Wang, Yong Cao, Bin Qiu, Jianyong Du, Tingting Wang, Chao Wang, Ran Deng, Xudong Shi, Kai Gao, Zhongwen Xie, Weidong Yong
This study aimed to investigate the role of protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) on bone and cartilage development using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Six- to 8-week- old male PP5 knockout mice (KO) and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls were randomly selected for this study, and their body weights and bone (femur) lengths were measured. Micro-computed tomography scanning (Micro-CT) was performed to determine femoral bone density and micro-architecture. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow were used to examine the effects of PP5 on osteogenesis in vitro...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433862/three-dimensionally-printed-bioactive-ceramic-scaffold-osseoconduction-across-critical-sized-mandibular-defects
#17
Christopher D Lopez, J Rodrigo Diaz-Siso, Lukasz Witek, Jonathan M Bekisz, Bruce N Cronstein, Andrea Torroni, Roberto L Flores, Eduardo D Rodriguez, Paulo G Coelho
BACKGROUND: Vascularized bone tissue transfer, commonly used to reconstruct large mandibular defects, is challenged by long operative times, extended hospital stay, donor-site morbidity, and resulting health care. 3D-printed osseoconductive tissue-engineered scaffolds may provide an alternative solution for reconstruction of significant mandibular defects. This pilot study presents a novel 3D-printed bioactive ceramic scaffold with osseoconductive properties to treat segmental mandibular defects in a rabbit model...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433078/biofilms-in-3d-porous-media-delineating-the-influence-of-the-pore-network-geometry-flow-and-mass-transfer-on-biofilm-development
#18
Maxence Carrel, Verónica L Morales, Mario A Beltran, Nicolas Derlon, Rolf Kaufmann, Eberhard Morgenroth, Markus Holzner
This study investigates the functional correspondence between porescale hydrodynamics, mass transfer, pore structure and biofilm morphology during progressive biofilm colonization of a porous medium. Hydrodynamics and the structure of both the porous medium and the biofilm are experimentally measured with 3D particle tracking velocimetry and micro X-ray Computed Tomography, respectively. The analysis focuses on data obtained in a clean porous medium after 36 h of biofilm growth. Registration of the particle tracking and X-ray data sets allows to delineate the interplay between porous medium geometry, hydrodynamic and mass transfer processes on the morphology of the developing biofilm...
February 5, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432728/galectin-3-is-essential-for-proper-bone-cell-differentiation-and-activity-bone-remodeling-and-biomechanical-competence-in-mice
#19
Carla Iacobini, Claudia Blasetti Fantauzzi, Rossella Bedini, Raffaella Pecci, Armando Bartolazzi, Bruno Amadio, Carlo Pesce, Giuseppe Pugliese, Stefano Menini
OBJECTIVE: Galectin-3 is constitutively expressed in bone cells and was recently shown to modulate osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells and atherosclerotic calcification. However, the role of galectin-3 in bone physiology is largely undefined. To address this issue, we analyzed (1) the skeletal features of 1-, 3- and 6-month-old galectin-3 null (Lgals3-/-) and wild type (WT) mice and (2) the differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts derived from these animals...
February 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432650/effects-of-ultrasonic-removal-of-fractured-files-from-the-middle-third-of-root-canals-on-dentinal-cracks-a-micro-computed-tomography-study
#20
M Fu, X Huang, W He, B Hou
AIM: To evaluate the frequency of dentinal microcracks after ultrasonic removal of fractured files from the middle third of root canals using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). METHODOLOGY: Eighteen bilaterally matched pairs of human mandibular incisors extracted for periodontal reasons were included. The matched pairs of teeth were then divided into a control group and an experimental group, with one member of each pair assigned to each group. In the control group, the canals were instrumented using the ProTaper Next (PTN) system...
February 12, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
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