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Micro-computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055138/effects-of-a-bone-graft-substitute-consisting-of-porous-gradient-ha-zro2-and-gelatin-chitosan-slow-release-hydrogel-containing-bmp-2-and-bmscs-on-lumbar-vertebral-defect-repair-in-rhesus-monkey
#1
Rong-Xue Shao, Ren-Fu Quan, Tuo Wang, Wei-Bin Du, Gao-Yong Jia, Dong Wang, Long-Bao Lv, Cai-Yin Xu, Xi-Cheng Wei, Jin-Fu Wang, Di-Sheng Yang
Dense biomaterial plays an important role in bone replacement. However, it fails to induce bone-cell migration into graft material. In the present study, a novel bone-graft substitute (BGS) consisting of porous gradient HA/ZrO2 composite (PGHC) and gelatin/chitosan slow-release hydrogel containing BMP-2 and BMSCs was designed and prepared to repair lumbar vertebral defects. The morphological characteristics of the BGS evaluated by scanning electron microscope showed that it had a three-dimensional network structure with uniformly distributed chitosan microspheres on the surfaces of the graft material and the interior of the pores...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048330/calibration-and-analysis-of-a-multimodal-micro-ct-and-structured-light-imaging-system-for-the-evaluation-of-excised-breast-tissue
#2
David Martin McClatchy Iii, Elizabeth J Rizzo, Jeff Meganck, Josh Kempner, Jared Vicory, Wendy A Wells, Keith D Paulsen, Brian W Pogue
A multimodal micro-computed tomography (CT) and multi-spectral structured light imaging (SLI) system is introduced and systematically analyzed to test its feasibility to aid in margin delineation during breast conserving surgery (BCS). Phantom analysis of the micro-CT yielded a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 34, a contrast of 1.64, and a minimum detectable resolution of 240 m for a 1.2 min scan. The SLI system, spanning wavelengths 490 nm to 800 nm and spatial frequencies up to 1.37 mm-1, was evaluated with aqueous tissue simulating phantoms having variations in particle size distribution, scatter density, and blood volume fraction...
October 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047295/enhanced-irrigant-delivery-to-the-ethmoid-sinuses-directly-following-ethmoid-punch-sinusotomy
#3
Waleed M Abuzeid, Asa Z Peterson, Aakanksha Rathor, Jordan C Xu, Nathalia Velasquez, Ali R Rashan, Andrew Thamboo, Jayakar V Nayak
OBJECTIVES: Ethmoid punch sinusotomy (EPS) is a feasible treatment for ethmoid sinusitis in a subset of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients per a recent report. This adjunctive work investigates the technical characteristics of EPS and determines if EPS measurably alters the topical delivery of irrigant into the ethmoid sinuses in a cadaveric model. METHODS: The sinonasal cavities of 10 human cadaver heads were irrigated with a solution containing methylene blue and radio-opaque contrast prior to and following EPS...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046572/nutrient-dependent-growth-underpinned-the-ediacaran-transition-to-large-body-size
#4
Jennifer F Hoyal Cuthill, Simon Conway Morris
Macroscale rangeomorph fossils, with characteristic branching fronds, appear (571 Myr ago) after the Gaskiers glaciation (580 Myr ago). However, biological mechanisms of size growth and potential connections to ocean geochemistry were untested. Using micro-computerized tomography and photographic measurements, alongside mathematical and computer models, we demonstrate that growth of rangeomorph branch internodes declined as their relative surface area decreased. This suggests that frond size and shape were directly responsive to nutrient uptake...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044710/tracking-the-progression-of-osteolytic-and-osteosclerotic-lesions-in-mice-using-serial-in-vivo-micro-ct-applications-to-the-assessment-of-bisphosphonate-treatment-efficacy
#5
G M Campbell, R J Tower, T Damm, P Kneissl, A Rambow, C Schem, S Tiwari, C C Glüer
The metastasis of tumour cells to bone can lead to osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesions, which cause severe, highly-localized bone destruction and abnormal bone apposition, respectively. Accurate quantification of lesion progression is critical to understand underlying mechanisms and assess treatment efficacy; however, standard structural parameters may be insensitive to local changes. We developed methods to quantify osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesions using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) within in vivo mouse datasets...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044705/subchondral-trabecular-rod-loss-and-plate-thickening-in-the-development-of-osteoarthritis
#6
Yan Chen, Yizhong Hu, Y Eric Yu, Xingjian Zhang, Tezita Watts, Bin Zhou, Ji Wang, Ting Wang, Weiwei Zhao, Kwong Yuen Chiu, Frankie K L Leung, Xu Cao, William W Lu, William Macaulay, Kyle K Nishiyama, Elizabeth Shane, X Edward Guo
Developing effective treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), a prevalent and disabling disease, has remained a challenge, primarily due to limited understanding of its pathogenesis and late diagnosis. In the subchondral bone, rapid bone loss following traumatic injuries and bone sclerosis at the advanced stage of OA are well-recognized hallmarks of the disease. Recent studies have further demonstrated the crucial contribution of subchondral bone in the development of OA. However, the microstructural basis of these bone changes has not been examined thoroughly, and the paradox of how abnormal resorption can eventually lead to bone sclerosis remains unanswered...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044525/susceptibility-of-different-mouse-strains-to-peri-implantitis
#7
S Hiyari, A Naghibi, R Wong, R Sadreshkevary, L Yi-Ling, S Tetradis, P M Camargo, F Q Pirih
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peri-implantitis (PI) is an inflammatory condition that affects the tissues surrounding dental implants. Although the pathogenesis of PI is not fully understood, evidence suggests that the etiology is multifactorial and may include a genetic component. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of genetics in the development of peri-implantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four-week-old C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ and A/J male mice had their left maxillary molars extracted...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044178/use-of-pixe-pige-for-sequential-ca-and-f-measurements-in-root-carious-model
#8
K Yagi, H Yamamoto, R Uemura, Y Matsuda, K Okuyama, T Ishimoto, T Nakano, M Hayashi
The progress of caries has conventionally been evaluated by checking changes in mineral density using transverse microradiography (TMR). Recent advances have seen development of a new measurement system, using in-air micro proton induced X-ray/gamma-ray emission (PIXE/PIGE). PIXE/PIGE enables analysis of distributions and concentrations of multiple mineral elements in a carious lesion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PIXE/PIGE for investigating the development of root caries. In summary, we successfully established a multi-elemental sequential measuring method using in-air micro-PIXE/PIGE to identify the dynamic distributions and concentrations of Ca and F in human root dentin...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042460/storage-compartments-for-capillary-water-rarely-refill-in-an-intact-woody-plant
#9
Thorsten Knipfer, Italo Cuneo, Jeffrey Mason Earles, Clarissa Reyes, Craig Brodersen, Andrew J McElrone
Water storage is thought to play an integral role in the maintenance of whole plant water balance. The contribution of both living and dead cells to water storage can be derived from rehydration and pressure-volume curves on excised plant material, but the underlying tissue-specific emptying/refilling dynamics remain unclear. Here, we used X-ray computed micro-tomography (microCT) to characterize refilling of xylem fibers, pith cells and vessels under both excised and in-vivo conditions in Laurus nobilis. In excised stems supplied with H2O, water uptake exhibited a biphasic response curve, and microCT images showed that high water storage capacitance was associated with fiber and pith refilling as driven by capillary forces; fibers refilled more rapidly than pith cells while vessel refilling was minimal...
October 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039630/impairment-of-the-chondrogenic-phase-of-endochondral-ossification-in-vivo-by-inhibition-of-cyclooxygenase-2
#10
M P Janssen, M M Caron, B van Rietbergen, D A Surtel, L W van Rhijn, T J Welting, P J Emans
Many studies have reported on the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on osteogenesis. However, far less is known about the effects of COX-2 inhibition on chondrogenic differentiation. Previous studies conducted by our group show that COX-2 inhibition influences in vitro chondrogenic differentiation. Importantly, this might have consequences on endochondral ossification processes occurring in vivo, such as bone fracture healing, growth plate development and ectopic generation of cartilage. The goal of our study was to investigate, in vivo, the effect of COX-2 inhibition by celecoxib on the cartilaginous phase of three different endochondral ossification scenarios...
October 17, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039565/hydrogen-sulfide-regulates-bone-remodeling-and-promotes-orthodontic-tooth-movement
#11
Haiya Pu, Yongmei Hua
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas signaling molecule that has multiple influences on physiological and pathological processes in the mammalian body, including vasodilation, neurotransmission, inflammation, hypoxia sensing and bone remodeling. Our previous studies suggested that H2S might be involved in the periodontal tissue remodeling during the orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) via increasing periodontal ligament cell differentiation, tissue mineralization, bone formation and collagen synthesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of H2S on alveolar bone remodeling that is associated with tooth movement...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039554/microrna-23a-3p-inhibitor-decreases-osteonecrosis-incidence-in-a-rat-model
#12
Yulei Dong, Tao Li, Yulong Li, Shaoda Ren, Junfen Fan, Xisheng Weng
The mechanism of steroid-associated femoral head necrosis remains unclear. The present study investigated the role of microRNA-23a-3p (miR-23a-3p) in the incidence of osteonecrosis in a rat model. An miR-23a-3p mimic, an inhibitor and a negative control were transfected into bone mesenchymal stem cells using a lentiviral vector, and then injected into the steroid-induced femoral head necrosis model. Osteonecrosis incidence was assessed by micro computed tomography and histopathology. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP-5) expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039481/administration-of-erythropoietin-prevents-bone-loss-in-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-in-mice
#13
Taotao Xu, Hongting Jin, Yangjun Lao, Pinger Wang, Shanxing Zhang, Hongfeng Ruan, Qiang Mao, Li Zhou, Luwei Xiao, Peijian Tong, Chengliang Wu
Long‑term administration of glucocorticoid hormones is considered one of predominant pathological factors inducing osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) development and progression, in which reduction of blood supply leads to a progressive bone loss and impairment of bone structure in the majority of cases. In a non‑hematopoietic system, erythropoietin (EPO) can stimulate angiogenesis and bone regeneration. However, the specific mechanism underlying the role of EPO in ONFH remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of EPO on the prevention of bone loss in ONFH...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037603/mri-and-ct-lung-biomarkers-towards-an-in-vivo-understanding-of-lung-biomechanics
#14
REVIEW
Heather M Young, Rachel L Eddy, Grace Parraga
BACKGROUND: The biomechanical properties of the lung are necessarily dependent on its structure and function, both of which are complex and change over time and space. This makes in vivo evaluation of lung biomechanics and a deep understanding of lung biomarkers, very challenging. In patients and animal models of lung disease, in vivo evaluations of lung structure and function are typically made at the mouth and include spirometry, multiple-breath gas washout tests and the forced oscillation technique...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036878/geometric-artifacts-reduction-for-cone-beam-ct-via-l0-norm-minimization-without-dedicated-phantoms
#15
Changcheng Gong, Yufang Cai, Li Zeng
For cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), transversal shifts of the rotation center exist inevitably, which will result in geometric artifacts in CT images. In this work, we propose a novel geometric calibration method for CBCT, which can also be used in micro-CT. The symmetry property of the sinogram is used for the first calibration, and then L0-norm of the gradient image from the reconstructed image is used as the cost function to be minimized for the second calibration. An iterative search method is adopted to pursue the local minimum of the L0-norm minimization problem...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035738/thrombin-activatable-fluorescent-peptide-incorporated-gold-nanoparticles-for-dual-optical-computed-tomography-thrombus-imaging
#16
Sung-Pil Kwon, Sangmin Jeon, Sung-Hoon Lee, Hong Yeol Yoon, Ju Hee Ryu, Dayil Choi, Jeong-Yeon Kim, Jiwon Kim, Jae Hyung Park, Dong-Eog Kim, Ick Chan Kwon, Kwangmeyung Kim, Cheol-Hee Ahn
Thrombosis is an important pathophysiologic phenomenon in various cardiovascular diseases, which can lead to oxygen deprivation and infarction of tissues by generation of a thrombus. Thus, direct thrombus imaging can provide beneficial in diagnosis and therapy of thrombosis. Herein, we developed thrombin-activatable fluorescent peptide (TAP) incorporated silica-coated gold nanoparticles (TAP-SiO2@AuNPs) for direct imaging of thrombus by dual near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, wherein TAP molecules were used as targeted thrombin-activatable peptide probes for thrombin-specific NIRF imaging...
October 9, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033091/influence-of-artifact-reduction-tools-in%C3%A2-micro-computed-tomography-images-for%C3%A2-endodontic-research
#17
Polyane Mazucatto Queiroz, Karla Rovaris, Hugo Gaêta-Araujo, Stefani Marzola de Souza Bueno, Deborah Queiroz Freitas, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Francisco Haiter-Neto
INTRODUCTION: Micro-computed tomography (μCT) is an imaging modality of growing application in endodontic research because of its nondestructive technology that enables visualization at the micrometer level. In the presence of high-density material, images acquired with μCT may present artifacts. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate subjectively and objectively the influence of artifact reduction tools available for μCT image reconstruction to determine whether their use can influence endodontic research outcomes...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033087/micro-computed-tomography-versus-the-cross-sectioning-method-to-evaluate-dentin-defects-induced-by-different-mechanized-instrumentation-techniques
#18
Carolina Pessoa Stringheta, Rina Andréa Pelegrine, Augusto Shoji Kato, Laila Gonzales Freire, Elaine Faga Iglecias, Giulio Gavini, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Bueno
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to compare the methods of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and cross-sectioning followed by stereomicroscopy in assessing dentinal defects after instrumentation with different mechanized systems. METHODS: Forty mesial roots of mandibular molars were scanned and divided into 4 groups (n = 10): Group R, Reciproc; Group PTN, ProTaper Next; Group WOG, WaveOne Gold; Group PDL, ProDesign Logic. After instrumentation, the roots were once again submitted to a micro-CT scan, and then sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex, and assessed for the presence of complete and incomplete dentinal defects under a stereomicroscope...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032816/physicochemical-properties-and-volumetric-change-of-silicone-bioactive-glass-and-calcium%C3%A2-silicate-based-endodontic-sealers
#19
Mario Tanomaru-Filho, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves Torres, Gisselle Moraima Chávez-Andrade, Madelise de Almeida, Luciana Guilherme Navarro, Liviu Steier, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated setting time (ST), radiopacity, pH, flow, solubility, and volumetric change (VC) of a silicone, gutta-percha, and bioactive glass-based sealer, GuttaFlow Bioseal (GFB), and a calcium silicate-based sealer, TotalFill BC Sealer (TFBC), in comparison with AH Plus. METHODS: ST and flow were evaluated in accordance with the ISO 6876 Standard. pH was evaluated after different time intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days). Radiopacity was evaluated by radiographic analysis in millimeters of aluminum...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032176/three-dimensional-evaluation-of-marginal-and-internal-fit-of-3d-printed-interim-restorations-fabricated-on-different-finish-line-designs
#20
Nawal Alharbi, Saud Alharbi, Vincent M J I Cuijpers, Reham B Osman, Daniel Wismeijer
PurposeTo evaluate the influence of fabrication method and finish line design on marginal and internal fit of full-coverage interim restorations. MethodsFour typodont models of maxillary central-incisor were prepared for full-coverage restorations. Four groups were defined; knife-edge (KE), chamfer (C), rounded-shoulder (RS), rounded-shoulder with bevel (RSB). All preparations were digitally scanned. A total of 80 restorations were fabricated; 20 per group (SLA/3D-printed n=10, milled n=10). All restorations were positioned on the master die and scanned using micro-computed tomography...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
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