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Micro-computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636600/hidden-morphological-diversity-among-early-tetrapods
#1
Jason D Pardo, Matt Szostakiwskyj, Per E Ahlberg, Jason S Anderson
Phylogenetic analysis of early tetrapod evolution has resulted in a consensus across diverse data sets in which the tetrapod stem group is a relatively homogenous collection of medium- to large-sized animals showing a progressive loss of 'fish' characters as they become increasingly terrestrial, whereas the crown group demonstrates marked morphological diversity and disparity. The oldest fossil attributed to the tetrapod crown group is the highly specialized aïstopod Lethiscus stocki, which shows a small size, extreme axial elongation, loss of limbs, spool-shaped vertebral centra, and a skull with reduced centres of ossification, in common with an otherwise disparate group of small animals known as lepospondyls...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636254/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#2
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634148/iodine-and-freeze-drying-enhanced-high-resolution-microct-imaging-for-reconstructing-3d-intraneural-topography-of-human-peripheral-nerve-fascicles
#3
Liwei Yan, Yongze Guo, Jian Qi, Qingtang Zhu, Liqiang Gu, Canbin Zheng, Tao Lin, Yutong Yu, Zitao Zeng, Sha Yu, Shuang Zhu, Xiang Zhou, Xi Zhang, Yunfei Du, Zhi Yao, Yao Lu, Xiaolin Liu
BACKGROUND: The precise annotation and accurate identification of the topography of fascicles to the end organs are prerequisites for studying human peripheral nerves. NEW METHOD: In this study, we present a feasible imaging method that acquires 3D high-resolution (HR) topography of peripheral nerve fascicles using an iodine and freeze-drying (IFD) micro-computed tomography (microCT) method to greatly increase the contrast of fascicle images. RESULTS: The enhanced microCT imaging method can facilitate the reconstruction of high-contrast HR fascicle images, fascicle segmentation and extraction, feature analysis, and the tracing of fascicle topography to end organs, which define fascicle functions...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630287/correction-for-mattei-et-al-integrated-3d-view-of-postmating-responses-by-the-drosophila-melanogaster-female-reproductive-tract-obtained-by-micro-computed-tomography-scanning
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623631/effect-of-in-vitro-enzymatic-degradation-on-3d-printed-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-scaffolds-morphological-chemical-and-mechanical-properties
#5
Joana Ferreira, Antonio Gloria, Stefania Cometa, Jorge F J Coelho, Marco Domingos
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the tissue engineering (TE) field has significantly benefited from advanced techniques such as additive manufacturing (AM), for the design of customized 3D scaffolds with the aim of guided tissue repair. Among the wide range of materials available to biomanufacture 3D scaffolds, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) clearly arises as the synthetic polymer with the greatest potential, due to its unique properties - namely, biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermal and chemical stability and processability...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623335/complex-neuroanatomy-in-the-rostrum-of-the-isle-of-wight-theropod-neovenator-salerii
#6
Chris Tijani Barker, Darren Naish, Elis Newham, Orestis L Katsamenis, Gareth Dyke
The discovery of large, complex, internal canals within the rostra of fossil reptiles has been linked with an enhanced tactile function utilised in an aquatic context, so far in pliosaurids, the Cretaceous theropod Spinosaurus, and the related spinosaurid Baryonyx. Here, we report the presence of a complex network of large, laterally situated, anastomosing channels, discovered via micro-focus computed tomography (μCT), in the premaxilla and maxilla of Neovenator, a mid-sized allosauroid theropod from the Early Cretaceous of the UK...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621323/a-robust-methodology-for-the-quantitative-assessment-of-the-rat-jawbone-microstructure
#7
Marissa Chatterjee, Fernanda Faot, Cassia Correa, Joke Duyck, Ignace Naert, Katleen Vandamme
Micro-computed tomography can be applied for the assessment of the micro-architectural characteristics of the cortical and trabecular bones in either physiological or disease conditions. However, reports often lack a detailed description of the methodological steps used to analyse these images, such as the volumes of interest, the algorithms used for image filtration, the approach used for image segmentation, and the bone parameters quantified, thereby making it difficult to compare or reproduce the studies...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621056/denervation-effectively-aggravates-rat-experimental-periodontitis
#8
X Yu, Z Gong, Q Lin, W Wang, S Liu, S Li
BACKGROUND: Nerve and its related factors in the occurrence and development of periodontitis are worthy of further study. Denervation research is a useful addition to nerve and innervation studies. The aim of this study is to establish a rat model of inferior alveolar nerve transection combined with ligature-induced periodontitis to elucidate the effects of denervation on ligature-induced rat periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-four Wistar rats were distributed to the four groups randomly: ligation (L); denervation (D); ligation+denervation (LD); and normal (N) as control...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619022/effect-of-low-magnitude-different-frequency-whole-body-vibration-on-subchondral-trabecular-bone-microarchitecture-cartilage-degradation-bone-cartilage-turnover-and-joint-pain-in-rabbits-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#9
Wang Junbo, Liu Sijia, Chen Hongying, Liu Lei, Wang Pu
BACKGROUD: Whole-body vibration(WBV) has been suggested for the prevention of subchondral bone loss of knee osteoarthritis (OA) . This study examined the effects of different frequency of whole-body vibration on subchondral trabecular bone microarchitecture, cartilage degradation and metabolism of the tibia and femoral condyle bone, and joint pain in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-induced knee osteoarthritisrabbit model. METHOD: Ninety adult rabbits were divided into six groups: all groups received unilateral ACLT; Group 1, ACLT only; Group 2, 5 Hz WBV; Group 3, 10 Hz WBV; Group 4, 20 Hz WBV; Group 5, 30 Hz WBV; and Group 6, 40 Hz WBV...
June 15, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618966/-68-ga-177-lu-labeled-dota-tate-shows-similar-imaging-and-biodistribution-in-neuroendocrine-tumor-model
#10
Fei Liu, Hua Zhu, Jiangyuan Yu, Xuedi Han, Qinghua Xie, Teli Liu, Chuanqin Xia, Nan Li, Zhi Yang
Somatostatin receptors are overexpressed in neuroendocrine tumors, whose endogenous ligands are somatostatin. DOTA-TATE is an analogue of somatostatin, which shows high binding affinity to somatostatin receptors. We aim to evaluate the (68)Ga/(177)Lu-labeling DOTA-TATE kit in neuroendocrine tumor model for molecular imaging and to try human-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of (68)Ga-DOTA-TATE in neuroendocrine tumor patients. DOTA-TATE kits were formulated and radiolabeled with (68)Ga/(177)Lu for (68)Ga/(177)Lu-DOTA-TATE (M-DOTA-TATE)...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610485/effects-of-the-bilayer-nano-hydroxyapatite-mineralized-collagen-guided-bone-regeneration-membrane-on-site-preservation-in-dogs
#11
Yi Sun, Chengyue Wang, Qixin Chen, Hai Liu, Chao Deng, Peixue Ling, Fu-Zhai Cui
This study was aimed at assessing the effects of the porous mineralized collagen plug with or without the bilayer mineralized collagen-guided bone regeneration membrane on alveolar ridge preservation in dogs. The third premolars in the bilateral maxilla of mongrel dogs ( N = 12) were extracted. Twenty-four alveolar sockets were thus randomly divided into three groups: membrane + collagen plug (MP, n = 8), nonmembrane + collagen plug (NP, n = 8) and blank group without any implantation (BG, n = 8)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608839/microgroove-and-collagen-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-nanofiber-mesh-coating-improves-the-mechanical-stability-and-osseointegration-of-titanium-implants
#12
Morshed Khandaker, Shahram Riahinezhad, Wendy R Williams, Roman Wolf
The effect of depositing a collagen (CG)-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofiber mesh (NFM) at the microgrooves of titanium (Ti) on the mechanical stability and osseointegration of the implant with bone was investigated using a rabbit model. Three groups of Ti samples were produced: control Ti samples where there were no microgrooves or CG-PCL NFM, groove Ti samples where microgrooves were machined on the circumference of Ti, and groove-NFM Ti samples where CG-PCL NFM was deposited on the machined microgrooves...
June 13, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608425/three-dimensional-visualization-of-ocellar-interneurons-of-the-orchid-bee-euglossa-imperialis-using-micro-x-ray-computed-tomography
#13
Willi Ribi, Jochen Zeil
We used contrast-optimized micro X-ray Computed Tomography (mCT) to trace the profiles of the full complement of large ocellar L-neurons in the male orchid bee Euglossa imperialis. We find that most L-neurons collect information from either the dorsal or the ventral retinae in both median and lateral ocelli, with only three neurons associated with the median ocellus having dendritic branches in both dorsal and ventral retina. In the median ocellus, we find also L-neurons that either collect information from the left or the right half of the ocellar plexus and two neurons that have a split dendritic tree in both halves...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607360/development-of-a-root-canal-treatment-model-in-the-rat
#14
Naomichi Yoneda, Yuichiro Noiri, Saori Matsui, Katsutaka Kuremoto, Hazuki Maezono, Takuya Ishimoto, Takayoshi Nakano, Shigeyuki Ebisu, Mikako Hayashi
Root canal treatment is performed to treat apical periodontitis, and various procedures and techniques are currently used. Although animal models have been used in the developmental research of root canal treatment, little of this research has used small animals such as rats, because of their small size. In this study, root canal treatment was performed on the rat mandibular first molar, which had four root canals, using a microscope, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated bacteriologically, radiologically and histopathologically...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606558/3d-histopathological-grading-of-osteochondral-tissue-using-contrast-enhanced-micro-computed-tomography
#15
H J Nieminen, H K Gahunia, K P H Pritzker, T Ylitalo, L Rieppo, S S Karhula, P Lehenkari, E Hæggström, S Saarakkala
OBJECTIVE: Histopathological grading of osteochondral (OC) tissue is widely used in osteoarthritis (OA) research, and it is relatively common in post-surgery in vitro diagnostics. However, relying on thin tissue section, this approach includes a number of limitations, such as: (i) destructiveness, (ii) sample processing artefacts, (iii) 2D section does not represent spatial 3D structure and composition of the tissue, and (iv) the final outcome is subjective. To overcome these limitations, we recently developed a contrast-enhanced μCT (CEμCT) imaging technique to visualize the collagenous extracellular matrix of articular cartilage (AC)...
June 9, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605948/vascular-anatomy-of-the-capitate-determined-by-micro-computed-tomography-angiography
#16
G Xiong, Z R Xiao, W G Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605722/functional-trade-off-between-strength-and-thermal-capacity-of-dermal-armor-insights-from-girdled-lizards
#17
Chris Broeckhoven, Anton du Plessis, Cang Hui
The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603912/regulation-of-bone-mineral-density-in-the-grey-squirrel-sciurus-carolinensis-bioavailability-of-calcium-oxalate-and-implications-for-bark-stripping
#18
C P Nichols, N G Gregory, N Goode, R M A Gill, J A Drewe
The damage caused when grey squirrels strip the outer bark off trees and ingest the underlying phloem can result in reduced timber quality or tree death. This is extremely costly to the UK forestry industry and can alter woodland composition, hampering conservation efforts. The calcium hypothesis proposes that grey squirrels ingest phloem to ameliorate a seasonal calcium deficiency. Calcium in the phloem predominantly takes the form of calcium oxalate (CaOx), however not all mammals can utilise CaOx as a source of calcium...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603093/role-of-18-f-fludeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-the-selection-of-liver-transplantation-candidates-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Yu-Fu Ye, Wei Wang, Ting Wang, Jun Yu, Lei Geng, Song-Feng Yu, Sheng Yan, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND: The Milan criteria are widely accepted among many centers. However, patients with hepatocellular carcinoma beyond the Milan criteria might still benefit from liver transplantation (LT) when tumor itself is not aggressive. [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging could provide useful information of tumor behaviors, which is helpful to predict the prognosis for many tumors. METHOD: In order to determine its role in candidate selection for LT, we therefore retrospectively analyzed 103 recipients with preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) findings...
June 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600241/automated-quantitative-bone-analysis-in-in-vivo-x-ray-micro-computed-tomography-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct
#20
Ali Behrooz, Peet Kask, Jeff Meganck, Joshua Kempner
Measurement and analysis of bone morphometry in 3D micro-computed tomography volumes using automated image processing and analysis improves the accuracy, consistency, reproducibility, and speed of preclinical osteological research studies. Automating segmentation and separation of individual bones in 3D micro-computed tomography volumes of murine models presents significant challenges considering partial volume effects and joints with thin spacing, i.e., 50 to 100 μm. In this paper, novel hybrid splitting filters are presented to overcome the challenge of automated bone separation...
June 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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