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Micro-computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722129/bone-strength-estimated-by-micro-finite-element-analysis-%C3%A2%C2%B5fea-is-heritable-and-shares-genetic-predisposition-with-areal-bmd-the-framingham-study
#1
David Karasik, Serkalem Demissie, Darlene Lu, Kerry E Broe, Steven K Boyd, Ching-Ti Liu, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Mary L Bouxsein, Douglas P Kiel
Genetic factors contribute to the risk of bone fractures, partly because of effects on bone strength. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) estimates bone strength using micro-finite element analysis (µFEA). The goal of this study was to investigate if the bone failure load estimated by HR-pQCT-based µFEA is heritable and to what extent it shares genetic regulation with areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Bone microarchitecture was measured by HR-pQCT at the ultradistal tibia and ultradistal radius in adults from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1087, mean age 72 years; 57% women)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721665/micro-computed-tomography-characterization-of-tissue-engineering-scaffolds-effects-of-pixel-size-and-rotation-step
#2
Ibrahim Fatih Cengiz, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira, Rui L Reis
Quantitative assessment of micro-structure of materials is of key importance in many fields including tissue engineering, biology, and dentistry. Micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) is an intensively used non-destructive technique. However, the acquisition parameters such as pixel size and rotation step may have significant effects on the obtained results. In this study, a set of tissue engineering scaffolds including examples of natural and synthetic polymers, and ceramics were analyzed. We comprehensively compared the quantitative results of µ-CT characterization using 15 acquisition scenarios that differ in the combination of the pixel size and rotation step...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721557/the-mystery-of-a-missing-bone-revealing-the-orbitosphenoid-in-basal-epicynodontia-cynodontia-therapsida-through-computed-tomography
#3
Julien Benoit, Sandra C Jasinoski, Vincent Fernandez, Fernando Abdala
The basal non-mammaliaform cynodonts from the late Permian (Lopingian) and Early Triassic are a major source of information for the understanding of the evolutionary origin of mammals. Detailed knowledge of their anatomy is critical for understanding the phylogenetic transition toward mammalness and the paleobiological reconstruction of mammalian precursors. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), we describe the internal morphology of the interorbital region that includes the rarely fossilized orbitosphenoid elements in four basal cynodonts...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720305/ecto-5-nucleotidase-cd73-regulates-bone-formation-and-remodeling-during-intramembranous-bone-repair-in-aging-mice
#4
Vivian Bradaschia-Correa, Anne M Josephson, Alexander J Egol, Matthew M Mizrahi, Kevin Leclerc, Jason Huo, Bruce N Cronstein, Philipp Leucht
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) generates adenosine, an osteoblast activator and key regulator of skeletal growth. It is unknown, however, if CD73 regulates osteogenic differentiation during fracture healing in adulthood, and in particular how CD73 activity regulates intramembranous bone repair in the elderly. Monocortical tibial defects were created in 46-52-week-old wild type (WT) and CD73 knock-out mice (CD73(-/-)) mice. Injury repair was analyzed at post-operative days 5, 7, 14 and 21 by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) histochemistry...
July 4, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716304/three-dimensional-computational-model-of-a-blood-oxygenator-reconstructed-from-micro-ct-scans
#5
C D'Onofrio, R van Loon, S Rolland, R Johnston, L North, S Brown, R Phillips, J Sienz
Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures are one of the most common operations and blood oxygenators are the centre piece for the heart-lung machines. Blood oxygenators have been tested as entire devices but intricate details on the flow field inside the oxygenators remain unknown. In this study, a novel method is presented to analyse the flow field inside oxygenators based on micro Computed Tomography (μCT) scans. Two Hollow Fibre Membrane (HFM) oxygenator prototypes were scanned and three-dimensional full scale models that capture the device-specific fibre distributions are set up for computational fluid dynamics analysis...
July 14, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715886/effects-of-swimming-exercise-on-high-fat-diet-induced-low-bone-mineral-density-and-trabecular-bone-microstructure-in-rats
#6
Yun-Seok Kang, Sang-Hyun Kim, Jae-Cheol Kim
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of swimming exercise on high-fat diet-induced low bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone microstructure in rats. METHODS: Eight-week-old male Sprague- Dawley (SD) rats were divided into a normal diet group (n = 9) and a high-fat diet group (n = 15). Three rats in each group were sacrificed after 8 weeks of high-fat diet to evaluate the association between high-fat diet and bone health. The other 18 rats were reassigned to 3 groups (normal diet control, NC; high-fat diet control, HC; high-fat diet + Exercise, HEx) for up to another 8 weeks...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714854/evaluation-of-bone-formation-in-calcium-phosphate-scaffolds-with-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct-method-validation-using-sem
#7
Susanne Lewin, Albert Barba, Cecilia Persson, Jordi Franch Serracanta, Maria Pau Ginebra, Caroline Öhman
There is a plethora of Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds used as synthetic substitutes to bone grafts. The scaffold performance is often evaluated from the quantity of bone formed within or in direct contact with the scaffold. Micro computed tomography (µCT) allows three-dimensional evaluation of bone formation inside scaffolds. However, the almost identical x-ray attenuation of CaP and bone obtrude the separation of these phases in µCT images. Commonly, segmentation of bone in µCT images is based on gray scale intensity, with manually determined global thresholds...
July 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713230/in-vivo-micro-ct-imaging-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-gold-poly-l-lysine-nanocomplexes
#8
Taeho Kim, Nohyun Lee, Dian R Arifin, Irina Shats, Miroslaw Janowski, Piotr Walczak, Taeghwan Hyeon, Jeff W M Bulte
Developing in vivo cell tracking is an important prerequisite for further development of cell-based therapy. So far, few computed tomography (CT) cell tracking studies have been described due to its notoriously low sensitivity and lack of efficient labeling protocols. We present a simple method to render human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) sufficiently radiopaque by complexing 40 nm citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with poly-L-lysine (PLL) and rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC). AuNP-PLL-RITC labeling did not affect cellular viability, proliferation, or downstream cell differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes...
January 19, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711588/a-framework-for-computational-fluid-dynamic-analyses-of-patient-specific-stented-coronary-arteries-from-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#9
Susanna Migliori, Claudio Chiastra, Marco Bologna, Eros Montin, Gabriele Dubini, Cristina Aurigemma, Roberto Fedele, Francesco Burzotta, Luca Mainardi, Francesco Migliavacca
The clinical challenge of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is highly dependent on the recognition of the coronary anatomy of each individual. The classic imaging modality used for PCI is angiography, but advanced imaging techniques that are routinely performed during PCI, like optical coherence tomography (OCT), may provide detailed knowledge of the pre-intervention vessel anatomy as well as the post-procedural assessment of the specific stent-to-vessel interactions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an emerging investigational tool in the setting of optimization of PCI results...
July 12, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708129/validation-of-a-novel-imaging-approach-using-multi-slice-ct-and-cone-beam-ct-to-follow-up-on-condylar-remodeling-after-bimaxillary-surgery
#10
Laura Ferreira Pinheiro Nicolielo, Jeroen Van Dessel, Eman Shaheen, Carolina Letelier, Marina Codari, Constantinus Politis, Ivo Lambrichts, Reinhilde Jacobs
The main goal of this study was to introduce a novel three-dimensional procedure to objectively quantify both inner and outer condylar remodelling on preoperative multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Second, the reliability and accuracy of this condylar volume quantification method was assessed. The mandibles of 20 patients (11 female and 9 male) who underwent bimaxillary surgery were semi-automatically extracted from MSCT/CBCT scans and rendered in 3D...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704906/the-therapeutic-effects-of-combination-therapy-with-curcumin-and-alendronate-on-spine-fusion-surgery-in-the-ovariectomized-rats
#11
Dae-Chul Cho, Kyoungsu Ryu, Kyoung-Tae Kim, Joo-Kyung Sung
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of combination therapy with curcumin and alendronate on spine fusion surgery in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). Eight weeks after surgery, animals underwent intertransverse spine fusion at L4-5. The rats were randomly distributed amongst 4 groups; untreated OVX group, curcumin administered group, alendronate administered group, and the combination therapy group...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704061/acid-base-polymeric-foams-for-the-adsorption-of-micro-oil-droplets-from-industrial-effluents
#12
Pavani Cherukupally, Edgar J Acosta, Juan P Hinestroza, Amy M Bilton, Chul B Park
Separation of toxic organic pollutants from industrial effluents is a great environmental challenge. Herein, an acid-base engineered foam is employed for separation of micro-oil droplets from an aqueous solution. In acidic or basic environments, acid-base polymers acquire surface charge due to protonation or dissociation of surface active functional groups. This property is invoked to adsorb crude oil microdroplets from water using polyester polyurethane (PESPU) foam. The physicochemical surface properties of the foam were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography, electrokinetic analysis, and micro-computed tomography...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701043/in-situ-x-ray-tomography-study-of-cement-exposed-to-co2-saturated-brine
#13
Elvia Anabela Chavez Panduro, Malin Torsæter, Kamila Gawel, Ruben Bjørge, Alain Gibaud, Yi Yang, Stefan Bruns, Yi Zheng, Henning Osholm Sørensen, Dag W Breiby
For successful CO2 storage in underground reservoirs, the potential problem of CO2 leakage needs to be addressed. A profoundly improved understanding of the behavior of fractured cement under realistic subsurface conditions including elevated temperature, high pressure and the presence of CO2 saturated brine is required. Here, we report in-situ X-ray micro computed tomography (µ-CT) studies visualizing the micro-structural changes upon exposure of cured Portland cement with a leak path to CO2 saturated brine at high pressure...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700618/micro-finite-element-models-of-the-vertebral-body-validation-of-local-displacement-predictions
#14
Maria Cristiana Costa, Gianluca Tozzi, Luca Cristofolini, Valentina Danesi, Marco Viceconti, Enrico Dall'Ara
The estimation of local and structural mechanical properties of bones with micro Finite Element (microFE) models based on Micro Computed Tomography images depends on the quality bone geometry is captured, reconstructed and modelled. The aim of this study was to validate microFE models predictions of local displacements for vertebral bodies and to evaluate the effect of the elastic tissue modulus on model's predictions of axial forces. Four porcine thoracic vertebrae were axially compressed in situ, in a step-wise fashion and scanned at approximately 39μm resolution in preloaded and loaded conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697192/a-prototype-pet-spect-x-rays-scanner-dedicated-for-whole-body-small-animal-studies
#15
Maritina Rouchota, Maria Georgiou, Eleftherios Fysikopoulos, Eirini Fragogeorgi, Konstantinos Mikropoulos, Panagiotis Papadimitroulas, George Kagadis, George Loudos
OBJECTIVE: To present a prototype tri-modal imaging system, consisting of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPET), a positron emission tomography (PET), and a computed tomography (CT) subsystem, evaluated in planar mode. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subsystems are mounted on a rotating gantry, so as to be able to allow tomographic imaging in the future. The system, designed and constructed by our group, allows whole body mouse imaging of competent performance and is currently, to the best of our knowledge, unequaled in a national and regional level...
July 12, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693947/synchrotron-radiation-%C3%AE-ct-and-histology-evaluation-of-bone-to-implant-contact
#16
Camilla Albeck Neldam, Jon Sporring, Alexander Rack, Torsten Lauridsen, Ellen-Margrethe Hauge, Henrik L Jørgensen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Robert Feidenhansl, Else Marie Pinholt
The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in two-dimensional (2D) histology compared to high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR micro-CT). High spatial resolution, excellent signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast establish SR micro-CT as the leading imaging modality for hard X-ray microtomography. Using SR micro-CT at voxel size 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, no statistically significant difference was found between the different treatment modalities nor between recipient and reconstructed bone...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691192/bilirubin-coating-attenuates-the-inflammatory-response-to-everolimus-coated-stents
#17
In-Ho Bae, Dae Sung Park, So-Youn Lee, Eun-Jae Jang, Jae-Won Shim, Kyung-Seob Lim, Jun-Kyu Park, Ju Han Kim, Doo Sun Sim, Myung Ho Jeong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bilirubin- and/or everolimus (EVL)-coated stents to prevent arterial neointimal hyperplasia and inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The stents were prepared by spray coating bare metal stents (BMS) with bilirubin and/or EVL. Study groups were divided into (1) BMS, (2) bilirubin-coated stents (BES), (3) commercialized stents (Synergy™; EES), and (4) bilirubin/EVL-coated stents (B-EES). The coating thickness and drug release rates were comparable to previous reports (i...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688825/three-dimensional-bio-printed-scaffold-sleeves-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-enhancement-of-tendon-to-bone-healing-in-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-using-soft-tissue-tendon-graft
#18
Sin Hyung Park, Yeong-Jin Choi, Sang Won Moon, Byung Hoon Lee, Jin-Hyung Shim, Dong-Woo Cho, Joon Ho Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of the insertion of 3-dimensional (3D) bio-printed scaffold sleeves seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to enhance osteointegration between the tendon and tunnel bone in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in a rabbit model. METHODS: Scaffold sleeves were fabricated by 3D bio-printing. Before ACL reconstruction, MSCs were seeded into the scaffold sleeves. ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon was performed on both legs of 15 adult rabbits (aged 12 weeks)...
July 5, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686698/flow-velocity-driven-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-silk-fibroin-scaffolds-a-combined-experimental-and-computational-approach
#19
Jolanda Rita Vetsch, Duncan Colin Betts, Ralph Müller, Sandra Hofmann
Mechanical loading plays a major role in bone remodeling and fracture healing. Mimicking the concept of mechanical loading of bone has been widely studied in bone tissue engineering by perfusion cultures. Nevertheless, there is still debate regarding the in-vitro mechanical stimulation regime. This study aims at investigating the effect of two different flow rates (vlow = 0.001m/s and vhigh = 0.061m/s) on the growth of mineralized tissue produced by human mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on 3-D silk fibroin scaffolds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686286/3-d-microstructure-of-olivine-in-complex-geological-materials-reconstructed-by-correlative-x-ray-%C3%AE-ct-and-ebsd-analyses
#20
W-A Kahl, N Dilissen, K Hidas, C J Garrido, V López-Sánchez-Vizcaíno, M J Román-Alpiste
We reconstruct the 3-D microstructure of centimetre-sized olivine crystals in rocks from the Almirez ultramafic massif (SE Spain) using combined X-ray micro computed tomography (μ-CT) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The semidestructive sample treatment involves geographically oriented drill pressing of rocks and preparation of oriented thin sections for EBSD from the μ-CT scanned cores. The μ-CT results show that the mean intercept length (MIL) analyses provide reliable information on the shape preferred orientation (SPO) of texturally different olivine groups...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
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