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Micro-computed tomography

Taichi Iwashita, Atsushi Mine, Mariko Matsumoto, Hayaki Nakatani, Mami Higashi, Asuka Kawaguchi-Uemura, Tomoshige Kabetani, Yuko Tajiri, Dai Imai, Ryosuke Hagino, Jiro Miura, Takuya Minamino, Hirofumi Yatani
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate drying methods for post space dentin bonding in a direct resin composite core build-up method. METHODS: Experiment 1: Four root canal plastic models, having diameters of 1.0 or 1.8mm and parallel or tapered shapes, were prepared. After drying each post space using three drying methods (air drying, paper-point drying, or ethanol drying, which involves filling the space with 99.5 vol% ethanol followed by air drying), the residual liquid in the models was weighed...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Xiaoteng Lv, Jiyin He, Xue Zhang, Xuan Luo, Na He, Zhongwei Sun, Huitang Xia, Victor Liu, Li Zhang, Xiangming Lin, Liping Lin, Huabin Yin, Dong Jiang, Wei Cao, Richard Wang, Guangdong Zhou, Wen Wang
The current study explored whether intra-articular (IA) injection of autologous adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) combined with hyaluronic acid (HA) achieved better therapeutic efficacy than autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) combined with HA to prevent osteoarthritis (OA) progression and determined how long autologous ASCs combined with HA must remain in the joint to observe efficacy. OA models were established by performing anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and medial meniscectomy (MM)...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Bryan R Helm, Scott Payne, Joseph P Rinehart, George D Yocum, Julia H Bowsher, Kendra J Greenlee
Insect metamorphosis involves a complex change in form and function. In this study, we examined development of the solitary bee, Megachile rotundata, using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and volume analysis. We describe volumetric changes of brain, tracheae, flight muscles, gut, and fat bodies in prepupal, pupal, and adult M. rotundata. We observed that individual organ systems have distinct patterns of developmental progression, which vary in their timing and duration. This has important implications for commercial management of this agriculturally relevant pollinator...
June 14, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Karen Mys, Filip Stockmans, Evie Vereecke, G Harry van Lenthe
Due to the rising life expectancy, bone diseases (e.g. osteoporosis, osteoarthritis) and trauma (e.g. fracture) have become an important socio-economic burden. Accurate visualization and quantification of the bone microstructure in vivo is seen as an important step to enhance diagnosis and treatment. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) has become the gold standard in three-dimensional (3D) imaging of trabecular bone structure. Yet, usage is limited to ex vivo analyses, hence, it cannot be used to evaluate bone and bone adaptive responses in a patient...
June 14, 2018: Bone
L Xi, P De Falco, E Barbieri, A Karunaratne, L Bentley, C T Esapa, N J Terrill, S D M Brown, R D Cox, G R Davis, N M Pugno, R V Thakker, H S Gupta
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a major secondary form of osteoporosis, with the fracture risk significantly elevated - at similar levels of bone mineral density - in patients taking glucocorticoids compared with non-users. The adverse bone structural changes at multiple hierarchical levels in GIOP, and their mechanistic consequences leading to reduced load-bearing capacity, are not clearly understood. Here we combine experimental X-ray nanoscale mechanical imaging with analytical modelling of the bone matrix mechanics to determine mechanisms causing bone material quality deterioration during development of GIOP...
June 11, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Gang Li, Lei Chen, Kai Chen
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to use a rat model of femoral fracture healing to study the effects of curcumin on cell autophagy, compared with treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of autophagy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats with right mid-femoral fracture were divided into three groups: the curcumin-treated group (N=12) (gavage with curcumin 400 mg/kg/day); the curcumin + 3-MA-treated group (gavage with curcumin 400 mg/kg/day + 3-MA 30 mg/kg/day); and the control group (N=12) (gavage normal saline)...
June 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
L Virto, H J Haugen, P Fernández-Mateos, P Cano, J González, V Jiménez-Ortega, A I Esquifino, M Sanz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Melatonin deficiency has been associated with obesity and systemic inflammation. This study aims to evaluate whether melatonin could interfere with the mechanisms of co-morbidity linking obesity and periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided in 4 groups: control group (Con) (fed with standard diet); high-fat diet group (HFD) (fed with a diet containing 35.2% fat); Con group with induced periodontitis (Con-Perio) and HFD group with induced periodontitis (HFD-Perio)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Fabricio Guerrero Ortiz, Esther Berástegui Jimeno
Endodontic treatments have as their objective the appropriate sealing of the space caused by the root canal, providing a complete seal of the canal in all dimensions, creating an airtight seal against fluids. Thus, endodontic cements must possess physical properties such as solubility and long-term dimensional stability. An electronic search in the main endodontic magazines using appropriate keywords to identify studies that investigated the porosity of endodontic materials using micro-computed tomography. Of the 125 studies researched, 16 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion...
May 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Tobias B Grun, Malte von Scheven, Manfred Bischoff, James H Nebelsick
The skeleton of Echinocyamus pusillus is considered as an exceptional model organism for structural strength and skeletal integrity within the echinoids as demonstrated by the absence of supportive collagenous fibres between single plates and the high preservation potential of their skeletons. The structural principles behind this remarkably stable, multi-plated, light-weight construction remain hardly explored. In this study, high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography, finite-element analysis and physical crushing tests are used to examine the structural mechanisms of this echinoid's skeleton...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Wenxiang Chu, Yaokai Gan, Yifu Zhuang, Xin Wang, Jie Zhao, Tingting Tang, Kerong Dai
BACKGROUND: Efficacious bone substitute is essential for the treatment of a critical size bone defect. Currently, the bone substitutes commonly used in clinical practice lack osteogenic capacity and the therapeutic efficacy is not ideal. Herein, a novel stem cell screen-enrich-combine(-biomaterials) circulating system (SECCS) was introduced to provide the substitutes with osteogenic ability. The stem cell screening, enrichment, and recombination with substitutes could be integrated during the surgical operation...
June 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Srisurang Suttapreyasri, Pradipat Suapear, Narit Leepong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for determining cortical thickness and the gray value, investigating its correlation with micro-computed tomography (CT) and histology analysis. Sixty-two bone samples from 4 anatomic regions of the jaw were analyzed. A radiographic surgical stent was used during CBCT and bone sample harvesting. The cortical thickness and gray value of the planned implant were evaluated by CBCT. Bone volumetric fractions, bone mineral density, and % porosity assessed by micro-CT and mineralized material by histology analysis from harvested bone samples were analyzed and assessed for the association with the CBCT using Pearson correlation...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Xavier J N M Smeets, Geke Litjens, Kim Gijsbers, Mathias Prokop, Joost P H Drenth, John Hermans, Erwin J M van Geenen
Early prediction of necrotizing pancreatitis is important for tailoring treatment, but current scoring systems have moderate accuracy and can be calculated only 24 to 48 hours after disease onset. Evaluation of (micro)circulatory changes in acute pancreatitis at admission by perfusion computed tomography (PCT) or angiography could predict necrosis earlier. Our aim was to systematically review the evidence for angiographic and PCT prediction of necrotizing pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review and searched MEDLINE and Embase...
July 2018: Pancreas
Inés Moreno-Jiménez, Stuart A Lanham, Janos M Kanczler, Gry Hulsart-Billstrom, Nicholas D Evans, Richard O C Oreffo
Traditionally used as an angiogenic assay, the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay of the chick embryo offers significant potential as an in vivo model for xenograft organ-culture. Viable human bone can be cultivated on the CAM and increases in bone volume are evident, however, it remains unclear by what mechanism this change occurs and whether this reflects the physiological process of bone remodelling. In this study we tested the hypothesis that CAM-induced bone remodelling is a consequence of host and graft mediated processes...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Tobias B Grun, James H Nebelsick
The clypeasteroid echinoid skeleton is a multi-plated, light-weight shell construction produced by biomineralization processes. In shell constructions, joints between individual elements are considered as weak points, yet these echinoid skeletons show an extensive preservation potential in both Recent and fossil environments. The remarkable strength of the test is achieved by skeletal reinforcement structures and their constructional layouts. Micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy are used for microstructural and volumetric analyses of the echinoid's skeleton...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Rinet Dauti, Barbara Cvikl, Bledar Lilaj, Patrick Heimel, Andreas Moritz, Andreas Schedle
PURPOSE: Purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fit of cemented polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) material crowns manufactured after digital and conventional impression techniques using micro computed tomography (CT). Furthermore to determine the cement space volume and porosities in the cement layer. METHODS: A molar typodont tooth was prepared for PICN material crowns and replicated thirty times. The dies were randomly divided into three groups of 10 specimens each according to the impression technique: 3M True Definition Scanner (TDS), cara TRIOS (Trios) and Impregum Penta Soft (Impregum)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
R S Hardy, C Fenton, A P Croft, A J Naylor, R Begum, G Desanti, C D Buckley, G Lavery, M S Cooper, K Raza
OBJECTIVE: In rheumatoid arthritis, the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is highly expressed at sites of inflammation, where it converts inactive glucocorticoids (GC) to their active counterparts. In conditions of GC excess it has been shown to be a critical regulator of muscle wasting and bone loss. Here we examine the contribution of 11β-HSD1 to the pathology of persistent chronic inflammatory disease. METHODS: To determine the contribution of 11β-HSD1 to joint inflammation, destruction and systemic bone loss associated with persistent inflammatory arthritis, we generated mice with global and mesenchymal specific 11β-HSD1 deletions in the TNF-transgenic (TNF-tg) model of chronic polyarthritis...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
A R Tellegen, I Rudnik-Jansen, B Pouran, H M de Visser, H H Weinans, R E Thomas, M J L Kik, G C M Grinwis, J C Thies, N Woike, G Mihov, P J Emans, B P Meij, L B Creemers, M A Tryfonidou
Major hallmarks of osteoarthritis (OA) are cartilage degeneration, inflammation and osteophyte formation. COX-2 inhibitors counteract inflammation-related pain, but their prolonged oral use entails the risk for side effects. Local and prolonged administration in biocompatible and degradable drug delivery biomaterials could offer an efficient and safe treatment for the long-term management of OA symptoms. Therefore, we evaluated the disease-modifying effects and the optimal dose of polyesteramide microspheres delivering the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in a rat OA model...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Jeffrey Duryea, Christopher Evans, Vaida Glatt
OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an unbiased, accurate, convenient and inexpensive means of determining when an osseous defect has healed and recovered sufficient strength to allow weight-bearing. METHODS: A novel image processing software algorithm was created to analyze the radiographic images and produce a metric designed to reflect the bone strength. We used a rat femoral segmental defect model that provides a range of healing responses from complete union to non-union...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Rudolf Probst, Reto Stump, Markus Mokosch, Christof Röösli
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the face validity of a new artificial model of an infant temporal bone (TB) suitable for surgical training, including cochlear implantation. SUBJECT: Micro-computer-tomography images were obtained from a TB specimen of a 1-year-old normal infant available in an anatomical collection. The TB model was designed and constructed using these images and techniques known from similar models of adult TB. INTERVENTION: Fifteen otology departments in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland rated the infant TB model and compared it with the established adult TB model manufactured commercially by the same company...
July 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Thomas J McColl, Rhys D Brady, Sandy R Shultz, Lauren Lovick, Kyria M Webster, Mujun Sun, Stuart J McDonald, Terence J O'Brien, Bridgette D Semple
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are common during adolescence, and limited clinical evidence suggests that a younger age at first exposure to a mTBI may lead to worse long-term outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that a mTBI during adolescence would predispose toward poorer neurobehavioral and neuropathological outcomes after a subsequent injury at adulthood. Mice received a mild weight drop injury (mTBI) at adolescence (postnatal day 35; P35) and/or at adulthood (P70). Mice were randomized to 6 groups: 'sham' (sham-surgery at P35 only); 'P35' (mTBI at P35 only); 'P35  +  sham' (mTBI at P35 + sham at P70); 'sham  +  P70' (sham at P35 + mTBI at P70); 'sham  +  sham' (sham at both P35 and P70); or 'P35  +  P70' (mTBI at both P35 and P70)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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