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Micro-computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216274/micro-computed-tomography-assessment-of-dentinal-micro-cracks-after-root-canal-preparation-with-trushape-and-self-adjusting-file-systems
#1
Mario Luis Zuolo, Gustavo De-Deus, Felipe Gonçalves Belladonna, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal da Silva, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Erick Miranda Souza, Marco Aurélio Versiani, Alexandre Augusto Zaia
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the percentage frequency of dentinal micro-cracks observed after root canal preparation with TRUShape and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) systems by means of micro-computed tomography imaging analysis. A conventional full-sequence rotary system (BioRace) and a single-file reciprocation system (Reciproc) were used as reference techniques for comparison because of their known assertive cutting efficiency. METHODS: Forty anatomically matched mandibular incisors were selected, scanned at a resolution of 14...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215346/a-micro-computed-tomography-evaluation-of-the-shaping-ability-of-two-nickel-titanium-instruments-hyflex-edm-and-protaper-next
#2
Pier Matteo Venino, Claudio Luigi Citterio, Alberto Pellegatta, Marta Ciccarelli, Marcello Maddalone
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, by means of micro-computed tomography imaging, the shaping ability of ProTaper Next (PTN) and the novel HyFlex EDM (HFEDM) instruments. METHODS: Forty teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups and prepared with PTN or HFEDM. Root canal transportation and centering ratio were evaluated in mesiodistal and buccolingual directions at 5 levels (at the midpoint of the apical, middle, and coronal thirds and at the boundaries between them)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215345/presence-of-voids-after-continuous-wave-of-condensation-and-single-cone-obturation-in-mandibular-molars-a-micro-computed-tomography-analysis
#3
Elaine Faga Iglecias, Laila Gonzales Freire, George Táccio de Miranda Candeiro, Marcelo Dos Santos, João Humberto Antoniazzi, Giulio Gavini
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the presence of voids in mesial root canals of mandibular molar teeth obturated by using the single-cone (SC) and continuous wave of condensation (CWC) obturation techniques, and results were analyzed by using micro-computed tomography. METHODS: Twenty-four mandibular molars with fully developed roots and mesial root curvature ranging from 25° to 35° were instrumented by using Reciproc R25 files, and then they were obturated by using the SC and CWC techniques...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215116/micro-computed-tomography-and-mechanical-evaluation-of-trabecular-bone-structure-in-osteopenic-and-osteoporotic-fractures
#4
Fırat Ozan, Mahmut Pekedis, Şemmi Koyuncu, Taşkın Altay, Hasan Yıldız, Cemil Kayalı
PURPOSE: Osteopenia and osteoporosis are the two most common musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly population. We determined whether osteopenic and osteoporotic patients with fractures exhibit differences in trabecular morphology and biomechanical properties of bone. METHODS: Fourteen osteopenic patients and 28 osteoporotic patients with hip fractures who underwent hemiarthroplasty for proximal femoral fractures caused by low-energy injury were included. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214018/assessment-of-root-canal-filling-removal-effectiveness-using-micro-computed-tomography-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: The removal of obturation materials from the root canal system is a primary objective in root canal retreatment procedures. This systematic review aims to discuss the effectiveness of different instrumentation procedures in removing root-canal filling materials assessed by micro-computed tomography. METHODS: An electronic search in PubMed and major endodontic journals was conducted using appropriate key words to identify investigations that examined the effectiveness of obturation material removal assessed by micro-computed tomography...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213826/diagnostic-yield-of-ct-urography-in-the-evaluation-of-hematuria-in-young-patients-in-a-military-population
#6
Laura R Mace, Terrel L Galloway, Andrew Ma, Richard S Montgomery, Ryan C Rockhill, William W Reynolds, Robert M Marks
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic yield of a computed tomography urography (CTU) study in patients less than 50 years of age, who have a history of military service, and who are at increased risk of urological cancers secondary to harmful practices and work-related exposures. METHODS: 137 Consecutive patients who underwent CTU between 2012 and 2013 for new onset of hematuria were included. Initial review of the clinical interpretations of the CTU studies grouped the studies into negative and positive exams for any urological findings...
February 17, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213151/automatic-method-for-estimation-of-in-situ-effective-contact-angle-from-x-ray-micro-tomography-images-of-two-phase-flow-in-porous-media
#7
Alessio Scanziani, Kamaljit Singh, Martin J Blunt, Alberto Guadagnini
Multiphase flow in porous media is strongly influenced by the wettability of the system, which affects the arrangement of the interfaces of different phases residing in the pores. We present a method for estimating the effective contact angle, which quantifies the wettability and controls the local capillary pressure within the complex pore space of natural rock samples, based on the physical constraint of constant curvature of the interface between two fluids. This algorithm is able to extract a large number of measurements from a single rock core, resulting in a characteristic distribution of effective in situ contact angle for the system, that is modelled as a truncated Gaussian probability density distribution...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212456/influence-of-posterior-mandibular-dimensions-on-alveolar-bone-microarchitecture
#8
Alberto Monje, Yiqun Wu, Wei Huang, Wenjie Zhou, Pablo Galindo-Moreno, Jesus Montanero-Fernandez, Rachel A Sheridan, Hom-Lay Wang, Feng Wang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of posterior mandibular dimensions (height and width at various levels) on alveolar bone microarchitecture using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Partially edentulous subjects with one missing molar were included in the study. A bone core biopsy was performed at the site of planned implant surgery. For each patient, alveolar morphologic and architectural characteristics were analyzed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro-CT imaging...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208719/micro-computed-tomography-detection-of-gold-nanoparticle-labelled-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-rat-subretinal-layer
#9
Pooi Ling Mok, Sue Ngein Leow, Avin Ee-Hwan Koh, Hairul Harun Mohd Nizam, Suet Lee Shirley Ding, Chi Luu, Raduan Ruhaslizan, Hon Seng Wong, Wan Haslina Wan Abdul Halim, Min Hwei Ng, Ruszymah Binti Hj Idrus, Shiplu Roy Chowdhury, Catherine Mae-Lynn Bastion, Suresh Kumar Subbiah, Akon Higuchi, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Kong Yong Then
Mesenchymal stem cells are widely used in many pre-clinical and clinical settings. Despite advances in molecular technology; the migration and homing activities of these cells in in vivo systems are not well understood. Labelling mesenchymal stem cells with gold nanoparticles has no cytotoxic effect and may offer suitable indications for stem cell tracking. Here, we report a simple protocol to label mesenchymal stem cells using 80 nm gold nanoparticles. Once the cells and particles were incubated together for 24 h, the labelled products were injected into the rat subretinal layer...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206811/types-of-tooth-movement-bodily-or-tipping-do-not-affect-the-displacement-of-the-tooth-s-center-of-resistance-but-do-affect-the-alveolar-bone-resorption
#10
Takanobu Kondo, Hitoshi Hotokezaka, Ryo Hamanaka, Megumi Hashimoto, Takako Nakano-Tajima, Kotaro Arita, Takeshi Kurohama, Airi Ino, Jun-Ya Tominaga, Noriaki Yoshida
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how types of tooth movement, bodily or tipping, influence the displacement of the center of resistance in teeth and alveolar bone resorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups of different factors, as follows: type of movement (bodily and tipping) and force magnitude (10, 25, 50, and 100 cN). The maxillary left first molars were moved mesially with nickel-titanium coil springs for 28 days...
February 16, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199398/a-segmentation-based-volumetric-approach-to-localize-and-quantify-cerebral-vasospasm-based-on-tomographic-imaging-data
#11
Axel Neulen, Tobias Pantel, Michael Kosterhon, Stefanie Kirschner, Marc A Brockmann, Sven R Kantelhardt, Alf Giese, Serge C Thal
INTRODUCTION: Quantification of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is crucial in animal studies as well as clinical routine. We have developed a method for computer-based volumetric assessment of intracranial blood vessels from cross-sectional imaging data. Here we demonstrate the quantification of vasospasm from micro computed tomography (micro-CT) data in a rodent SAH model and the transferability of the volumetric approach to clinical data. METHODS: We obtained rodent data by performing an ex vivo micro-CT of murine brains after sham surgery or SAH by endovascular filament perforation on day 3 post hemorrhage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199316/knoetschkesuchus-langenbergensis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-atoposaurid-crocodyliform-from-the-upper-jurassic-langenberg-quarry-lower-saxony-northwestern-germany-and-its-relationships-to-theriosuchus
#12
Daniela Schwarz, Maik Raddatz, Oliver Wings
We report a new, small-sized atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic of Langenberg, Northeastern Germany. Atoposaurids are small-sized Mesozoic crocodyliforms of mainly European distribution, which are considered to be phylogenetically close to the origin of Eusuchia. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov. is represented by two well-preserved skulls and additional cranial and postcranial remains representing different ontogenetic stages. 3D reconstructions of a juvenile skull based on micro-computed tomography allow the most detailed description of cranial remains of any atoposaurid hitherto presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198775/combining-smoothened-agonist-sag-and-nel-like-protein-1-nell-1-enhances-bone-healing
#13
Soonchul Lee, Chenchao Wang, Hsin Chuan Pan, Swati Shrestha, Carolyn Meyers, Catherine Ding, Jia Shen, Eric Chen, Min Lee, Chia Soo, Kang Ting, Aaron W James
BACKGROUND: Non-healing bone defects represent an immense biomedical burden. Despite recent advances in protein based bone regeneration, safety concerns over bone morphogenetic protein-2 have prompted the search for alternative factors. Previously, we examined the additive / synergistic effects of Hedgehog (Hh) and Nel-like protein-1 (NELL-1) on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Here, we sought to leverage our previous findings by applying the combination of Smoothened agonist (SAG), Hh signal activator, and NELL-1 to an in vivo critical size bone defect model...
February 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198555/involvement-of-cd147-in-alveolar-bone-remodeling-and-soft-tissue-degradation-in-experimental-periodontitis
#14
D Yang, R Liu, L Liu, H Liao, C Wang, Z Cao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible roles of clusters of differentiation 147 (CD147) in bone resorption and mineralization through the bone markers of bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), trabecular structure of alveolar bone and number of osteoclasts. We also investigated the effects of CD147 on inflammation and collagen breakdown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals each: healthy group, periodontitis group, periodontitis + saline group and periodontitis + anti-CD147 groups...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197988/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-degradation-comparison-of-pure-mg-mg-10gd-and-mg-2ag-a-short-term-study
#15
I Marco, A Myrissa, E Martinelli, F Feyerabend, R Willumeit-Römer, A M Weinberg, O Van der Biest
The purpose of this study was to compare short term in vitro and in vivo biodegradation studies with low purity Mg (> 99.94 %), Mg-10Gd and Mg-2Ag designed for biodegradable implant applications. Three in vitro testing conditions were applied, using (i) phosphate buffered saline (PBS), (ii) Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and (iii) Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) in 5 % CO2 under sterile conditions. Gas evolution and mass loss (ML) were assessed, as well as the degradation layer, by elemental mapping and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 13, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197822/enhanced-repair-of-segmental-bone-defects-in-rabbit-radius-by-porous-tantalum-scaffolds-modified-with-the-rgd-peptide
#16
Hui Wang, Qijia Li, Qian Wang, Hui Zhang, Wei Shi, Hongquan Gan, Huiping Song, Zhiqiang Wang
Fast and stable repair of segmental bone defects remains a challenge for clinical orthopedic surgery. In recent years, porous tantalum has been widely applied in clinical orthopedics for low modulus of elasticity, with three-dimensional microstructures similar to cancellous bone and excellent biocompatibility. To further improve bone the repairing ability of porous tantalum, the cyclo(-RGDfK-) peptide was coated on the surface of porous tantalum scaffolds. A model of 15 mm segmental defect was made at the midshaft of right radius in New Zealand White rabbits...
March 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197731/comparison-of-the-effects-of-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-9-on-bone-formation-in-rat-calvarial-critical-size-defects
#17
Toshiaki Nakamura, Yoshinori Shirakata, Yukiya Shinohara, Richard J Miron, Kozue Hasegawa-Nakamura, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Kazuyuki Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: Among bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members, BMP-2 and BMP-9 have demonstrated potent osteoinductive potential. However, in vivo differences in their potential for bone regeneration remain unclear. The present study aimed to compare the effects of recombinant human (rh) BMP-2 and rhBMP-9 on bone formation in rat calvarial critical-size defects (CSD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar rats surgically received two calvarial defects bilaterally in each parietal bone...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196289/what-happens-to-unprepared-root-canal-walls-a-correlative-analysis-using-micro-computed-tomography-and-histology-scanning-electron-microscopy
#18
J F Siqueira, A R Pérez, M F Marceliano-Alves, J C Provenzano, S G Monteros, F R Pires, G C S Vieira, I N Rôças, F R F Alves
AIM: To microscopically examine the cleaning conditions of root canal walls that remained unprepared as revealed by micro-CT. METHODOLOGY: The root canals of 10 freshly extracted mandibular premolars with necrotic pulps and apical periodontitis along with the mesiobuccal canals of 11 mandibular molars with vital pulps were prepared using Reciproc instruments R40 and R25, respectively, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. Specimens were scanned in micro-CT before and after preparation and the unprepared areas were identified...
February 14, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196285/morphological-evaluation-of-maxillary-second-molars-with-fused-roots-a-micro-ct-study
#19
R Ordinola-Zapata, J N R Martins, C M Bramante, M H Villas-Boas, M H Duarte, M A Versiani
AIM: To evaluate the internal and external morphologies of fused-rooted maxillary second molars by means of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. METHODOLOGY: One-hundred fused-rooted maxillary second molars from a Brazilian subpopulation were divided into six groups according to the root morphology. The samples were scanned at a resolution of 19.6 μm, and evaluated with regards to the external morphology of the roots, the root canal configuration, the percentage frequency of C-shaped canals and isthmuses, as well as, the morphology of the root canal system at 1, 2 and 3 mm from the anatomic apex of the fused roots...
February 14, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194470/effect-of-vanadium-on-calcium-homeostasis-osteopontin-mrna-expression-and-bone-microarchitecture-in-diabetic-rats
#20
Cristina Sanchez-Gonzalez, Laura Moreno, Carlos Lopez-Chaves, Elena Nebot, Peter Pietschmann, Alba Rodriguez-Nogales, Julio Galvez, María Montes-Bayon, Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Juan Llopis
The aim of this study was to examine whether alterations caused by diabetes in calcium homeostasis, expression of osteopontin and the microarchitecture of bone are corrected by exposure to vanadium. Four study groups were examined over a period of five weeks: control (C), diabetic (DM), diabetic treated with 1 mg V per d (DMV), and diabetic treated with 3 mg V per d (DMVH). Vanadium was supplied in drinking water as bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(iv). Calcium was measured in the food, faeces, urine, serum, kidneys, liver, muscles, and femur...
February 14, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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