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Micro-computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239487/evolution-of-skull-shape-in-the-family-salamandridae-amphibia-caudata
#1
Ana Ivanović, Jan W Arntzen
We carried out a comparative morphometric analysis of 56 species of salamandrid salamanders, representing 19 out of 21 extant genera, with the aim of uncovering the major patterns of skull shape diversification, and revealing possible trends and directions of evolutionary change. To do this we used micro-computed tomography scanning and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, along with a well-resolved molecular phylogeny. We found that allometry explains a relatively small amount of shape variation across taxa...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238646/stem-cells-in-spinal-fusion
#2
Michael A Robbins, Dominik R Haudenschild, Adam M Wegner, Eric O Klineberg
Study Design: Review of literature. Objectives: This review of literature investigates the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in spinal fusion, highlights potential uses in the development of bone grafts, and discusses limitations based on both preclinical and clinical models. Methods: A review of literature was conducted looking at current studies using stem cells for augmentation of spinal fusion in both animal and human models...
December 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236901/collagen-sponge-and-rhbmp-2-improve-socket-healing-in-rats-treated-with-zoledronic-acid
#3
Ji-Su Oh, Su-Gwan Kim
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible use of a commercial absorbed collagen sponge and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) for the prevention of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in rats. Twenty rats received intraperitoneal injections of 0.1-mg/kg of zoledronic acid three times a week for eight weeks before the extraction of both maxillary first molars after eight weeks. A collagen sponge (experimental group 1) and a collagen sponge with recombinant human BMP-2 (experimental group 2) were applied to the right extraction sockets of ten rats each...
December 7, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234002/dual-energy-micro-ct-for-quantifying-the-time-course-and-staining-characteristics-of-ex-vivo-animal-organs-treated-with-iodine-and-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#4
Juliana Martins de Souza E Silva, Julian Utsch, Melanie A Kimm, Sebastian Allner, Michael F Epple, Klaus Achterhold, Franz Pfeiffer
Chemical staining of soft-tissues can be used as a strategy to increase their low inherent contrast in X-ray absorption micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), allowing to obtain fast three-dimensional structural information of animal organs. Though some staining agents are commonly used in this context, little is known about the staining agents' ability to stain specific types of tissues; the times necessary to provide a sufficient contrast; and the effect of staining solution in distorting the tissue. Here we contribute to studies of animal organs (mouse heart and lungs) using staining combined with dual-energy micro-CT (DECT)...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233668/expression-of-hmgb1-in-maternal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-induces-lung-injury-in-rat-offspring-assessed-with-micro-ct
#5
Wenting Tang, Suran Huang, Lili Du, Wen Sun, Zhiqiang Yu, Yanmei Zhou, Jingsi Chen, Xiuying Li, Xiaomei Li, Bolan Yu, Dunjin Chen
OBJECTIVES: Maternal particulate matter with less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) is associated with an increased risk for acute lower respiratory infections and allergic airway inflammation; however, its effect on the developing lung remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of maternal PM2.5 during pregnancy on lung development in offspring. METHODS: Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PM2.5 (0.1, 0.5, 2.5, or 7.5 mg/kg) once every 3 days from day 0-18 of pregnancy and delivered at term...
December 9, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229455/evaluation-of-3-different-retreatment-techniques-in-maxillary-molar-teeth-by-using-micro-computed-tomography
#6
Funda Yılmaz, Cemre Koç, Kıvanç Kamburoğlu, Mert Ocak, Ferhat Geneci, M Bora Uzuner, Hakan Hamdi Çelik
INTRODUCTION: Nonsurgical retreatment procedure involves the complete removal of the previous filling material to allow thorough instrumentation, disinfection, and refilling of root canal system. We aimed to determine the residuals of the root-filling material by using 3 different retreatment techniques with the aid of micro-computed tomography. METHODS: Thirty extracted human maxillary molar teeth were included. All root canals were also obturated with F2 ProTaper single cones and AH Plus sealer...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229438/pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-pemf-attenuate-changes-in-vertebral-bone-mass-architecture-and-strength-in-ovariectomized-mice
#7
Tao Lei, Zhuowen Liang, Feijiang Li, Chi Tang, Kangning Xie, Pan Wang, Xu Dong, Shuai Shan, Maogang Jiang, Qiaoling Xu, Erping Luo, Guanghao Shen
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) has been investigated as a noninvasive alternative method to prevent bone loss for postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP), and the bone tissue involved in these studies are usually long bones such as femur and tibia in OP patients or rat models. However, few studies have investigated the effects of PEMF on the vertebral bone in mice with OP. This study aimed to investigate whether PEMF preserve lumbar vertebral bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of OP and its associated mechanisms...
December 8, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228439/beneficial-effects-of-low-level-laser-irradiation-on-senile-osteoporosis-in-rats
#8
C-T Zhu, T Li, P Zhang, M Zou, Q Guo, X-W Qu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone structures, bone biomechanical properties and bone metabolism in senile osteoporosis, and to explore a relatively more secure and effective way to prevent and treat osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats at different age stages (4 months old, 12 months old and 20 months old) were selected and randomly divided into six groups...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228060/model-of-hindlimb-unloading-in-adult-female-rats-characterizing-bone-physicochemical-microstructural-and-biomechanical-properties
#9
Melise Jacon Peres-Ueno, Camila Tami Stringhetta-Garcia, Robson Chacon Castoldi, Guilherme Akio Tamura Ozaki, Antônio Hernandes Chaves-Neto, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada
Prolonged bedrest and microgravity induce alterations to bone, leading to bone fragility and compromising the quality of life. In this study, we characterized the physicochemical changes, microstructure, and biomechanics of the femurs of female adult rats in response to hindlimb unloading for 21 days. Twenty 6-month-old Wistar female rats were distributed into control (CON) and hindlimb unloading (HLU) groups. Analysis the in vivo bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the femurs was performed at the beginning and end of the experiment; plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, assessed by spectrophotometry, and estradiol, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was performed after the experiment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223639/extensive-phenotyping-of-the-orofacial-and-dental-complex-in-crouzon-syndrome
#10
Alexander Khominsky, Robin Yong, Sarbin Ranjitkar, Grant Townsend, Peter J Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) C342Y/+ mutation is a known cause of Crouzon syndrome that is characterised by craniosynostosis and midfacial hypoplasia. Our aim was to conduct extensive phenotyping of the maxillary, mandibular and dental morphology associated with this mutation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Morphometric data were obtained from 40 mice, representing two genotypes (Crouzon and wild-type) and two sexes (males and females) (n=10 in each group)...
October 27, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223537/rankl-signaling-sustains-primary-tumor-growth-in-genetically-engineered-mouse-models-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#11
Julien Faget, Caroline Contat, Nadine Zangger, Solange Peters, Etienne Meylan
HYPOTHESIS: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Recent retrospective clinical analyses suggest that blocking the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) signaling pathway inhibits the growth of NSCLC and might represent a new treatment strategy. METHODS: RANK and RANKL expression in human lung adenocarcinoma was interrogated from publicly available gene expression datasets. Several genetically engineered mouse models were used to evaluate treatment efficacy of RANK-Fc to block RANKL, with primary tumor growth measured longitudinally using micro-computed tomography...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221680/paradorippe-granulata-a-crab-with-external-fertilization-and-a-novel-type-of-sperm-storage-organ-challenges-prevalent-ideas-on-the-evolution-of-reproduction-in-eubrachyura-crustacea-brachyura-dorippidae
#12
Juliane Vehof, Gerhard Scholtz, Carola Becker
Two fundamentally different sperm storage organs occur in Brachyura. The probably paraphyletic podotremes show intersegmental spermathecae, which are distant from oviducts and coxal gonopores. Hence, fertilization is external. In contrast to this, the seminal receptacles of Eubrachyura are directly connected with the ovaries. Thus, at least initial fertilization is internal. This pattern has been interpreted as an apomorphy of Eubrachyura. To test this hypothesis, we studied the morphology of the reproductive organs of Paradorippe granulata, a representative of the putatively early diverging eubrachyuran lineage Dorippoidea...
December 5, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220087/dual-energy-based-metal-segmentation-for-metal-artifact-reduction-in-dental-computed-tomography
#13
Mohamed A A Hegazy, Mohamed Elsayed Eldib, Daniel Hernandez, Myung Hye Cho, Min Hyoung Cho, Soo Yeol Lee
PURPOSE: In a dental CT scan, the presence of dental fillings or dental implants generates severe metal artifacts that often compromise readability of the CT images. Many metal artifact reduction (MAR) techniques have been introduced, but dental CT scans still suffer from severe metal artifacts particularly when multiple dental fillings or implants exist around the region of interest. The high attenuation coefficient of teeth often causes erroneous metal segmentation, compromising the MAR performance...
December 8, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218708/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-the-cranial-and-anterior-spinal-nerves-in-early-tadpoles-of-xenopus-laevis-pipidae-anura
#14
Benjamin Naumann, Lennart Olsson
Xenopus laevis is one of the most widely used model organism in neurobiology. It is therefore surprising, that no detailed and complete description of the cranial nerves exists for this species. Using classical histological sectioning in combination with fluorescent whole mount antibody staining and micro-computed tomography we prepared a detailed innervation map and a freely-rotatable 3D model of the cranial nerves and anterior-most spinal nerves of early X. laevis tadpoles. Our results confirm earlier descriptions of the pre-otic cranial nerves and present the first detailed description of the post-otic cranial nerves...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215317/novel-application-and-serial-evaluation-of-tissue-engineered-portal-vein-grafts-in-a-murine-model
#15
Mark W Maxfield, Mitchel R Stacy, Hirotsugu Kurobe, Shuhei Tara, Tai Yi, Muriel A Cleary, Zhen W Zhuang, Manuel I Rodriguez-Davalos, Sukru H Emre, Yasuko Iwakiri, Toshiharu Shinoka, Christopher K Breuer
AIM: Surgical management of pediatric extrahepatic portal vein obstruction requires meso-Rex bypass using autologous or synthetic grafts. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) provide an alternative, but no validated animal models using portal TEVGs exist. Herein, we preclinically assess TEVGs as portal vein bypass grafts. MATERIALS & METHODS: TEVGs were implanted as portal vein interposition conduits in SCID-beige mice, monitored by ultrasound and micro-computed tomography, and histologically assessed postmortem at 12 months...
December 7, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214509/a-three-dimensional-stereotaxic-atlas-of-the-gray-short-tailed-opossum-monodelphis-domestica-brain
#16
Piotr Majka, Natalia Chlodzinska, Krzysztof Turlejski, Tomasz Banasik, Ruzanna L Djavadian, Władysław P Węglarz, Daniel K Wójcik
The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small marsupial gaining recognition as a laboratory animal in biomedical research. Despite numerous studies on opossum neuroanatomy, a consistent and comprehensive neuroanatomical reference for this species is still missing. Here we present the first three-dimensional, multimodal atlas of the Monodelphis opossum brain. It is based on four complementary imaging modalities: high resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images, micro-computed tomography scans of the cranium, images of the face of the cutting block, and series of sections stained with the Nissl method and for myelinated fibers...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213295/trabecular-architecture-in-the-forelimb-epiphyses-of-extant-xenarthrans-mammalia
#17
Eli Amson, Patrick Arnold, Anneke H van Heteren, Aurore Canoville, John A Nyakatura
Background: Bone structure has a crucial role in the functional adaptations that allow vertebrates to conduct their diverse lifestyles. Much has been documented regarding the diaphyseal structure of long bones of tetrapods. However, the architecture of trabecular bone, which is for instance found within the epiphyses of long bones, and which has been shown experimentally to be extremely plastic, has received little attention in the context of lifestyle adaptations (virtually only in primates)...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212295/inhibitory-effects-of-boesenbergia-pandurata-on-age-related-periodontal-inflammation-and-alveolar-bone-loss-in-fischer-344-rats
#18
Haebom Kim, Changhee Kim, Do Un Kim, Hee Chul Chung, Jae-Kwan Hwang
Periodontitis, an infective disease caused by oral pathogens and the intrinsic aging process, results in the destruction of periodontal tissues and alveolar bone loss. This study investigated whether Boesenbergia pandurata extract (BPE) standardized with panduratin A exerted anti-periodontitis effects using an aging model representative of naturally occurring periodontitis. In aged rats, the oral administration of BPE (200 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-8 in gingival tissues (p < 0...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210297/modern-morphological-methods-for-tadpole-studies-a-comparison-of-micro-ct-and-clearing-and-staining-protocols-modified-for-frog-larvae
#19
M Krings, H Müller, M J Heneka, D Rödder
Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning and three-dimensional reconstruction have revolutionized morphological studies. Whereas species descriptions and comparative studies formerly were based on external appearance and dissection, we now can visualize muscles, skeleton and viscera in intact animals. In most cases, visualization of internal structures depends on appropriate staining methods. Staining with iodine, phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and osmium tetroxide are established methods, but some problems remain...
December 6, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208554/intracutaneous-delivery-of-gelatins-induces-lipolysis-and-suppresses-lipogenesis-of-adipocytes
#20
Sung-Min An, Keum-Yong Seong, Sang-Gu Yim, Young Jun Hwang, Seong Hwan Bae, Seung Yun Yang, Beum-Soo An
Due to growing interest in cosmetics and medical applications, therapeutic medications that reduce the amount of local subcutaneous adipose tissue have potential for obesity treatment. However, conventional methods such as surgical operation are restricted due to risk of complications. Here, we report a simple and effective method for local reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) by using microneedle-assisted transdermal delivery of natural polymers. After in vitro screening tests, gelatin was selected as a therapeutic polymer to reduce accumulation of AT...
December 2, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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