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Micro-computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684584/deletion-of-epithelial-cell-specific-cdc42-leads-to-enamel-hypermaturation-in-a-conditional-knockout-mouse-model
#1
Zhihui Tian, Xiaolin Lv, Min Zhang, Xueer Wang, Yinghua Chen, Pei Tang, Pengcheng Xu, Lu Zhang, Buling Wu, Lin Zhang
Recent evidence suggests that GTPases Rho family plays an important role in tooth development; however, the role of Cdc42 in tooth development remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the function of Cdc42 in tooth development and amelogenesis. We generated an epithelial cell-specific K5-Cdc42 knockout (KO) mouse to evaluate post-eruption dental phenotypes using a K5-Cre driver line. This model overcomes the previously reported perinatal lethality. Tooth phenotypes were analyzed by micro X-ray, micro-computed tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), wear rate, shear strength, and a microhardness test...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684556/comparative-morphology-of-the-thorax-musculature-of-adult-anisoptera-insecta-odonata-functional-aspects-of-the-flight-apparatus
#2
Fabian Bäumler, Stanislav N Gorb, Sebastian Büsse
Due to their unique flight mechanism including a direct flight musculature, Odonata show impressive flight skills. Several publications addressed the details of this flight apparatus like: sclerites, wings, musculature, and flight aerodynamics. However, 3D-analysis of the thorax musculature of adult dragonflies was not studied before and this paper allows for a detailed insight. We therefore, focused on the thorax musculature of adult Anisoptera using micro-computed tomography. Herewith, we present a comparative morphological approach to identify differences within Anisoptera: Aeshnidae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, and Libellulidae...
April 20, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684498/multi-modal-characterization-of-vasculature-and-nanoparticle-accumulation-in-five-tumor-xenograft-models
#3
Einar Sulheim, Jana Kim, Annemieke van Wamel, Eugene Kim, Sofie Snipstad, Igor Vidic, Ingeborg Hovde Grimstad, Marius Widerøe, Sverre H Torp, Steinar Lundgren, David J Waxman, Catharina de Lange Davies
Preclinical research has demonstrated that nanoparticles and macromolecules can accumulate in solid tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, drug loaded nanoparticles often fail to show increased efficacy in clinical trials. A better understanding of how tumor heterogeneity affects nanoparticle accumulation could help elucidate this discrepancy and help in patient selection for nanomedicine therapy. Here we studied five human tumor models with varying morphology and evaluated the accumulation of 100 nm polystyrene nanoparticles...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684308/fracture-healing-and-bone-remodeling-with-human-standard-sized-magnesium-versus-polylactide-co-glycolide-plate-and-screw-systems-using-a-mini-swine-craniomaxillofacial-osteotomy-fixation-model
#4
Benoît Schaller, John Patrik Matthias Burkhard, Madeleine Chagnon, Stefan Beck, Thomas Imwinkelried, Michel Assad
PURPOSE: This study compared the degradation profile, safety, and efficacy of bioresorbable magnesium alloy and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) polymer osteosynthesis systems for the treatment of fractures in a load-sharing maxillofacial environment using a new mini-swine fracture fixation model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of clinically relevant situations were evaluated in 5 Yucatan miniature pigs. Defined porcine midface osteotomies of the supraorbital rim and zygoma were created and fixed with either a coated magnesium (test animals) or PLGA plate and screw osteosynthesis system (control animals)...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680956/micro-ct-study-of-the-human-cochlear-aqueduct
#5
Zhenghua Li, Dazhi Shi, Heng Li, Songhua Tan, Yikang Liu, Chenglin Qi, Anzhou Tang
OBJECTIVE: The anatomic structure of the cochlear aqueduct (CA) in human temporal bone specimens was observed using micro-computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Micro-CT scanning of 18-µm-thick slices was performed on 30 slides of human temporal bone specimens to observe the CA structure and its relationship with its surroundings. The length, internal and external apertures, and the narrowest width of the CA were measured. The differences in CAs were compared between high jugular bulb (HJB) specimens and normal specimens...
April 21, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680509/opioids-delay-healing-of-spinal-fusion-a-rabbit-posterolateral-lumbar-fusion-model
#6
Nikhil Jain, Khaled Himed, Jeffrey M Toth, Karen C Briley, Frank M Phillips, Safdar N Khan
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Opioid use is prevalent for management of pre- and post-operative pain in patients undergoing spinal fusion. There is evidence that opioids downregulate osteoblasts in-vitro, and one previous study found that morphine delays the maturation and remodeling of callus in a rat femur fracture model. However, the effect of opioids on healing of spinal fusion has not been investigated before. Isolating the effect of opioid exposure in humans would be limited by the numerous confounding factors that affect fusion healing...
April 19, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680167/an-energy-based-equilibrium-contact-angle-boundary-condition-on-jagged-surfaces-for-phase-field-methods
#7
Florian Frank, Chen Liu, Alessio Scanziani, Faruk O Alpak, Beatrice Riviere
We consider an energy-based boundary condition to impose an equilibrium wetting angle for the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes phase-field model on voxel-set-type computational domains. These domains typically stem from μCT (micro computed tomography) imaging of porous rock and approximate a (on μm scale) smooth domain with a certain resolution. Planar surfaces that are perpendicular to the main axes are naturally approximated by a layer of voxels. However, planar surfaces in any other directions and curved surfaces yield a jagged/topologically rough surface approximation by voxels...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679732/inter-site-variability-of-the-osteocyte-lacunar-network-in-the-cortical-bone-underpins-fracture-susceptibility-of-the-superolateral-femoral-neck
#8
Tim Rolvien, Annika Vom Scheidt, Kilian Stockhausen, Petar Milovanovic, Danijela Djonic, Jan Hubert, Thelonius Hawellek, Alexander Wacker, Volker Jebens, Klaus Püschel, Elizabeth A Zimmermann, Marija Djuric, Michael Amling, Björn Busse
BACKGROUND: The osteocytic lacunar network is considered to be an integral player in the regulation of bone homeostasis, and reduction in osteocytes is associated with reduced bone strength. Here, we analyzed site-specific patterns in osteocyte characteristics and matrix composition in the cortical compartment of the femoral neck to reveal structural basis of its fragility. METHODS: Cross-sections of the human femoral neck - one of the most common fracture sites - were acquired from 12 female cadavers (age 34-86 years) and analyzed with backscattered scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)...
April 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676477/influence-of-estrogen-deficiency-on-guided-bone-augmentation-investigation-of-rat-calvarial-model-and-osteoblast-like-mc3t3-e1-cells
#9
Tatsuya Kubota, Akira Hasuike, Naoya Tsukune, Yasumasa Ozawa, Takanobu Yamamoto, Seiko Min, Masako Naito, Shuichi Sato
The effect of estrogen deficiency in bone augmentation, and the mechanisms by which estrogen deficiency impedes osteoblast differentiation and collagen matrix production, were examined. Twenty female Jcl:Wistar rats were divided into two groups: ovariectomized rats; and control rats. Guided bone augmentation was performed by positioning plastic caps in the calvarium of all animals at 8 wk after ovariectomy or sham surgery. Micro-computed tomography and histological sections were used to determine the amount of bone augmentation within the plastic caps...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676206/fabrication-of-vascularized-bone-flaps-with-sustained-release-of-rhbmp-2-and-arteriovenous-bundle
#10
Bo Li, Changshun Ruan, Yufei Ma, Zhifeng Huang, Zhenfei Huang, Gang Zhou, Jing Zhang, Hai Wang, Zhihong Wu, Guixing Qiu
INTRODUCTION: It is a common treatment strategy in the clinic to transplant a vascularized bone flap for a large bone defect. But it is difficult for peripheral blood vessels to grow into the central region of a large bone construct. In this study, we fabricated a vascularized bone flap from a 3D-printed biodegradable PLGA/β-TCP scaffold using the combination of an arteriovenous (AV) bundle and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A degradable porous poly (lactide-co-glycolide) /-tri-calcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) scaffold was prepared by adopting 3D plotting and a low-temperature deposition technique...
April 20, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675760/comparison-of-efficiency-of-the-retreatment-procedure-between-wave-one-gold-and-wave-one-systems-by-micro-ct-and-confocal-microscopy-an-in-vitro-study
#11
Lyz Cristina Furquim Canali, Jussaro Alves Duque, Rodrigo Ricci Vivan, Clovis Monteiro Bramante, Marcus Vinícius Reis Só, Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte
INTRODUCTION: To compare, by Micro-CT and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the ability of the Wave One Gold and Wave One systems to remove filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars, effective time spent; quantity of extruded material, and percentage of sealer in the dentinal tubules after retreatment and re-obturation procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten first mandibular molars (n = 20 mesial canals) were prepared and filled with gutta-percha and Endofill sealer mixed with Rhodamine B dye using the single cone technique...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674819/analysis-of-mandibular-second-molars-with-fused-roots-and-shallow-radicular-grooves-by-using-micro-computed-tomography
#12
Pablo Amoroso-Silva, Ivaldo Gomes De Moraes, Marilia Marceliano-Alves, Clovis Monteiro Bramante, Ronald Ordinola Zapata, Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte
Aim: This study aimed to describe the morphological and morphometric aspects of fused mandibular second molars with radicular shallow grooves using micro-computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight mandibular second molars with fused roots were scanned in a micro-CT scanner at a voxel size of 19.6 μm. After reconstruction, only molars without C-shaped roots and presenting shallow radicular grooves were selected. 30 molars were chosen for further analysis...
March 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673856/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-dose-dependently-increases-bone-mass-and-decreases-marrow-adiposity-in-juvenile-mice
#13
Kelly A Fader, Rance Nault, Sandi Raehtz, Laura R McCabe, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists have been shown to regulate bone development and remodeling in a species-, ligand-, and age-specific manner, however the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the effect of 0.01-30 μg/kg TCDD on the femoral morphology of male and female juvenile mice orally gavaged every 4 days for 28 days and used RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression changes associated with the resultant phenotype...
April 16, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673097/effects-of-implant-delivered-insulin-on-bone-formation-in-osteoporotic-rats
#14
B Ö Malekzadeh, M C Erlandsson, P Tengvall, A Palmquist, M Ransjo, M I Bokarewa, A Westerlund
Osteoporosis is a major cause of age-related fractures. Healing complications in osteoporotic patients are often associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Stimulation of the implant-adjacent bone could be beneficial in terms of the surgical outcome. Over the past decade, numerous investigations have implicated insulin in normal bone growth, and recent studies have described the advantages of administering insulin locally to increase bone formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that insulin-coated titanium implants would increase bone formation in osteoporotic animals...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672844/longitudinal-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-toward-identification-of-optimal-treatment-windows
#15
Duc-Loc Nguyen, Catriona Wimberley, Charles Truillet, Benoit Jego, Fabien Caillé, Géraldine Pottier, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Viviane Bouilleret
OBJECTIVE: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of drug-resistant partial epilepsy, with a specific history that often begins with status epilepticus due to various neurological insults followed by a silent period. During this period, before the first seizure occurs, a specific lesion develops, described as unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). It is still challenging to determine which drugs, administered at which time point, will be most effective during the formation of this epileptic process...
April 19, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672573/transgenic-expression-of-dentin-phosphoprotein-dpp-partially-rescued-the-dentin-defects-of-dspp-null-mice
#16
Hua Zhang, Xiaohua Xie, Peihong Liu, Tian Liang, Yongbo Lu, Chunlin Qin
Mutations in the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene cause dentinogenesis imperfecta. After synthesis, DSPP is proteolytically processed into NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments. The NH2-terminal fragment of DSPP is highly glycosylated but not phosphorylated, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment (named "dentin phosphoprotein" or "DPP") is highly phosphorylated but not glycosylated. These two fragments are believed to perform distinct roles in dentin formation. To analyze the functions of DPP in dentinogenesis, we created "Dspp-/-;DPP Tg mice", which expressed transgenic DPP driven by a Type I collagen promoter but lacked the endogenous Dspp gene...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669954/micro-ct-assessment-of-comparative-radiopacity-of-adhesive-composite-materials-in-a-cylindrical-cavity
#17
Yuta Sumitani, Hidenori Hamba, Keiki Nakamura, Alireza Sadr, Toru Nikaido, Junji Tagami
This study was performed to evaluate the comparative radiopacity of adhesive/resin composite materials in cylindrical cavities using micro-computed X-ray tomography (μCT). The two-step self-etch adhesive systems, Clearfil SE Bond (SE) and FL-Bond II (FL), and flowable resin composites, Beautifil Flow F10 (BF) and Clearfil Majesty ES Flow High (MJ), were used. The radiopacity of bovine tooth structures and restorative materials was measured by μCT. In addition, cylindrical cavities prepared in bovine teeth were restored with the following adhesive/composite combinations: SE-BF, SE-MJ, FL-BF, and FL-MJ...
April 17, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667235/contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-cect-attenuation-is-associated-with-stiffness-of-intact-knee-cartilage
#18
Reza Nickmanesh, Rachel C Stewart, Brian D Snyder, Mark W Grinstaff, Bassam A Masri, David R Wilson
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) using charged contrast-agents enables quantification of cartilage glycosaminoglycan content. Since glycosaminoglycan content is a key determinant of cartilage compressive stiffness, CECT measurements have the potential to non-invasively assess cartilage stiffness. The objective of this study was to determine whether CECT attenuation, using a cationic contrast-agent (CA4 +), correlates with the stiffness of intact cartilage. Six fresh femoral and six fresh tibial compartments with intact cartilage were obtained from patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666861/lactoferrin-preserves-bone-homeostasis-by-regulating-the-rankl-rank-opg-pathway-of-osteoimmunology
#19
Fengjiao Fan, Pujie Shi, Meng Liu, Hui Chen, Maolin Tu, Weihong Lu, Ming Du
Osteoporosis can be classified as an inflammatory disease and the crosstalk between the immune system and bone growth should be considered. The effects of bovine lactoferrin on bone by osteoimmunology were investigated in the present study. Ten week old female BALB/c mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and fed for 12 weeks with a control diet or lactoferrin (2, 20 and 100 mg kg-1 d-1). The results showed that following 12 weeks of treatment after surgery, OVX resulted in bone loss, but treatment with lactoferrin preserved bone homeostasis...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665789/idiopathic-basal-ganglia-calcification-associated-with-cerebral-micro-infarcts-a-case-report
#20
Takuma Nishimoto, Fumiaki Oka, Hideyuki Ishihara, Mizuya Shinoyama, Michiyasu Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetric intracranial calcium deposition. We report a patient with IBGC associated with cerebral infarction due to impairment of cerebrovascular reactivity based on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with acetazolamide challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old male presented with right conjugate deviation, right hemiparesis and total aphasia due to a convulsive seizure...
April 17, 2018: BMC Neurology
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