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Micro-computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527193/comparison-of-digital-intraoral-scanners-by-single-image-capture-system-and-full-color-movie-system
#1
Meguru Yamamoto, Yu Kataoka, Atsufumi Manabe
BACKGROUND: The use of dental computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restoration is rapidly increasing. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the marginal and internal cement thickness and the adhesive gap of internal cavities comprising CAD/CAM materials using two digital impression acquisition methods and micro-computed tomography. METHODS: Images obtained by a single-image acquisition system (Bluecam Ver...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526874/radiopaque-resorbable-inferior-vena-cava-filter-infused-with-gold-nanoparticles
#2
Li Tian, Patrick Lee, Burapol Singhana, Aaron Chen, Yang Qiao, Linfeng Lu, Jonathan O Martinez, Ennio Tasciotti, Adam Melancon, Steven Huang, Mitch Eggers, Marites P Melancon
Failure to remove a retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter can cause severe complications with high treatment costs. Polydioxanone (PPDO) has been shown to be a good candidate material for resorbable IVC filters. However, PPDO is radioluscent under conventional imaging modalities. Thus, the positioning and integrity of these PPDO filters cannot be monitored by computed tomography (CT) or x-ray. Here we report the development of radiopaque PPDO IVC filters based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Commercially available PPDO sutures were infused with AuNPs...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522324/non-invasive-three-dimensional-imaging-of-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-using-diffuse-light-imaging-tomography-combined-with-micro-computed-tomography
#3
REVIEW
Luci A Witcomb, Julie Czupryna, Kevin P Francis, Gad Frankel, Peter W Taylor
In contrast to two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, three dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) has the potential to realise spatial variations in infection patterns when imaging experimental animals dosed with derivatives of virulent bacteria carrying bioluminescent reporter genes such as the lux operon from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The method provides an opportunity to precisely localise the bacterial infection sites within the animal and enables the generation of four-dimensional movies of the infection cycle...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522186/molar-incisor-malformation-in-six-cases-description-and-diagnostic-protocol
#4
Ingvild Johnsen Brusevold, Thea Martine Granvoll Bie, Christine Sophie Baumgartner, Runa Das, Ivar Espelid
OBJECTIVE: The term molar-incisor malformation (MIM) has recently been presented in the scientific literature, where it is described as a condition with localized impaired root development. Here we present 6 recently discovered cases referred to our departments. STUDY DESIGN: The patients were enrolled in the study after referral and were examined clinically and radiologically. Two extracted teeth were further examined with micro-computed tomography or microscopy...
April 4, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522161/effect-of-blue-and-violet-light-on-polymerization-shrinkage-vectors-of-a-cq-tpo-containing-composite
#5
Camila S Sampaio, Pablo J Atria, Frederick A Rueggeberg, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Marcelo Giannini, Paulo G Coelho, Ronaldo Hirata, Regina M Puppin-Rontani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of light-curing wavelengths on composite filler particle displacement, and thus to visualize localized polymerization shrinkage in a resin-based composite (RBC) containing camphorquinone (CQ) and Lucirin TPO (TPO). METHODS: Three light-curing units (LCUs) were used to light-cure a RBC containing CQ and TPO: a violet-only, a blue-only, and a dual-wavelength, conventional (Polywave(®), emitting violet and blue wavelengths simultaneously)...
May 15, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520086/activated-fgfr3-prevents-subchondral-bone-sclerosis-during-the-development-of-osteoarthritis-in-transgenic-mice-with-achondroplasia
#6
Toshiaki Okura, Masaki Matsushita, Kenichi Mishima, Ryusaku Esaki, Taisuke Seki, Naoki Ishiguro, Hiroshi Kitoh
The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphometric changes of the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthritis (OA) in transgenic mice with achondroplasia (Fgfr3(ach) ) carrying a heterozygous gain-of-function mutation in Fgfr3. Two OA models (spontaneously developed with age: the aging model, and surgically induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus: the DMM model) were established. Articular cartilage, epiphysis and metaphysis of the knee joint were histologically and morphometrically compared between wild-type mice and Fgfr3(ach) mice in both OA models...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518064/an-experimental-and-finite-element-protocol-to-investigate-the-transport-of-neutral-and-charged-solutes-across-articular-cartilage
#7
Vahid Arbabi, Behdad Pouran, Amir A Zadpoor, Harrie Weinans
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that is associated with degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Degeneration of articular cartilage impairs its load-bearing function substantially as it experiences tremendous chemical degradation, i.e. proteoglycan loss and collagen fibril disruption. One promising way to investigate chemical damage mechanisms during OA is to expose the cartilage specimens to an external solute and monitor the diffusion of the molecules. The degree of cartilage damage (i...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515335/in-situ-bone-tissue-engineering-via-ultrasound-mediated-gene-delivery-to-endogenous-progenitor-cells-in-mini-pigs
#8
Maxim Bez, Dmitriy Sheyn, Wafa Tawackoli, Pablo Avalos, Galina Shapiro, Joseph C Giaconi, Xiaoyu Da, Shiran Ben David, Jayne Gavrity, Hani A Awad, Hyun W Bae, Eric J Ley, Thomas J Kremen, Zulma Gazit, Katherine W Ferrara, Gadi Pelled, Dan Gazit
More than 2 million bone-grafting procedures are performed each year using autografts or allografts. However, both options carry disadvantages, and there remains a clear medical need for the development of new therapies for massive bone loss and fracture nonunions. We hypothesized that localized ultrasound-mediated, microbubble-enhanced therapeutic gene delivery to endogenous stem cells would induce efficient bone regeneration and fracture repair. To test this hypothesis, we surgically created a critical-sized bone fracture in the tibiae of Yucatán mini-pigs, a clinically relevant large animal model...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513557/calcium-supplement-derived-from-gallus-gallus-domesticus-promotes-bmp-2-runx2-smad5-and-suppresses-trap-rank-expression-through-mapk-signaling-activation
#9
Han Seok Yoo, Gyung-Ji Kim, Da Hye Song, Kang-Hyun Chung, Kwon-Jai Lee, Dong-Hee Kim, Jeung Hee An
The present study evaluated the effects of a calcium (Ca) supplement derived from Gallus gallus domesticus (GD) on breaking force, microarchitecture, osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in vivo in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats. One percent of Ca supplement significantly improved Ca content and bone strength of the tibia. In micro-computed tomography analysis, 1% Ca supplement attenuated OVX- and low Ca-associated changes in bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, spacing and number...
May 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509869/experimental-approach-for-the-uncertainty-assessment-of-3d-complex-geometry-dimensional-measurements-using-computed-tomography-at-the-mm-and-sub-mm-scales
#10
Roberto Jiménez, Marta Torralba, José A Yagüe-Fabra, Sinué Ontiveros, Guido Tosello
The dimensional verification of miniaturized components with 3D complex geometries is particularly challenging. Computed Tomography (CT) can represent a suitable alternative solution to micro metrology tools based on optical and tactile techniques. However, the establishment of CT systems' traceability when measuring 3D complex geometries is still an open issue. In this work, an alternative method for the measurement uncertainty assessment of 3D complex geometries by using CT is presented. The method is based on the micro-CT system Maximum Permissible Error (MPE) estimation, determined experimentally by using several calibrated reference artefacts...
May 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504417/laser-preparation-of-geometrically-optimised-samples-for-x-ray-nano-ct
#11
J J Bailey, T M M Heenan, D P Finegan, X Lu, S R Daemi, F Iacoviello, N R Backeberg, O O Taiwo, D J L Brett, A Atkinson, P R Shearing
A robust and versatile sample preparation technique for the fabrication of cylindrical pillars for imaging by X-ray nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) is presented. The procedure employs simple, cost-effective laser micro-machining coupled with focused-ion beam (FIB) milling, when required, to yield mechanically robust samples at the micrometre length-scale to match the field-of-view (FOV) for nano-CT imaging. A variety of energy and geological materials are exhibited as case studies, demonstrating the procedure can be applied to a variety of materials to provide geometrically optimised samples whose size and shape are tailored to the attenuation coefficients of the constituent phases...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502898/development-of-modified-release-3d-printed-tablets-printlets-with-pharmaceutical-excipients-using-additive-manufacturing
#12
Alvaro Goyanes, Fabrizio Fina, Annalisa Martorana, Daniel Sedough, Simon Gaisford, Abdul W Basit
The aim of this study was to manufacture 3D printed tablets (printlets) from enteric polymers by single filament fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing (3DP). Hot melt extrusion was used to generate paracetamol-loaded filaments from three different grades of the pharmaceutical excipient hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), grades LG, MG and HG. One-step 3DP was used to process these filaments into enteric printlets incorporating up to 50% drug loading with two different infill percentages (20 and 100%)...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502885/contra-lateral-bone-loss-at-the-distal-radius-in-postmenopausal-women-after-a-distal-radius-fracture-a-two-year-follow-up-hrpqct-study
#13
Joost J A de Jong, Jacobus J C Arts, Paul C Willems, Sandrine P G Bours, Judith P A Bons, Paul P C A Menheere, Bert van Rietbergen, Piet P Geusens, Joop P W van den Bergh
Opposite to the fracture side, bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DXA at the contra-lateral side does not change after a distal radius fracture. However, it is unknown if also bone micro-architecture and strength at the contralateral side are unaffected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess BMD, micro-architecture and bone mechanical properties at the contra-lateral side during two years follow-up after a distal radius fracture using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT)...
May 11, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502669/biomimetic-tendon-extracellular-matrix-composite-gradient-scaffold-enhances-ligament-to-bone-junction-reconstruction
#14
Huanhuan Liu, Long Yang, Erchen Zhang, Rui Zhang, Dandan Cai, Shouan Zhu, Jisheng Ran, Varitsara Bunpetch, Youzhi Cai, Boon Chin Heng, Yejun Hu, Xuesong Dai, Xiao Chen, Hongwei Ouyang
Management of ligament/tendon-to-bone-junction healing remains a formidable challenge in the field of orthopedic medicine to date, due to deficient vascularity and multi-tissue transitional structure of the junction. Numerous strategies have been employed to improve ligament-bone junction healing, including delivery of stem cells, bioactive factors, and synthetic materials, but these methods are often inadequate at recapitulating the complex structure-function relationships at native tissue interfaces. Here, we developed an easily-fabricated and effective biomimetic composite to promote the regeneration of ligament-bone junction by physically modifying the tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) into a Random-Aligned-Random composite using ultrasound treatment...
May 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502475/cyst-like-osteolytic-formations-in-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-rhbmp-2-augments-sheep-spinal-fusion
#15
Hsin Chuan Pan, Soonchul Lee, Kang Ting, Jia Shen, Chenchao Wang, Alan Nguyen, Emily A Berthiaume, Janette N Zara, A Simon Turner, Howard B Seim, Jin Hee Kwak, Xinli Zhang, Chia Soo
Multiple case reports using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) have reported complications. However, the local adverse effects of rhBMP-2 application are not well documented. In this report we show that, in addition to promoting lumbar spinal fusion through potent osteogenic effects, rhBMP-2 augmentation promotes local cyst-like osteolytic formations in sheep trabecular bones that have undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Three months after operation, conventional computed tomography showed that the trabecular bones of the rhBMP-2 application groups could fuse, whereas no fusion was observed in the control group...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501721/cortical-bone-elasticity-measured-by-resonant-ultrasound-spectroscopy-is-not-altered-by-defatting-and-synchrotron-x-ray-imaging
#16
X Cai, L Peralta, A Giron, L Helfen, C Olivier, F Peyrin, P Laugier, Q Grimal
In the study of mechanical properties of human bone, specimens may be defatted before experiments to prevent contamination and the risk of infections. High energy synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT) is a popular technique to study bone microstructure. However, little is known about the effects of defatting or irradiation during SR-μCT imaging on different elastic coefficients including shear and longitudinal moduli in different anatomical directions. In this work, these effects are evaluated on a set of 24 samples using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), which allows one to accurately measure the complete set of elastic coefficients of cortical bone non destructively...
May 6, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501440/classification-of-microcrystalline-celluloses-via-structures-of-individual-particles-measured-by-synchrotron-radiation-x-ray-micro-computed-tomography
#17
Longwei Fang, Xianzhen Yin, Li Wu, Yaping He, Yuanzhi He, Wei Qin, Fanyue Meng, Peter York, Xu Xu, Jiwen Zhang
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is one of the most important excipients due to its outstanding binding and tableting properties. Owing to the absence of high resolution characterization techniques at the single particle scale, 3D (three dimension) microstructure of MCC and its effects on formulation performance remain unexamined. The aim of this work was to establish a methodology for single particles of MCC type 102 based on synchrotron radiation X-ray micro computed tomography (SR-μCT), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA)...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500930/micro-computed-tomography-scanning-electron-microscopy-and-energy-x-ray-spectroscopy-studies-of-facet-joint-degeneration-a-comparison-to-clinical-imaging
#18
Felix Goehre, Christopher Ludtka, Melanie Hamperl, Andrea Friedmann, Anja Straube, Thomas Mendel, Andreas Heilmann, Hans Jörg Meisel, Stefan Schwan
Segmental degeneration in the human lumbar spine affects both the intervertebral discs and facet joints. Facet joint degeneration not only affects the cartilage surface, but also alters the cellular properties of the cartilage tissue and the structure of the subchondral bone. The primary focus of this study is the investigation of these microstructural changes that are caused by facet joint degeneration. Microstructural analyses of degenerated facet joint samples, obtained from patients following operative lumbar interbody fusion, have not previously been extensively investigated...
May 1, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500874/effects-of-intermittent-low-dose-parathyroid-hormone-treatment-on-rapid-mandibular-distraction-osteogenesis-in-rabbits
#19
Bin Ye, Yunfeng Li, Songsong Zhu, Shengjun Sun, Jing Hu, Shujuan Zou
PURPOSE: To determine whether low-dose recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) would have a beneficial effect on regenerate healing and surrounding bone in a rabbit model of rapid mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular lengthening at a rapid rate of 2 mm per day for 5 days. From the first day of DO, the experimental group received daily subcutaneous injections of rhPTH 10 μg/kg for 30 days and the control group received the same volume of saline (n = 14 in each group)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498448/sanguinarine-protects-against-ovariectomy%C3%A2-induced-osteoporosis-in-mice
#20
Yan Ma, Junjie Chu, Jianjun Ma, Lei Ning, Ke Zhou, Xiangqian Fang
Natural compounds are alternative agents that have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Traditionally, sanguinarine has been used clinically due to its diverse biological properties, including antimicrobial, anti‑inflammatory and anticancer effects. Recently, for the first time, it was reported that sanguinarine inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by suppressing the tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11‑induced nuclear factor‑κB and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase signaling pathways in vitro...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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