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Micro-computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110443/aerobic-endurance-training-does-not-protect-bone-against-poorly-controlled-type-1-diabetes-in-young-adult-rats
#1
Tom J Hazell, T Dylan Olver, Hana Kowalchuk, Matthew W McDonald, Adwitia Dey, Kenneth N Grisé, Earl G Noble, C W James Melling, Paula Lavery, Hope A Weiler
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) decreases trabecular bone volume and bone strength in rodents. The current study investigated the potential protective effects of aerobic endurance training (AET) on bone in STZ-induced T1DM young adult rats. Sixty-four 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 16: control non-T1DM sedentary (CS) and exercised (CX), T1DM sedentary (DS) and exercised (DX). Blood glucose was maintained at 9-15 mmol/L using subcutaneously implanted insulin pellets (Linplant, Linshin Canada, Inc...
January 21, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110067/poly-glycerol-sebacate-elastomer-supports-bone-regeneration-by-its-mechanical-properties-being-closer-to-osteoid-tissue-rather-than-to-mature-bone
#2
S H Zaky, K W Lee, J Gao, A Jensen, K Verdelis, Y Wang, A J Almarza, C Sfeir
: Mechanical load influences bone structure and mass. Arguing the importance of load-transduction, we investigated the mechanisms inducing bone formation using an elastomeric substrate. We characterized Poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) in-vitro for its mechanical properties, compatibility with osteoprogenitor cells regarding adhesion, proliferation, differentiation under compression versus static cultures and in-vivo for the regeneration of a rabbit ulna critical size defect. The load-transducing properties of PGS were compared in-vitro to a stiffer poly lactic-co- glycolic-acid (PLA/PGA) scaffold of similar porosity and interconnectivity...
January 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109918/%C3%AE-ct-based-trabecular-anisotropy-can-be-reproducibly-computed-from-hr-pqct-scans-using-the-triangulated-bone-surface
#3
Hadi S Hosseini, Ghislain Maquer, Philippe K Zysset
The trabecular structure can be assessed at the wrist or tibia via high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Yet on this modality, the performance of the existing methods, evaluating trabecular anisotropy is usually overlooked, especially in terms of reproducibility. We thus proposed to compare the TRI routine used by SCANCO Medical AG (Brüttisellen, Switzerland), the classical mean intercept length (MIL), and the grey-level structure tensor (GST) to the mean surface length (MSL), a new method for evaluating a second-order fabric tensor based on the triangulation of the bone surface...
January 18, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108237/poly-trimethylene-carbonate-based-composite-materials-for-reconstruction-of-critical-sized-cranial-bone-defects-in-sheep
#4
Ni Zeng, Anne C van Leeuwen, Dirk W Grijpma, Ruud R M Bos, Roel Kuijer
PURPOSE: The use of ceramic materials in repair of bone defects is limited to non-load-bearing sites. We tested poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) combined with β-tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphate particles for reconstruction of cranial defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PTMC-calcium phosphate composite matrices were implanted in cranial defects in sheep for 3 and 9 months. Micro-computed tomography quantification and histological observation were performed for analysis...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107758/retroperitoneal-unicentric-castleman-s-disease-a-case-report
#5
Nihed Abdessayed, Ahlem Bdioui, Houssem Ammar, Rahul Gupta, Nozha Mhamdi, Marwa Guerfela, Moncef Mokni
INTRODUCTION: Castleman's disease (CD) is an angio-follicular lymph node hyperplasia presenting as a localized or a systemic disease masquerading malignancy. The most common sites of CD are mediastinum, neck, axilla and pelvis. Unicentric CD in the peripancreatic region is very rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of the 34-year-old lady presenting with epigastric pain for 3 months. Abdominal imaging revealed a retroperitoneal mass arising from the pancreas suspected to be neuroendocrine tumor...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107624/tocilizumab-alendronate-conjugate-for-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Hwiwon Lee, Suk Ho Bhang, Jeong Ho Lee, Hyemin Kim, Sei Kwang Hahn
An autoimmune disease of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes severe inflammation on the synovial membrane, which results in the destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Here, Tocilizumab (TCZ) - Alendronate (ALD) conjugate is synthesized for the early intervention of RA. A humanized monoclonal antibody of TCZ shows an immunosuppressive effect, targeting interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor in the RA pathogenesis. ALD is an anti-inflammatory bisphosphonate drug which can bind to the exposed bone surface. ALD is conjugated selectively to N-glycan on Fc region of TCZ using a chemical linker of 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionyl hydrazide (PDPH) - poly(ethylene glycol) - N-hydroxysuccinimide (PDPH-PEG-NHS)...
January 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107543/quantification-of-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-a-bleomycin-mouse-model-using-automated-histological-image-analysis
#7
Jean-Claude Gilhodes, Yvon Julé, Sebastian Kreuz, Birgit Stierstorfer, Detlef Stiller, Lutz Wollin
Current literature on pulmonary fibrosis induced in animal models highlights the need of an accurate, reliable and reproducible histological quantitative analysis. One of the major limits of histological scoring concerns the fact that it is observer-dependent and consequently subject to variability, which may preclude comparative studies between different laboratories. To achieve a reliable and observer-independent quantification of lung fibrosis we developed an automated software histological image analysis performed from digital image of entire lung sections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107468/micro-x-ray-computed-tomography-mass-loss-assessment-of-different-uhmwpe-a-hip-joint-simulator-study-on-standard-vs-cross-linked-polyethylene
#8
Saverio Affatato, Filippo Zanini, Simone Carmignato
More than 60.000 hip arthroplasty are performed every year in Italy. Although Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene remains the most used material as acetabular cup, wear of this material induces over time in vivo a foreign-body response and consequently osteolysis, pain, and the need of implant revision. Furthermore, oxidative wear of the polyethylene provoke several and severe failures. To solve these problems, highly cross-linked polyethylene and Vitamin-E-stabilized polyethylene were introduced in the last years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107436/a-micro-ct-study-in-patients-with-breast-microcalcifications-using-a-mathematical-algorithm-to-assess-3d-structure
#9
David Kenkel, Zsuzsanna Varga, Heike Heuer, Konstantin J Dedes, Nicole Berger, Lukas Filli, Andreas Boss
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of breast microcalcifications (MC) as a predictor of malignancy using highly resolved micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) datasets of biopsy samples. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 28 women with suspicious MC in their mammogram undergoing vacuum-assisted biopsy. Directly after the intervention, the specimens were scanned in a micro-CT with an isometric spatial resolution of 9 μm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106044/root-canal-morphology-and-configuration-of-123-maxillary-second-molars-by-means-of-micro-ct
#10
Thomas Gerhard Wolf, Frank Paqué, Anja-Christin Woop, Brita Willershausen, Benjamín Briseño-Marroquín
The aim of this study was to investigate the root canal configuration, accessory canals and number of main foramina of 123 maxillary second molars by means of micro-computed tomography. The teeth were scanned and reproduced with 3D software imaging. The root canal configuration and number of main foramina were evaluated by means of a four-digit system. The morphological complexity of human maxillary second molars is depicted by the number of accessory and connecting canals. The most frequently observed root canal configurations in the mesiobuccal root were 2-2-2/2 (19...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104582/amniotic-fluid-derived-stem-cells-mixed-with-platelet-rich-plasma-for-restoration-of-rat-alveolar-bone-defect
#11
Minjiao Wang, Hongliang Li, Jiawen Si, Jiewen Dai, Jun Shi, Xudong Wang, Lihe Guo, Guofang Shen
Stem cells isolated from the amniotic fluid have been shown as a promising candidate for cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, the experimental and preclinical applications of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) in the very field of maxillofacial bone tissue engineering are still limited. In this study, rat AFSCs were successfully harvested and characterized in vitro The rat AFSCs showed typical fibroblastoid morphology, stable proliferation activity and multi-differentiation potential. Flow-cytometry analysis demonstrated that these cells were positive for CD29, CD44, and CD90, while negative for hematopoietic markers such as CD34 and CD45...
January 18, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103971/-surgical-treatment-of-small-pulmonary-nodules-under-video-assisted-thoracoscopy-%C3%A2-a-report-of-129-cases
#12
Tong Wang, Tiansheng Yan, Feng Wan, Shaohua Ma, Keyi Wang, Jingdi Wang, Jintao Song, Wei He, Jie Bai, Liang Jin
BACKGROUND: The development of image technology has led to increasing detection of pulmonary small nodules year by year, but the determination of their nature before operation is difficult. This clinical study aimed to investigate the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of pulmonary small nodules through a minimally invasive approach and the operational manner of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: The clinical data of 129 cases with pulmonary small nodule of 10 mm or less in diameter were retrospectively analyzed in our hospital from December 2013 to November 2016...
January 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103901/pathogenic-lrrk2-variants-are-gain-of-function-mutations-that-enhance-lrrk2-mediated-repression-of-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#13
Daniel C Berwick, Behzad Javaheri, Andrea Wetzel, Mark Hopkinson, Jonathon Nixon-Abell, Simone Grannò, Andrew A Pitsillides, Kirsten Harvey
BACKGROUND: LRRK2 mutations and risk variants increase susceptibility to inherited and idiopathic Parkinson's disease, while recent studies have identified potential protective variants. This, and the fact that LRRK2 mutation carriers develop symptoms and brain pathology almost indistinguishable from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, has led to enormous interest in this protein. LRRK2 has been implicated in a range of cellular events, but key among them is canonical Wnt signalling, which results in increased levels of transcriptionally active β-catenin...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102294/novel-bio-functional-magnesium-coating-on-porous-ti6al4v-orthopaedic-implants-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#14
Xiaokang Li, Peng Gao, Peng Wan, Yifeng Pei, Lei Shi, Bo Fan, Chao Shen, Xin Xiao, Ke Yang, Zheng Guo
Titanium and its alloys with various porous structures are one of the most important metals used in orthopaedic implants due to favourable properties as replacement for hard tissues. However, surface modification is critical to improve the osteointegration of titanium and its alloys. In this study, a bioactive magnesium coating was successfully fabricated on porous Ti6Al4V by means of arc ion plating, which was proved with fine grain size and high film/substrate adhesion. The surface composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100723/a-respiratory-gated-micro-ct-comparison-of-respiratory-patterns-in-free-breathing-and-mechanically-ventilated-rats
#15
Nancy L Ford, Lynda McCaig, Andrew Jeklin, James F Lewis, Ruud A W Veldhuizen, David W Holdsworth, Maria Drangova
In this study, we aim to quantify the differences in lung metrics measured in free-breathing and mechanically ventilated rodents using respiratory-gated micro-computed tomography. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine and scanned with a retrospective respiratory gating protocol on a GE Locus Ultra micro-CT scanner. Each animal was scanned while free-breathing, then intubated and mechanically ventilated (MV) and rescanned with a standard ventilation protocol (56 bpm, 8 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cm H2O) and again with a ventilation protocol that approximates the free-breathing parameters (88 bpm, 2...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094241/gelatin-freeze-casting-of-biomimetic-titanium-alloy-with-anisotropic-and-gradient-pore-structure
#16
Lei Zhang, Ronan Le Coz-Botrel, Charlotte Beddoes, Terje Sjöström, Bo Su
Titanium is a material commonly used for dental and orthopaedic implants. However, due to large differences in properties between the titanium metal and the natural bone, stress shielding has been observed in the surrounding area, resulting in bone atrophy, and thus has raised concerns of the use of this material. Ideally implant materials should possess similar properties to the surrounding tissues in order to distribute the load as the joint would naturally, while also possessing a similar porous structure to the bone to enable interaction with the surrounding material...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093944/healing-efficacy-of-fracture-targeted-gsk3%C3%AE-inhibitor-loaded-micelles-for-improved-fracture-repair
#17
Stewart A Low, Chris V Galliford, Yava L Jones-Hall, Jyoti Roy, Jiyuan Yang, Philip S Low, Jindřich Kopeček
AIM: To evaluate the fracture healing capabilities of a GSK3β inhibitor, 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, coupled with an aspartic acid octapeptide in a micellar delivery system. MATERIALS & METHODS: The efficacy of the intravenously administered micelles to accelerate healing of femoral fracture in mice was evaluated. Micro-computed tomography analysis was employed to obtain bone density, total volume, relative volume, trabecular thickness and trabecular spacing. RESULTS: Both fracture bone mineral density and volume were significantly higher in the micelle treatment groups when compared with controls...
January 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090446/quantitative-imaging-methods-in-osteoporosis
#18
REVIEW
Ling Oei, Fjorda Koromani, Fernando Rivadeneira, M Carola Zillikens, Edwin H G Oei
Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features...
December 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090302/three-dimensional-micro-computed-tomography-analysis-of-the-lung-vasculature-and-differential-adipose-proteomics-in-the-sugen-hypoxia-rat-model-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
Kelly J Shields, Kostas Verdelis, Michael J Passineau, Erin M Faight, Lee Zourelias, Changgong Wu, Rong Chong, Raymond L Benza
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by significant vascular remodeling. The obesity epidemic has produced great interest in the relationship between small visceral adipose tissue depots producing localized inflammatory conditions, which may link metabolism, innate immunity, and vascular remodeling. This study used novel micro computed tomography (microCT) three-dimensional modeling to investigate the degree of remodeling of the lung vasculature and differential proteomics to determine small visceral adipose dysfunction in rats with severe PAH...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088459/strain-development-in-bulk-filled-cavities-of-different-depths-characterized-using-a-non-destructive-acoustic-emission-approach
#20
Annelies Van Ende, Diogo Pedrollo Lise, Jan De Munck, Johan Vanhulst, Martine Wevers, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of cavity depth and composite type on the interfacial debonding in bulk-filled cavities. (2) To correlate the theoretical shrinkage stress and the level of interfacial debonding determined by acoustic emission (AE). METHODS: 80 sound molars were divided in two groups to receive a Class-I cavity (3.5×3.5mm) with 2.5- or 4.0-mm depth. The cavities were restored with either a conventional paste-like (Filtek Z100, 3M ESPE), a conventional flowable (G-ænial Universal Flo, GC), a bulk-fill paste-like (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent) or a bulk-fill flowable (SDR, Dentsply) composite (n=10)...
January 11, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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