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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#1
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920538/self-stigma-and-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Kristyna Vrbova, Jan Prasko, Michaela Holubova, Dana Kamaradova, Marie Ociskova, Marketa Marackova, Klara Latalova, Ales Grambal, Milos Slepecky, Marta Zatkova
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females) diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder) according to International Classification of Diseases - tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919183/accelerated-gray-and-white-matter-deterioration-with-age-in-schizophrenia
#3
Vanessa L Cropley, Paul Klauser, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Jason Bruggemann, Suresh Sundram, Chad Bousman, Avril Pereira, Maria A Di Biase, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
OBJECTIVE: Although brain changes in schizophrenia have been proposed to mirror those found with advancing age, the trajectory of gray matter and white matter changes during the disease course remains unclear. The authors sought to measure whether these changes in individuals with schizophrenia remain stable, are accelerated, or are diminished with age. METHOD: Gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were mapped in 326 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in 197 healthy comparison subjects aged 20-65 years...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913408/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-cortical-plasticity-impairments-in-schizophrenia-and-modulation-by-the-nmda-receptor-agonist-d-serine
#4
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Odeta Beggel, Stephanie Rohrig, Jonathan M Lehrfeld, Nadine Revheim, Nayla P Lehrfeld, Jacob Reep, Emily Parker, Gail Silipo, Merav Ahissar, Daniel C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in cortical plasticity that affect sensory brain regions and lead to impaired cognitive performance. Here we examined underlying neural mechanisms of auditory plasticity deficits using combined behavioural and neurophysiological assessment, along with neuropharmacological manipulation targeted at the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Cortical plasticity was assessed in a cohort of 40 schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients relative to 42 healthy control subjects using a fixed reference tone auditory plasticity task...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913157/further-evidence-of-alerted-default-network-connectivity-and-association-with-theory-of-mind-ability-in-schizophrenia
#5
Omar Mothersill, Noreen Tangney, Derek W Morris, Hazel McCarthy, Thomas Frodl, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Gary Donohoe
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has repeatedly shown evidence of altered functional connectivity of large-scale networks in schizophrenia. The relationship between these connectivity changes and behaviour (e.g. symptoms, neuropsychological performance) remains unclear. METHODS: Functional connectivity in 27 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 25 age and gender matched healthy controls was examined using rs-fMRI...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909826/profile-and-determinants-of-disability-in-psychotic-disorders-in-nigeria
#6
Victor Olufolahan Lasebikan, Olatunde Ayinde
We compared profile and predictors of disability among 210 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar I disorder with psychosis and depression with psychosis, respectively in a Nigerian clinical population, using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule, (2.0). Severity of psychosis was determined with Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, medication adherence with the Medication Adherence Questionnaire. Analyses were by SPSS 20...
December 1, 2016: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898432/the-impact-of-paliperidone-palmitate-long-acting-injection-on-hospital-admissions-in-a-mental-health-setting
#7
Nikola Nikolić, Natalie Page, Adil Akram, Maha Khan
We screened 216 patients in a retrospective observational investigator-initiated study, of whom 45.37% patients (n=98) were retained after the inclusion criteria were applied. These patients had been prescribed paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PPLAI) with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar affective disorder. We investigated whether PPLAI has an effect on the frequency and length of admissions to mental health inpatient units, the number of contacts with Crisis Resolution Home Treatment Teams (CRHTT) and frequency of home visits by the CRHTT per patient, over 6 years, split using a 'mirror image' method...
November 24, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886638/preliminary-evidence-that-negative-symptom-severity-relates-to-multilocus-genetic-profile-for-dopamine-signaling-capacity-and-d2-receptor-binding-in-healthy-controls-and-in-schizophrenia
#8
Sarah A Eisenstein, Ryan Bogdan, Ling Chen, Stephen M Moerlein, Kevin J Black, Joel S Perlmutter, Tamara Hershey, Deanna M Barch
Deficits in central, subcortical dopamine (DA) signaling may underlie negative symptom severity, particularly anhedonia, in healthy individuals and in schizophrenia. To investigate these relationships, we assessed negative symptoms with the Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and self-reported anhedonia with the Scales for Physical and Social Anhedonia (SPSA), Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale, and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale in 36 healthy controls (HC), 27 siblings (SIB) of individuals with schizophrenia, and 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884042/valproate-for-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
Yijun Wang, Jun Xia, Bartosz Helfer, Chunbo Li, Stefan Leucht
BACKGROUND: Many people with schizophrenia do not achieve a satisfactory treatment response with ordinary antipsychotic drug treatment. In these cases, various add-on medications are used, and valproate is one of these. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether:1. valproate alone is an effective treatment for schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychoses; and2. valproate augmentation of antipsychotic medication is an effective treatment for the same illnesses. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (July 2002; February 2007; July 2012; March 04, 2016)...
November 24, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881965/fundamental-role-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-677-c%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-t-genotype-and-flavin-compounds-in-biochemical-phenotypes-for-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-psychosis
#10
Stephanie Fryar-Williams
The Mental Health Biomarker Project (2010-2016) explored variables for psychosis in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Blood samples from 67, highly characterized symptomatic cases and 67 gender and age matched control participants were analyzed for methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C → T gene variants and for vitamin B6, B12 and D, folate, unbound copper, zinc cofactors for enzymes in the methylation cycle, and related catecholamine pathways. Urine samples were analyzed for indole-catecholamines, their metabolites, and oxidative-stress marker, hydroxylpyrolline-2-one (HPL)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877142/the-proximity-between-hallucination-and-delusion-dimensions-an-observational-analytic-cross-sectional-multicentre-study
#11
Diogo Telles-Correia, Ana L Moreira, João Gama Marques, Sérgio Saraiva, Cátia A Moreira, Filipa Antunes, Carolina Almeida, Nuno B Rocha
In psychiatric classifications, hallucinations (mainly auditory hallucinations) are one of the fundamental criteria for establishing a schizophrenia diagnosis or any of the related psychotic disorder's diagnoses. The conceptual proximity between delusions and hallucinations was maintained until the end of the XIX century, with several supporters during the XX century. Their limits were not yet definitely defined in terms of Descriptive Psychopathology, and much less so in terms of biochemical and anatomical models...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876020/the-brief-negative-symptom-scale-validation-of-the-german-translation-and-convergent-validity-with-self-rated-anhedonia-and-observer-rated-apathy
#12
Martin Bischof, Caitriona Obermann, Matthias N Hartmann, Oliver M Hager, Matthias Kirschner, Agne Kluge, Gregory P Strauss, Stefan Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) was developed to measure this symptomatic dimension according to a current consensus definition. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the German version of the BNSS. To expand former findings on convergent validity, we employed the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a hedonic self-report that distinguishes between consummatory and anticipatory pleasure...
November 22, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871263/perceived-needs-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-people-with-schizophrenia-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-real-world-study
#13
Leticia Medeiros-Ferreira, José Blas Navarro-Pastor, Antonio Zúñiga-Lagares, Rosanna Romaní, Elisenda Muray, Jordi E Obiols
BACKGROUND: The complexity of schizophrenia lies in the combination of psychiatric, somatic and social needs requiring care. The aim of the study was to compare perceived needs between groups with absence/presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to analyze the relationship between needs, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and MetS in people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. METHODS: A "real-world" cross-sectional study was set up with a comprehensive framework including the following, needs for care (Camberwell Assessment of Need Interview [CAN]), HRQoL (Euro Qol-5D Questionnaire), sociodemographic data, lifestyle habits, psychopathology (Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]), global functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning Scale [GAF]), anthropometric measurements and blood test results were assessed for an outpatient sample (n = 60)...
November 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867940/oxytocin-receptor-oxtr-methylation-and-cognition-in-psychotic-disorders
#14
Tyler B Grove, Kyle J Burghardt, A Zarina Kraal, Ryan J Dougherty, Stephan F Taylor, Vicki L Ellingrod
Previous reports have identified an association between cognitive impairment and genetic variation in psychotic disorders. In particular, this association may be related to abnormal regulation of genes responsible for broad cognitive functions such as the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). Within psychotic disorders, it is unknown if OXTR methylation, which can have important implications for gene regulation, is related to cognitive function. The current study examined peripheral blood OXTR methylation and general cognition in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (N = 101)...
October 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855565/impact-of-histamine-receptors-h1-and-h3-polymorphisms-on-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#15
Arun K Tiwari, Danning Zhang, Jennie G Pouget, Clement C Zai, Nabilah I Chowdhury, Eva J Brandl, Li Qin, Natalie Freeman, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Herbert Y Meltzer, James L Kennedy, Daniel J Müller
OBJECTIVES: A positive correlation between antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) and antipsychotic drugs' antagonist effect at histamine H1 receptor (HRH1) as well as agonist effect at histamine H3 receptor (HRH3) in the brain has been consistently demonstrated. We investigated the potential impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HRH1 and HRH3 genes on AIWG. METHODS: We analysed 40 tagSNPs in HRH1 (n = 34) and HRH3 (n = 6) in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder patients (n = 193) primarily treated with clozapine or olanzapine for up to 14 weeks...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848117/capgras-syndrome-in-parkinson-s-disease-two-new-cases-and-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Antonino Cannas, Mario Meloni, Marcello Mario Mascia, Paolo Solla, Luigi Cocco, Antonella Muroni, Gianluca Floris, Francesca Di Stefano, Francesco Marrosu
The Capgras syndrome (CS) is a rare psychiatric disorder. CS is classified as a delusional misidentification syndrome. Initially, CS was described in paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. CS has also been reported in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia. To date, there are very few descriptions of the occurrence of CS in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), with or without dementia. Considering the recent observation of two new cases in PD patients, a systematic overview of the literature published between 1976 and 2016 reporting CS in PD was conducted...
November 15, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846841/integrative-transcriptome-network-analysis-of-ipsc-derived-neurons-from-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder-patients-with-22q11-2-deletion
#17
Mingyan Lin, Erika Pedrosa, Anastasia Hrabovsky, Jian Chen, Benjamin R Puliafito, Stephanie R Gilbert, Deyou Zheng, Herbert M Lachman
BACKGROUND: Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS) are a specific high-risk group for developing schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several genes in the deleted region have been implicated in the development of SZ, e.g., PRODH and DGCR8. However, the mechanistic connection between these genes and the neuropsychiatric phenotype remains unclear. To elucidate the molecular consequences of 22q11.2 deletion in early neural development, we carried out RNA-seq analysis to investigate gene expression in early differentiating human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of 22q11...
November 15, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845315/-agomelatine-valdoxan-in-treatment-of-endogenous-depression-in-day-patient-department
#18
E V Chernova, O V Kozhechkina, A Yu Ter-Israelyan, V E Medvedev
AIM: Naturalistic psychopharmacological study of efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine (valdoxan) in treatment of endogenous depressions (in the framework of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder) in day patient department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study sample consisted of 37 patient (59.4% female, mean age 41.6±3.7 years). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: CDS total score significantly reduced after 8 weeks of treatment 44.9% compared to baseline (р<0...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833939/probabilistic-reinforcement-learning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-relationships-to-anhedonia-and-avolition
#19
Erin C Dowd, Michael J Frank, Anne Collins, James M Gold, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia (a reduced experience of pleasure) and avolition (a reduction in goal-directed activity) are common features of schizophrenia that have substantial effects on functional outcome, but are poorly understood and treated. Here, we examined whether alterations in reinforcement learning may contribute to these symptoms in schizophrenia by impairing the translation of reward information into goal-directed action. METHODS: 38 stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 37 healthy controls underwent fMRI during a probabilistic stimulus selection reinforcement learning task with dissociated choice- and feedback-related activation, followed by a behavioral transfer task allowing separate assessment of learning from positive versus negative outcomes...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829400/is-schizophrenia-disappearing-the-rise-and-fall-of-the-diagnosis-of-functional-psychoses-an-essay
#20
Per Bergsholm
BACKGROUND: The categories of functional psychoses build on views of influential professionals. There have long been four main categories - affective, schizophrenic, schizoaffective/cycloid/reactive/polymorphic, and delusional/paranoid psychoses. The last three are included in "psychotic disorders". However, this dichotomy and the distinctions between categories may have been over-estimated and contributed to lack of progress. TEN TOPICS RELEVANT FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF FUNCTIONAL PSYCHOSES: 1...
November 9, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
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