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Glucagon-like peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230449/real-world-glycemic-control-from-glp-1ra-therapy-with-and-without-concurrent-insulin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Mukul Singhal, Sudhir Unni, Marisa Schauerhamer, Hiep Nguyen, Jeff Hurd, Carrie McAdam-Marx
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are recommended as add-on therapy in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D), with no specific guidance as to timing versus insulin. Furthermore, real-world data assessing GLP-1RA outcomes with or without concurrent insulin therapy are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To identify glycemic response with GLP-1RAs by insulin use in patients with T2D at 1-year follow-up to inform decisions regarding GLP-1RA use with or without insulin...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228504/the-dynamics-of-gastric-emptying-and-self-reported-feelings-of-satiation-are-better-predictors-than-gastrointestinal-hormones-of-the-effects-of-lipid-emulsion-structure-on-fat-digestion-in-healthy-adults-a-bayesian-inference-approach
#2
Andreas Steingoetter, Simon Buetikofer, Jelena Curcic, Dieter Menne, Jens F Rehfeld, Michael Fried, Werner Schwizer, Tim J Wooster
Background: Limited information exists on the relation between fat emulsion structure and its effect on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and feelings of satiation.Objective: We investigated the impact of fat emulsion droplet size, gravitational and acid stability, and redispersibility on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation.Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224463/liraglutide-versus-lixisenatide-long-term-cost-effectiveness-of-glp-1-receptor-agonist-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-spain
#3
Pedro Mezquita-Raya, Antonio Ramírez de Arellano, Nana Kragh, Gabriela Vega-Hernandez, Johannes Pöhlmann, William J Valentine, Barnaby Hunt
INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are used successfully in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes as they are associated with low hypoglycemia rates, weight loss and improved glycemic control. This study compared, in the Spanish setting, the cost-effectiveness of liraglutide 1.8 mg versus lixisenatide 20 μg, both GLP-1 receptor agonists, for patients with type 2 diabetes who had not achieved glycemic control targets on metformin monotherapy. METHODS: The IMS CORE Diabetes Model was used to project clinical outcomes and costs, expressed in 2015 Euros, over patient lifetimes...
February 21, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223856/uncertainties-around-incretin-based-therapies-a-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Bader Al Tulaihi, Samia Alhabib
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic debilitating and non-communicable disease. It has several long-term outcomes that are associated with various end organ damage, mainly the heart, blood vessels, eyes, nerves, and kidneys. There are different modalities of treatment of diabetes. The recent incretin-based therapies provided an innovative class of drugs including GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. This review aims to summarize the available evidence of their effectiveness. Method: This is a narrative review...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223444/basal-glucose-can-be-controlled-but-the-prandial-problem-persists-it-s-the-next-target
#5
Matthew C Riddle
Both basal and postprandial elevations contribute to the hyperglycemic exposure of diabetes, but current therapies are mainly effective in controlling the basal component. Inability to control postprandial hyperglycemia limits success in maintaining overall glycemic control beyond the first 5 to 10 years after diagnosis, and it is also related to the weight gain that is common during insulin therapy. The "prandial problem"-comprising abnormalities of glucose and other metabolites, weight gain, and risk of hypoglycemia-deserves more attention...
March 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223210/a-novel-glp-1-gip-dual-receptor-agonist-protects-from-6-ohda-lesion-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Jaishree Jalewa, Mohit Kumar Sharma, Simon Gengler, Christian Hölscher
The incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are growth factors that have shown neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in a clinical trial in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. GLP-1 analogues are currently on the market as treatments for type II diabetes. We previously showed that the novel dual agonist (DA-JC1) was effective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
February 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222742/resistant-starch-lowers-postprandial-glucose-and-leptin-in-overweight-adults-consuming-a-moderate-to-high-fat-diet-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Mindy Patterson Maziarz, Sara Preisendanz, Shanil Juma, Victorine Imrhan, Chandan Prasad, Parakat Vijayagopal
BACKGROUND: High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAM-RS2) stimulates gut-derived satiety peptides and reduces adiposity in animals. Human studies have not supported these findings despite improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after HAM-RS2 intake which can lower adiposity-related disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HAM-RS2 consumption on blood glucose homeostasis in overweight, healthy adults. We also examined changes in biomarkers of satiety (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], and leptin) and body composition determined by anthropometrics and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale following HAM-RS2 consumption...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222044/endocrine-system-on-chip-for-a-diabetes-treatment-model
#8
Dao Thi Thuy Nguyen, Danny van Noort, In-Kyung Jeong, Sungsu Park
The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion...
February 21, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218623/dreadding-proglucagon-neurons-a-fresh-look-at-metabolic-regulation-by-the-brain
#9
Jonathan E Campbell, David A D'Alessio
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in the CNS has been linked to reduced food intake, lower body weight, improved glucose homeostasis, and activation of CNS stress axes. GLP-1 is produced by cells that express proglucagon (GCG); however, the stimuli that activate GCG+ neurons are not well known, which has made understanding the role of this neuronal population in the CNS a challenge. In this issue of the JCI, Gaykema et al. use designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to specifically activate GCG+ neurons in mouse models...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216550/the-acute-effects-of-simple-sugar-ingestion-on-appetite-gut-derived-hormone-response-and-metabolic-markers-in-men
#10
Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, William Gilmore, Ronald J Maughan, Gethin H Evans
This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min...
February 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215540/decreased-glucagon-like-peptide-1-correlates-with-abdominal-pain-in-patients-with-constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
Zheng-Yang Li, Na Zhang, Shuang Wen, Jing Zhang, Xiu-Li Sun, Xiao-Ming Fan, Yong-Hong Sun
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, ROSE-010, plays a critical role in alleviating abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the underling mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we determined the serum GLP-1 level in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C). The relationship between GLP-1 and abdominal pain was investigated. In addition, the expression of the GLP-1 receptor in the colon was determined. METHODS: Rectosigmoid biopsies were gathered from 38 patients with IBS-C who met the Rome III criteria, and 22 healthy controls...
February 16, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215313/low-molecular-fraction-of-wheat-protein-hydrolysate-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-in-an-enteroendocrine-l-cell-line-and-improves-glucose-tolerance-in-rats
#12
Masaki Kato, Takenori Nakanishi, Tsubasa Tani, Takanori Tsuda
The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by enteroendocrine L cells. Stimulating endogenous GLP-1 secretion by dietary factors is a promising strategy to increase GLP-1 action. Several studies have examined the specific physiological function of wheat protein hydrolysate. Some reports suggested that intake of wheat protein ameliorates hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that wheat protein hydrolysate reduces blood glucose concentration via stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. In this study, we investigated whether wheat protein hydrolysate stimulates GLP-1 secretion and its molecular mechanism in an enteroendocrine L cell line (GLUTag cells), and we examined the effect on glucose tolerance via stimulation of GLP-1 secretion followed by induction of insulin secretion in rats...
January 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215130/exogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-1-attenuates-glucose-absorption-and-reduces-blood-glucose-concentration-after-small-intestinal-glucose-delivery-in-critical-illness
#13
Asaf Miller, Adam M Deane, Mark P Plummer, Caroline E Cousins, Lee-Anne S Chapple, Michael Horowitz, Marianne J Chapman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of exogenous glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) on small intestinal glucose absorption and blood glucose concentrations during critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective, blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomised trial in a mixed medical-surgical adult intensive care unit, with 12 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, who were suitable for receiving small intestinal nutrient. INTERVENTIONS: On consecutive days, in a randomised order, participants received intravenous GLP-1 (1...
March 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213385/effectiveness-of-acarbose-in-treating-elderly-patients-with-diabetes-with-postprandial-hypotension
#14
Jie Zhang, Lixin Guo
: : Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a common condition that occurs primarily in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of acarbose for PPH; it also investigated possible mechanisms behind PPH development. This single-blind, randomized controlled trial included 91 elderly patients with T2DM, aged between 60 and 80 years, who were inpatients at Beijing Hospital between March 2012 and November 2014. The patients were included into one of three groups: Group A, patients with T2DM without PPH; Group B, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving placebo; and Group C, patients with T2DM with PPH receiving acarbose...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213324/qing-hua-granule-induces-glp-1-secretion-via-bitter-taste-receptor-in-db-db-mice
#15
Junyan Li, Jie Xu, Ruifang Hou, Xin Jin, Jingyi Wang, Na Yang, Li Yang, Li Liu, Feng Tao, Hao Lu
Qing-Hua Granule (QHG), the modified formulation of a classical Chinese prescription named Gegen Qinlian Decoction, was clinically employed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the potential mechanism is unknown. We investigate whether QHG induces GLP-1 secretion via activation of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) pathway in the gastrointestinal tract of db/db mice. The db/db mice were intragastrically (i.g.) administered QHG (low/medium/high dose) once daily for 8 weeks...
February 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211611/short-acting-glp-1-receptor-agonists-as-add-on-to-insulin-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Anders Albèr, Andreas Brønden, Filip K Knop
A large proportion of patients with type 1 diabetes do not reach their glycemic target of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and, furthermore, an increasing number of patients with type 1 diabetes suffer from overweight and obesity. Treatment of type 1 diabetes is based on insulin therapy with well-described and unfortunate adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and increased body weight. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have received increasing interest as a possible adjunctive treatment to insulin in type 1 diabetes due to their glucagonostatic and extrapancreatic effects...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211608/preclinical-characterisation-of-55p0251-a-novel-compound-that-amplifies-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-and-counteracts-hyperglycaemia-in-rodents
#17
Karin Stadlbauer, Barbara Brunmair, Zsuzsanna Lehner, Immanuel Adorjan, Thomas Scherer, Anton Luger, Leonhardt Bauer, Clemens Fürnsinn
AIMS: 55P0251 is a novel compound with blood glucose lowering activity in mice, which has been developed from a molecular backbone structure found in herbal remedies. We here report its basic pharmacological attributes and initial progress in unmasking the mode of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetic properties of 55P0251 were portrayed in several species. First efforts to elucidate the glucose lowering mechanism in rodents included numerous experimental protocols dealing with glucose tolerance, insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, and comparison to established drugs...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210986/the-role-of-the-pharmacist-in-managing-type-2-diabetes-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-as-add-on-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Jerry Meece
: The prevalence and associated clinical burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in the USA and other countries. As a consequence, the role of the pharmacist in managing T2D is expanding, and it is becoming increasingly important for pharmacists to have a complete understanding of the disease course and treatment options. Pharmacists have a key role in the use of injectable therapies, including incretin-based treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). This article discusses the role of the pharmacist in the management of patients with T2D, particularly with respect to the use of GLP-1RAs to achieve glycemic control...
February 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#19
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209316/intestinal-adaptations-after-bariatric-surgery-consequences-on-glucose-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Cavin, André Bado, Maude Le Gall
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract can play a direct role in glucose homeostasis by modulating the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and by producing the incretin hormones. In recent years, numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation following bariatric surgeries. Changes in the number of incretin (glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) producing cells have been reported, which could result in the modified hormonal response seen after surgery. In addition, the rate of absorption and the intestinal regions exposed to sugars may affect the time course of appearance of glucose in the blood...
February 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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