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Waqas Khan Kayani, Erum Dilshad, Tanveer Ahmed, Hammad Ismail, Bushra Mirza
BACKGROUND: Ajuga bracteosa has been extensively used traditionally for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The aim of the study was to scientifically validate the wide-scale exploitation of A. bracteosa in folk medicine various in vitro and in vivo assays. Moreover, these activities were related to the intrinsic biologically active phytoecdysteroids of A. bracteosa. METHODS: Aerial and root parts of A. bracteosa were first extracted separately with chloroform (AbCA and AbCR) and the residue was again extracted with methanol (AbMA and AbMR)...
September 27, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Nillian Mukungu, Kennedy Abuga, Faith Okalebo, Raphael Ingwela, Julius Mwangi
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major health problem worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 80% of the population is at risk of contracting the disease. Pregnant mothers and children under five years are the most affected by this disease. Antimalarial drug resistance poses a major threat in the fight against malaria necessitating continuous search for new antimalarial drugs. Due to inadequate and inaccessible health facilities, majority of people living in rural communities heavily depend on traditional medicine which involves the use of medicinal plants for the management of malaria...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Teshager Yacob, Workineh Shibeshi, Teshome Nedi
BACKGROUND: In the Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aerial part of Ajuga remota Benth is used in the treatment of diarrhea. There are different mechanisms by which Ajuga remota may have antidiarrheal effect. Some of the possible mechanisms are through its anthelmintic and antibacterial activity. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the antidiarrheal effect of the plant also include antimotility and antisecretory effect using 80 % methanol extract of A. remota (MEAR). METHODS: The MEAR was administered at doses of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg to four groups of mice (six animals per group) orally in castor oil diarrhea model...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Claudio Frezza, Alessandro Venditti, Mirella Di Cecco, Giampiero Ciaschetti, Mauro Serafini, Armandodoriano Bianco
We report the first analysis in absolute, and in particular, concerning the phytochemical pattern, about an endemic Italian species, Ajuga tenorei C. Presl. The analysis, performed by means of techniques such as Column Chromatography and NMR spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry, led to the isolation and the identification of five compounds namely verbascoside (1), echinacoside (2), ajugoside (3), harpagide (4) and 8-O-acetylharpagide (5). The presence of these compounds is important from both chemotaxonomic and ethno-pharmacological point of view...
August 5, 2016: Natural Product Research
Gai-Xia Fan, De-Juan Zhi, Hui Ren, Zheng-Yu Li, Qiao-Ling Hu, Ying-Hong Liu, Zhan-Xin Zhang, Dong-Qing Fei
A new succinate derivative, ethyl (5-formylfuran-2-yl)methyl succinate (1), along with three known compounds (2-4) have been isolated from the whole plants of Ajuga decumbens Thunb. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS data analysis, and literature values. Compound 1 was isolated as a new succinate derivative, and compounds 2 and 3 were for the first time separated from A. decumbens.
April 2016: Natural Product Communications
A Venditti, C Frezza, F Maggi, G Lupidi, M Bramucci, L Quassinti, C Giuliani, K Cianfaglione, F Papa, M Serafini, A Bianco
Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreb, well-known as Camaepitium or Ground Pine, is an annual herb typical of the Mediterranean area accounting several uses in the traditional medicine. In this work we have, analyzed the plant iridoid fraction together with the essential oil composition and study of the plant indumentum. Finally, we assayed the polar extracts and essential oil obtained from the aerial parts for antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on tumor cells. The analysis of the monoterpene glycosides allowed us to isolate from roots and aerial parts and to structurally elucidate by NMR and MS the following compounds: ajugoside (1), reptoside (2), 8-O-acetylharpagide (3), harpagide (4), 5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-harpagide (5), asperulosidic acid (6), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (7) and 5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-8-O-acetylharpagide (8), among which 5 and 8 were two new natural products...
September 2016: Fitoterapia
Meenakshi Thakur, R K Asrani, Shalini Thakur, P K Sharma, R D Patil, Brij Lal, Om Parkash
ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal plants are frequently used by Gaddi and Gujjar tribes of Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh, India to cure various ailments in humans and livestock. Therefore, extensive field work was conducted to document the traditional use of ethnomedicinal plants by these tribes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Direct interviews of 208 informants were conducted. The data generated through interviews was analysed using quantitative tools such as use-value (UV), factor informant consensus (Fic) and fidelity level (Fl)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Chang-Wei Hsieh, Wen-Ching Ko, Wai-Jane Ho, Chao-Kai Chang, Guo-Jhou Chen, Jen-Chieh Tsai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate suitable condition for extraction of the active components from Ajuga nipponensis (A. nipponensis). METHODS: Orthogonal experimental design was used to determine the optimal extraction parameters for ecdysterones and flavonoids. Finally, the hepatoprotective abilities of A. nipponensis extracts were evaluated by CCl4-induced animal models. RESULTS: Maximum yields of flavonoids (7.87 ± 0.10) mg/g and ecdysterones (0...
May 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Yuki Tsukagoshi, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Hikaru Seki, Tomoyoshi Akashi, Toshiya Muranaka, Hideyuki Suzuki, Yoshinori Fujimoto
20-Hydroxyecdysone (20HE), a molting hormone of insects, is also distributed among a variety of plant families. 20HE is thought to play a role in protecting plants from insect herbivores. In insects, biosynthesis of 20HE from cholesterol proceeds via 7-dehydrocholesterol and 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one (5β-ketodiol), the latter being converted to 20HE through sequential hydroxylation catalyzed by four P450 enzymes, which have been cloned and identified. In contrast, little is known about plant 20HE biosynthesis, and no biosynthetic 20HE gene has been reported thus far...
July 2016: Phytochemistry
Solomon Asnake, Tilahun Teklehaymanot, Ariaya Hymete, Berhanu Erko, Mirutse Giday
In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Yuki Tsukagoshi, Hideyuki Suzuki, Hikaru Seki, Toshiya Muranaka, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Yoshinori Fujimoto
Dimunito/Dwarf1 (DWF1) is an oxidoreductase enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of C28- and C29-Δ(24(28))-olefinic sterols to 24-methyl- and 24-ethylcholesterols. Generally, the reaction proceeds in two steps via the Δ(24(25))intermediate. In this study, we characterized theArDWF1gene from an expression sequence tag library ofAjuga reptansvar.atropurpureahairy roots. The gene was functionally expressed in the yeast T21 strain. Thein vivoandin vitrostudy of the transformed yeast indicated that ArDWF1 catalyzes the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Irem Atay, Hasan Kirmizibekmez, Marcel Kaiser, Galip Akaydin, Erdem Yesilada, Deniz Tasdemir
Context Some Ajuga L. (Lamiaceae) species are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria, as well as fever, which is a common symptom of many parasitic diseases. Objective In the continuation of our studies on the identification of antiprotozoal secondary metabolites of Turkish Lamiaceae species, we have investigated the aerial parts of Ajuga laxmannii. Materials and methods The aerial parts of A. laxmannii were extracted with MeOH. The H2O subextract was subjected to polyamide, C18-MPLC and SiO2 CCs to yield eight metabolites...
September 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Solomon Asnake, Tilahun Teklehaymanot, Ariaya Hymete, Berhanu Erko, Mirutse Giday
BACKGROUND: The majority of the Ethiopian population is at risk of malaria largely caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The resistance of the parasite to existing drugs is the main challenge in the control of the disease and thus new therapeutic drugs are required. In Ethiopia, people use different plant species to treat malaria. However, very few of them have so far been evaluated for their safety level and antimalarial activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and antimalarial activity of extracts of Ajuga integrifolia, Clerodendrum myricoides, Melia azedarach, Peponium vogelii and Premna schimperi, locally used by the Sidama people of Ethiopia to treat malaria...
2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Jingjing Qian, Yueyue Yang, Xin Li, Defu Chi
Suspension culture of Ajuga lobata D. Don cells provides a method of synthesis of the phytoecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) which can regulate the molting process of larvae. We characterized the culture conditions to optimize 20E production. Growth of A. lobata D. Don cells fits the logistic equation curve with a growth cycle of 19 days. Medium conductivity was negatively correlated with dry cell weight and 20E accumulation, thus could be used to determine the optimal time for cell harvest. Continuous subculture reduced 20E synthesis, but supplementing medium with 20E precursors mevalonic (MVA), α-Pinene, and nitric oxide (NO) can significantly promote cell growth and influence 20E accumulation...
2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
A Venditti, C Frezza, M Riccardelli, S Foddai, M Nicoletti, M Serafini, A Bianco
We analysed the ethanolic extract from Ajuga genevensis L. (Lamiaceae) growing in Dolomites, part of Italian Alps. Three new compounds for this species were identified: rosmarinic acid (1), oleanolic acid (2) and maslinic acid (3), representative of two different classes of chemical compounds (phenylpropanoids and pentacyclic triterpenes). A. genevensis resulted to be a valuable source of these compounds endowed with interesting biological activities (i.e. antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative)...
2016: Natural Product Research
Jose Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza, Ross Barnett, Nathan Wales, M Thomas P Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Cellular organelles with genomes of their own (e.g. plastids and mitochondria) can pass genetic sequences to other organellar genomes within the cell in many species across the eukaryote phylogeny. The extent of the occurrence of these organellar-derived inserted sequences (odins) is still unknown, but if not accounted for in genomic and phylogenetic studies, they can be a source of error. However, if correctly identified, these inserted sequences can be used for evolutionary and comparative genomic studies...
2015: BMC Bioinformatics
Amaya Castro, Josep Coll, Anil K Pant, Om Pakrash
Six new naturally occurring ajugarin-like neo-clerodane diterpenoids, ajugaflorins A-F, along with six known compounds [the parent ajugarin I, ajugalides B and C, ajugamarin F4, ajugamacrin E, and ajugatakasin B] were isolated from A. macrosperma var. breviflora. The structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic and MS analyses and comparison with data previously reported.
June 2015: Natural Product Communications
Amel Boudjelal, Laura Siracusa, Cherifa Henchiri, Madani Sarri, Benkhaled Abderrahim, Faiza Baali, Giuseppe Ruberto
The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals...
June 2015: Planta Medica
Louis Guibout, Nilufar Mamadalieva, Christine Balducci, Jean-Pierre Girault, René Lafont
INTRODUCTION: Ajuga turkestanica is a plant used in traditional medicine for its high ecdysteroid content, including the presence of the particularly active turkesterone, which possess efficient anabolic activity. OBJECTIVES: To isolate and identify minor ecdysteroids present in a semi-purified plant fraction containing ca. 70% turkesterone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multi-step preparative HPLC (combining RP- and NP-HPLC systems) was used to purify the different components present in the turkesterone fraction...
September 2015: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Yoshinori Fujimoto, Izumi Maeda, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Juri Hikiba, Hiroshi Kataoka
3β-Hydroxy-5β-cholestan-6-one was identified in the EtOAc extract of Ajuga hairy roots by micro-analysis using LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction mode (MRM). Furthermore, administration of (2,2,4,4,7,7-(2)H6)- and (2,2,4,4,6,7,7-(2)H7)-cholesterols to the hairy roots followed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the EtOAc extract of the hairy roots indicated that cholesterol was converted to the 5β-ketone with hydrogen migration from the C-6 to the C-5 position. These findings, in conjunction with the previous observation that the ketone was efficiently converted to 20-hydroxyecdysone, strongly suggest that the 5β-ketone is an intermediate immediately formed after cholesterol during 20-hydroxyecdysone biosynthesis in Ajuga sp...
March 2015: Phytochemistry
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