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Ivan S Chaschin, Natalia P Bakuleva, Timofei E Grigoriev, Sergey V Krasheninnikov, Lev N Nikitin
A mixture of water/carbon dioxide is a "green" perspective solvent from the viewpoint of biomedical applications. Clathrate hydrates are formed this solvent under certain conditions and a very interesting question is the impact of clathrates hydrates on the structure and properties of bovine pericardium, which is used in biomedicine, in particular as a main part of biological heart valve prostheses. The aim of the present work is to investigate the influence of clathrates on the structure and mechanical properties of the collagen tissue treated with chitosan in H2O/CO2 mixtures under pressure 3...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
R Brad Jones, Stephanie Mueller, Sudha Kumari, Vlad Vrbanac, Shy Genel, Andrew M Tager, Todd M Allen, Bruce D Walker, Darrell J Irvine
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTLs) kill pathogen-infected or transformed cells following interaction of their T-cell receptors (TCRs) with foreign (e.g. virus-derived) peptides bound to MHC-I molecules on the target cell. TCR binding triggers CTLs to secrete perforin, which forms pores in the target cell membrane, promoting target death. Here, we show that by conjugating drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles to the surface of CTLs, their lytic machinery can be co-opted to lyse the cell-bound drug carrier, providing triggered release of drug cargo upon target cell recognition...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
Cynthia N McClain, Scott Fendorf, Samuel M Webb, Kate Maher
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is generated in serpentine soils and exported to surface and groundwaters at levels above health-based drinking water standards. Although Cr(VI) concentrations are elevated in serpentine soil pore water, few studies have reported field evidence documenting Cr(VI) production rates and fluxes that govern Cr(VI) transport from soil to water sources. We report Cr speciation (i) in four serpentine soil depth profiles derived from the California Coast Range serpentinite belt and (ii) in local surface waters...
December 9, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Kai Wen Teng, Yuji Ishitsuka, Pin Ren, Yeoan Youn, Xiang Deng, Pinghua Ge, Andrew S Belmont, Paul R Selvin
Site-specific fluorescent labeling of proteins inside live mammalian cells has been achieved by employing Streptolysin O, a bacterial enzyme which forms temporary pores in the membrane and allows delivery of virtually any fluorescent probes, ranging from labeled IgG's to small ligands, with high efficiency (>85% of cells). The whole process, including recovery, takes 30 min, and the cell is ready to be imaged immediately. A variety of cell viability tests were performed after treatment with SLO to ensure that the cells have intact membranes, are able to divide, respond normally to signaling molecules, and maintains healthy organelle morphology...
December 9, 2016: ELife
Arvind Chhabra, Bijay Mukherji, Deepika Batra
OBJECTIVES: Adoptive cancer immunotherapy (ACT) with transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) engineered (TCReng) anti-tumor T cells has produced encouraging results, however, efficacy of these approaches need improvement. Since premature activation induced cell death (AICD) of adoptively administered T cells could be a major impediment, we examined the mechanism(s) underlying AICD in TCReng CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). METHODS: AICD in human tumor antigen specific MHC class I restricted TCR engineered CD8+ CTL was induced by exposing them to cognate peptide epitope...
December 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Falk Muench, Luwan Sun, Tintula Kottakkat, Markus Antoni, Sandra Schaefer, Ulrike Kunz, Leopoldo Molina-Luna, Michael Duerrschnabel, Hans-Joachim Kleebe, Sevda Ayata, Christina Roth, Wolfgang Ensinger
Nanotube assemblies represent an emerging class of advanced functional materials, whose utility is however hampered by intricate production processes. In this work, three classes of nanotube networks (monometallic, bimetallic, metal oxide) are synthesized solely using facile redox reactions and commercially available ion track membranes. First, the disordered pores of an ion track membrane are widened by chemical etching, resulting in the formation of a strongly interconnected pore network. Replicating this template structure with electroless copper plating yields a monolithic film composed of crossing metal nanotubes...
December 9, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shiva Gupata, Shuai Zhao, Ogechi Ogoke, Ye Lin, Hui Xu, Gang Wu
Structures and morphologies of Fe-N-C catalysts have been believed crucial for the number of active sites and local bonding structures, therefore governing overall catalyst performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The relevant knowledge is still lacking for the rational catalyst design. Through combining different nitrogen/carbon precursors, including polyaniline (PANI), dicyandiamide (DCDA), and melamine (MLMN), we aim to tune catalyst morphology and structure for facilitating the ORR. Instead of commonly studied single precursors, multiple precursors during the synthesis provide a new opportunity to promote catalyst activity and stability via a likely synergistic effect...
December 9, 2016: ChemSusChem
Toshihiko Cho, Aya Ishii-Kato, Yuko Fukata, Yoshitaka Nakayama, Kazuko Iida, Masaki Fukata, Hidetoshi Iida
Yeast has a homologue of mammalian voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), enabling the efficient uptake of Ca(2+) . It comprises two indispensable subunits, Cch1 and Mid1, equivalent to the mammalian pore-forming α1 and auxiliary α2 /δ subunits, respectively. Unlike the physiological roles of Cch1/Mid1 channels, the regulatory mechanisms of the yeast VGCC homologue remain unclear. Therefore, we screened candidate proteins that interact with Mid1 by an unbiased proteomic approach and identified a plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase, Pma1, as a candidate...
December 9, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Johannes Liesche, Marcelo R Pace, Qiyu Xu, Yongqing Li, Shaolin Chen
In the sieve elements (SEs) of the phloem, carbohydrates are transported throughout the whole plant from their site of production to sites of consumption or storage. SE structure, especially of the pore-rich end walls, has a direct effect on translocation efficiency. Differences in pore size and other features were interpreted as an evolutionary trend towards reduced hydraulic resistance. However, this has never been confirmed. Anatomical data of 447 species of woody angiosperms and gymnosperms were used for a phylogenetic analysis of end wall types, calculation of hydraulic resistance and correlation analysis with morphological and physiological variables...
December 9, 2016: New Phytologist
Yu-Bin Zheng, Shuang Zhao, Shuo-Hui Cao, Sheng-Lin Cai, Xiu-Hong Cai, Yao-Qun Li
In this article, we have demonstrated for the first time a triple stimuli-responsive nanofluidic diode that can rectify ionic current under multiple external stimuli including temperature, pH, and sugar. This diode was fabricated by immobilizing poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-co-[4-vinyl phenylboronic acid] (P(DMAEMA-co-VPBA)) onto the wall of a single glass conical nanopore channel via surface-initiator atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The copolymer brushes contain functional groups sensitive to pH, temperature and sugar that can induce charge and configuration change to affect the status of the pore wall...
December 9, 2016: Nanoscale
Giuseppe Ferrauto, Fabio Carniato, Enza Di Gregorio, Lorenzo Tei, Mauro Botta, Silvio Aime
Indocyanine green was encapsulated inside the pores of pegylated amino-functionalized MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (ICG-MSNs). In addition to a greater stability and a decrease of toxicity, the photoacoustic effect of ICG-MSNs increases by nearly 400% compared to free ICG due to fluorescence quenching and high photothermal conversion of the encapsulated dyes. Upon i.v. administration in tumor-bearing mice, an overall photoacoustic enhancement of ca. 25% was measured in the tumor region.
December 9, 2016: Nanoscale
Timothée Menais, Stefano Mossa, Arnaud Buhot
Polymer translocation is a promising strategy for the next-generation DNA sequencing technologies. The use of biological and synthetic nano-pores, however, still suffers from serious drawbacks. In particular, the width of the membrane layer can accommodate several bases at the same time, making difficult accurate sequencing applications. More recently, the use of graphene membranes has paved the way to new sequencing capabilities, with the possibility to measure transverse currents, among other advances. The reduced thickness of these new membranes poses new questions on the effect of deformability and vibrations of the membrane on the translocation process, two features which are not taken into account in the well established theoretical frameworks...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
E M Eed, M M Ghonaim, Y M Hussein, S S Al-Shehri, A S Khalifa
INTRODUCTION: Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) is a bicomponent pore-forming cytolytic toxin encoded by the lukF-PV and lukS-PV genes. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) may carry the pvl genes which may be related to increased disease severity. This study aimed to characterise the PVL-producing MRSA recovered from different Taif Hospitals, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study included 45 hospital-acquired-MRSA (HA-MRSA) and 26 CA-MRSA strains which were identified from 445 S...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Sreemanti Das, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Current treatment methods for melanoma have some limitations such as less target-specific action, severe side effects and resistance to drugs. Significant progress has been made in exploring novel drug delivery systems based on suitable biochemical mechanisms using nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 400 nm for drug delivery and imaging, utilizing their enhanced penetration and retention properties. Poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), a copolymer of poly-lactic acid and poly-glycolic acid, provides an ideally suited performance-based design for better penetration into skin cells, thereby having a greater potential for the treatment of melanoma...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Martijn F de Lange, Li-Chiang Lin, Jorge Gascon, Thijs J H Vlugt, Freek Kapteijn
In this modeling study, the uses of nitrogen (77.3 K), probe molecule of choice for decades, and argon, opted as alternative in the 2015 IUPAC report on adsorptive characterization, as probe molecules for geometric surface area determination are compared. Graphene sheets possessing slit-shaped pores with varying size (width) are chosen as model porous solids, and different methods for the determination of specific surface areas are investigated. The BET method, which is the most commonly applied analysis, is compared to the Langmuir and relatively recently proposed ESW (excess sorption work) method...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Chi Yu, Yanhong Wang, Xuemei Lang, Shuanshi Fan
In this study, mechanical force applied to squeeze poly(sodium acrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels that contained seawater in order to obtain fresh water. By incorporating ionic monomer sodium acrylate (SA) into hydrogels, the salt rejection was significantly enhanced from 27.62% to 64.57% (feed concentration 35.00g/L NaCl solution). As SA's concentration continuously increased, salt rejection declined due to the change in hydrogel's matrix structure. Therefore, water recovery raised as the current swelling degree increased...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Xubiao Luo, Kai Zhang, Jinming Luo, Shenglian Luo, John Crittenden
3-D MnO2 ion cages (CMO) were fabricated and shown to have a high capacity for lithium removal from wastewater. CMO had a maximum Li(I) adsorption capacity of 56.87 mg/g, which is 1.38 times greater than the highest reported value (41.36 mg/g). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the stability of the -Mn-O-Mn-O- skeleton played an essential role in Li adsorption. The lattice clearance had a high charge density, forming a strong electrostatic field. The Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) site energy distribution model based on Polanyi theory described the linear increase of Li adsorption capacity (Q0) with increasing temperature (Q0 = k3 × Em + d3 = k3 × (a × T) + d3)...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Daxun Bai, Fen Wang, Jinmeng Lv, Fazhi Zhang, Sailong Xu
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like anionic clay compounds, have attracted increasing interest in electrochemical energy storage, in the main form of LDH precursor-derived transition metal oxides (TMOs). One typical approach to improve cycling stability of the LDH-derived TMOs is to introduce one- and two-dimensional conductive carbonaceous supports, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. We herein demonstrate an effective approach to improve the electrochemical performances of well-dispersed biactive NiCo2S4/Ni0...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tuomo Nissinen, Simo Näkki, Hanne Laakso, Dalius Kučiauskas, Algirdas Kaupinis, Mikko I Kettunen, Timo Liimatainen, Mervi Hyvönen, Mindaugas Valius, Olli Gröhn, Vesa-Pekka Lehto
Drug carrier systems based on mesoporous inorganic nanoparticles generally face the problem of fast clearance from bloodstream thus failing in passive and active targeting to cancer tissue. To address this problem, a specific dual PEGylation (DPEG) method for mesoporous silicon (PSi) was developed and studied in vitro and in vivo. The DPEG coating changed significantly the behavior of the nanoparticles in vivo, increasing the circulation half-life from 1 to 241 min. Furthermore, accumulation of the coated particles was mainly taking place in the spleen whereas uncoated nanoparticles were rapidly deposited in the liver...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mari Abirami, Soo Min Hwang, Juchan Yang, Sirugaloor Thangavel Senthilkumar, Junsoo Kim, Woo-Seok Go, Baskar Senthilkumar, Hyun-Kon Song, Youngsik Kim
Spinel-structured transition metal oxides are promising non-precious-metal electrocatalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis in rechargeable metal-air batteries. We applied porous cobalt manganese oxide (CMO) nanocubes as the cathode electrocatalyst in rechargeable seawater batteries, which are a hybrid-type Na-air battery with an open-structured cathode and a seawater catholyte. The porous CMO nanocubes were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a Prussian blue analogue, Mn3[Co(CN)6]2·nH2O, during air-annealing, which generated numerous pores between the final spinel-type CMO nanoparticles...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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