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Claudia Doi Antunes, Malson Neilson Lucena, Daniela Pereira Garçon, Francisco Assis Leone, John Campbell McNamara
Fresh caught Clibanarius vittatus [SW, 31‰ salinity (S)] were acclimated to a dilute medium (15‰ S) for 10 days, employing silver staining to locate gill ion transporting tissue, immunofluorescence to localize the Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in the lamellae, and electron microscopy to portray ultrastructural changes in the gill epithelia. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was characterized kinetically in a gill microsomal fraction, including synergistic stimulation by NH4+ plus K+. Silver staining revealed that all 26 phyllobranchiate arthro- and pleurobranchiae participate in ion transport...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Paul A Leighton, Stephen D Brealey, Joseph J Dias
OBJECTIVE: To explore stakeholder perspectives upon participant retention in clinical trials, and to generate strategies to support retention in a surgical, clinical trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The SWIFFT trial is a multicenter study comparing treatments for the fracture of the waist of the scaphoid bone in adults. Here we report upon a multistage, iterative consultative process with SWIFFT stakeholders, these include workshops with members of the public, with nurses involved in data collection, and with consultant clinicians...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Ling Pan, Yi-Long Xi, Jing Gu, Shan Jiang, Han Zhu, Bing-Xing Zhang
Predation plays an important role in mediating the coexistence and the community structure of rotifera. In response to predation stresses, prey rotifers develop morphological defenses and change their life-history strategy for the reallocation of energy investment. Yet, how these changes respond to different total energy ingestion remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the life-table demographic, population growth and morphological parameters of Brachionus calyciflorus in response to various densities of Asplanchna sieboldi at two food levels (1...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Tongxi Liu, Li Gao, Sheng Xie, Hongliang Sun, Min Liu, Zhenguo Zhai
PURPOSE: Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a rare disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction within the mediastinum, which can result in compression of mediastinal structures. To investigate the clinical and imaging characteristics of TB-associated FM, patients with evidence of TB infection were retrospectively evaluated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 33 patients with clinically diagnosed FM and evidence of TB infection were selected from the database of two institutional medical centers...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Min-Quan Yang, Jing Wang, Hao Wu, Ghim Wei Ho
The fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has significantly advanced the fabrication of nanocatalysts and the in-depth study of the structural-activity characteristics of materials at the atomic level. Vacancies, as typical atomic defects or imperfections that widely exist in solid materials, are demonstrated to effectively modulate the physicochemical, electronic, and catalytic properties of nanomaterials, which is a key concept and hot research topic in nanochemistry and nanocatalysis. The recent experimental and theoretical progresses achieved in the preparation and application of vacancy-rich nanocatalysts for electrochemical water splitting are explored...
January 22, 2018: Small
Janane F Rahbani, Empar Vengut-Climent, Pongphak Chidchob, Yasser Gidi, Tuan Trinh, Gonzalo Cosa, Hanadi F Sleiman
Natural systems combine different supramolecular interactions in a hierarchical manner to build structures. In contrast, DNA nanotechnology relies almost exclusively on DNA base pairing for structure generation. Introducing other supramolecular interactions can expand the structural and functional range of DNA assemblies, but this requires an understanding of the interplay between these interactions. Here, an economic strategy to build DNA nanotubes functionalized with lipid-like polymers is reported. When these polymers are linked to the nanotube using a spacer, they fold inside to create a hydrophobic environment within the nanotube; the nanotube can encapsulate small molecules and conditionally release them when specific DNA strands are added, as monitored by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Dongjoon Shin, Jungho Shin, Taehan Yeo, Hayoung Hwang, Seonghyun Park, Wonjoon Choi
Core-shell nanostructures of metal oxides and carbon-based materials have emerged as outstanding electrode materials for supercapacitors and batteries. However, their synthesis requires complex procedures that incur high costs and long processing times. Herein, a new route is proposed for synthesizing triple-core-shell nanoparticles of TiO2 @MnO2 @C using structure-guided combustion waves (SGCWs), which originate from incomplete combustion inside chemical-fuel-wrapped nanostructures, and their application in supercapacitor electrodes...
January 22, 2018: Small
Yuan-Bo Tong, Zheng-Fang Tian, Hai-Bao Duan, Zhong-Peng Zhu, Wei He, Tian-Yu Hong, Gui Yu, Yu-Jian He, Jing-Kui Yang
Multifunctional materials that exhibit different physical properties in a single phase have potential for use in multifunctional devices. Herein, we reported an organic-inorganic hybrid compound [(18-crown-6)K][Fe(1)Cl(1)4]0.5[Fe(2)Cl(2)4]0.5 (1) by incorporating KCl and FeCl3 into the 18-crown-6 molecular which acts as a host of the six O atoms affording lone-pair electrons to anchor the guest potassium cation, and [FeCl4]- as a counter ion for charge balance to construct a complex salt. This salt exhibited a one-step reversible structural transformation to give two separate high and low temperature phases at 373 K, which was confirmed by systematic characterizations including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, variable-temperature structural analyses, and dielectric, impedance, variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements...
January 22, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Giuseppe Celenza, Mattia Vicario, Pierangelo Bellio, Linciano Pasquale, Mariagrazia Perilli, Antonio Oliver, Jesus Blazquez, Laura Cendron, Donatella Tondi
The emergence and dissemination of multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens resistant to near all available antibiotics poses a significant threat in clinical therapy. Among them, Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates overexpressing KPC-2 carbapenemase are the most worrisome, extending bacterial resistance to last resort carbapenems. In this study we investigate the molecular recognition requirements in KPC-2 active site by small phenyl boronic acid derivatives. Four new phenyl boronic acid derivatives were designed and tested vs KPC-2...
January 22, 2018: ChemMedChem
Sheng-Zhou Zhang, Ting Meng, Xue Zhu, Huan Wang, Yong-Kang Zhou, Xiao-Bing Wu
The Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis), a freshwater crocodilian endemic to China, is one of the most endangered crocodilian species; up to this date, very little is known about the endocrine regulation of its metabolic activities during different physiological states. In this study, we characterized the structure of the prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide in Chinese alligator (prepro-caVIP) for the first time and examined its expression profiles in various tissues during the active and hibernating periods...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Staffan Larsson
In relation to semantics, "grounding" has (at least) two relevant meanings. "Symbol grounding" is the process of connecting symbols (e.g., words) to perception and the world. "Communicative grounding" is the process of interactively adding to common ground in dialog. Strategies for grounding in human communication include, crucially, strategies for resolving troubles caused by various kinds of miscommunication. As it happens, these two processes of grounding are closely related. As a side-effect of grounding an utterance, dialog participants (DPs) may adjust the meanings they assign to linguistic expressions, in a process of semantic coordination...
January 22, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Yan Chen, Xudong Wang, Guangjian Wu, Zhen Wang, Hehai Fang, Tie Lin, Shuo Sun, Hong Shen, Weida Hu, Jianlu Wang, Jinglan Sun, Xiangjian Meng, Junhao Chu
Van der Waals heterostructures based on 2D layered materials have received wide attention for their multiple applications in optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, and photodiodes. In this work, high-performance photovoltaic photodetectors based on MoTe2 /MoS2 vertical heterojunctions are demonstrated by exfoliating-restacking approach. The fundamental electric properties and band structures of the junction are revealed and analyzed. It is shown that this kind of photodetectors can operate under zero bias with high on/off ratio (>105 ) and ultralow dark current (≈3 pA)...
January 22, 2018: Small
Godfred O Boateng, Stephanie L Martin, Shalean M Collins, Barnabas K Natamba, Sera L Young
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years. Social support has been widely recognized to influence breastfeeding practices. However, existing scales do not measure exclusive breastfeeding social support (EBFSS), rather they assess social support for any breastfeeding. Further, they are tailored towards high-income settings. Therefore, our objectives were to develop and validate a tool to measure EBFSS in low-income settings...
January 22, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Masaaki Kitano, Yasunori Inoue, Masato Sasase, Kazuhisa Kishida, Yasukazu Kobayashi, Kohei Nishiyama, Tomofumi Tada, Shigeki Kawamura, Toshiharu Yokoyama, Michikazu Hara, Hideo Hosono
A low-temperature ammonia synthesis process is required for on-site synthesis. Here, we report that barium-doped calcium amide (Ba-Ca(NH2)2) significantly enhances the ammonia synthesis activities of Ru and Co by two-orders of magnitude more than that of a conventional Ru catalyst below 300ºC. Furthermore, the present catalysts are superior to that of the wüstite-based Fe catalyst known as a highly active industrial catalyst at low temperatures and pressures. Nanosized Ru-Ba core-shell structures are self-organized on the support during hydrogen pretreatment, and the support material is simultaneously converted into a mesoporous structure with a high surface area (>100 m2 g-1)...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Songyuan Tao, Siyu Lu, Yijia Geng, Shoujun Zhu, Simon Redfern, Yubin Song, Tanglue Feng, Weiqing Xu, Bai Yang
Polymer carbon dots (PCDs) are proposed as a new class of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) materials. The abundant energy levels in PCDs increase the probability of intersystem crossing (ISC) and their covalently-crosslinked framework structures greatly suppress the non-radiative transitions. The efficient methods allow the manufacture of PCDs with unique RTP properties in air without the need for additional metal complexing or for the adopting of complicated matrix compositing. They thus provide a route towards the rational design of metal-free RTP materials that may be synthesized easily...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Alla A Kicha, Dinh T Ha, Natalia V Ivanchina, Timofey V Malyarenko, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Svetlana P Ermakova, Olesya S Malyarenko, Nguyen A Hung, Tran T T Thuy, Pham Q Long
Six new polyhydroxysteroidal glycosides, anthenosides S1-S6 (1-6), along with a mixture of two previously known related glycosides, 7 and 8, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the starfish Anthenea sibogae. The structures of 1-6 were established by NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques as well as by chemical transformations. All new compounds have a 5α-cholest-8(14)-ene-3α,6β,7β,16α-tetrahydroxysteroidal nucleus and differ from majority of starfish glycosides in positions of carbohydrate moieties at C(7) and C(16) (1-4, 6) or only at C(16) (5)...
January 22, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Sheng-Yuan Zhang, Wen Li, Hua Nie, Mei Liao, Bo Qiu, Ya-Li Yang, Yan-Fen Chen
Five new quinolizidine alkaloids, including three sparteine-type alkaloids (1-3) and two cytisine-type alkaloids (4-5), along with four known ones, were isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic techniques including IR, UV, NMR and HR-ESI-MS. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 22, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Markus Meuwly, Akshaya K Das
Conversion of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrate (NO$_3^-$) by dioxygenation (NOD) protects cells from lethal NO. Starting from NO-bound heme, the first step in converting NO to benign NO$_3^-$ is the ligand exchange reaction FeNO+O$_2$ $\rightarrow$ FeO$_2$+NO which is still poorly understood at a molecular level. For WT truncated Hemoglobin N (trHbN) and its Y33A mutant the barrier for the exchange reaction differs by 1.5 kcal/mol compared with 1.7 kcal/mol from experiment. It is directly confirmed that the ligand exchange reaction is rate limiting in trHbN and that entropic contributions account for 75 \% of the difference between WT and the mutant...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
David Medina Cruz, Gujie Mi, Thomas J Webster
Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern that affects more than 2 million people each year. Therefore, new approaches to kill bacteria are needed. One of the most promising methodologies may come from metallic nanoparticles, since bacteria may not develop a resistance to these nanostructures as they do for antibiotics. While metallic nanoparticle synthesis methods have been well studied, they are often accompanied by significant drawbacks such as cost, extreme processing conditions and toxic waste production since they use harsh chemicals such as corrosive agents (hydrazine) or strong acids (hydrochloride acid)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Manfred D Laubichler, Sonja J Prohaska, Peter F Stadler
Reconciling different underlying ontologies and explanatory contexts has been one of the main challenges and impediments for theory integration in biology. Here, we analyze the challenge of developing an inclusive and integrative theory of phenotypic evolution as an example for the broader challenge of developing a theory of theory integration within the life sciences and suggest a number of necessary formal steps toward the resolution of often incompatible (hidden) assumptions. Theory integration in biology requires a better formal understanding of the structure of biological theories The strategy for integrating theories crucially depends on the relationships of the underlying ontologies...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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