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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728684/healthful-and-unhealthful-plant-based-diets-and-the-risk-of-coronary-heart%C3%A2-disease-in-u-s-adults
#1
Ambika Satija, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Donna Spiegelman, Stephanie E Chiuve, JoAnn E Manson, Walter Willett, Kathryn M Rexrode, Eric B Rimm, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets are recommended for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention. However, not all plant foods are necessarily beneficial for health. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine associations between plant-based diet indices and CHD incidence. METHODS: We included 73,710 women in NHS (Nurses' Health Study) (1984 to 2012), 92,329 women in NHS2 (1991 to 2013), and 43,259 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to 2012), free of chronic diseases at baseline...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727545/role-of-age-and-acculturation-in-diet-quality-among-mexican-americans-findings-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-1999-2012
#2
Yilin Yoshida, Richard Scribner, Liwei Chen, Stephanie Broyles, Stephen Phillippi, Tung-Sung Tseng
Age and acculturation may play a role in diet quality among Mexican Americans. This study examined diet quality in Mexican Americans by age and whether acculturation influences diet quality across different age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010, improved with age except in categories of dairy, sodium, and refined grains. More acculturation was associated with lower scores in overall diet quality and categories of vegetables, fruits, and sodium and empty calories across almost all ages, but higher scores in grain categories, especially in younger groups...
July 20, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724928/on-wakefulness-fluctuations-as-a-source-of-bold-functional-connectivity-dynamics
#3
Ariel Haimovici, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Pablo Balenzuela, Helmut Laufs
Human brain dynamics and functional connectivity fluctuate over a range of temporal scales in coordination with internal states and environmental demands. However, the neurobiological significance and consequences of functional connectivity dynamics during rest have not yet been established. We show that the coarse-grained clustering of whole-brain dynamic connectivity measured with magnetic resonance imaging reveals discrete patterns (dynamic connectivity states) associated with wakefulness and sleep. We validate this using EEG in healthy subjects and patients with narcolepsy and by matching our results with previous findings in a large collaborative database...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724072/genome-wide-analysis-of-tar-spot-complex-resistance-in-maize-using-genotyping-by-sequencing-snps-and-whole-genome-prediction
#4
Shiliang Cao, Alexander Loladze, Yibing Yuan, Yongsheng Wu, Ao Zhang, Jiafa Chen, Gordon Huestis, Jingsheng Cao, Vijay Chaikam, Michael Olsen, Boddupalli M Prasanna, Felix San Vicente, Xuecai Zhang
Tar spot complex (TSC) is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of maize ( L.) in tropical and subtropical areas of Central and South America, causing significant grain yield losses when weather conditions are conducive. To dissect the genetic architecture of TSC resistance in maize, association mapping, in conjunction with linkage mapping, was conducted on an association-mapping panel and three biparental doubled-haploid (DH) populations using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715430/resequencing-and-variation-identification-of-whole-genome-of-the-japonica-rice-variety-longdao24-with-high-yield
#5
Shukun Jiang, Shichen Sun, Liangming Bai, Guohua Ding, Tongtong Wang, Tianshu Xia, Hui Jiang, Xijuan Zhang, Fengming Zhang
Japonica rice mainly distributes in north of China, which accounts for more than half of the total japonica rice cultivated area of China. High yield, good grain quality and early heading date were the main breeding traits and commercial property in this region. We performed re-sequencing and genome wide variation analysis of one typical northern japonica rice variety Longdao24 and its parents (Longdao5 and Jigeng83) using the Illumina sequencing technology. 53.17 G clean bases were generated and more than 96...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710140/perspective-a-definition-for-whole-grain-food-products-recommendations-from-the-healthgrain-forum
#6
Alastair B Ross, Jan-Willem van der Kamp, Roberto King, Kim-Anne Lê, Heddie Mejborn, Chris J Seal, Frank Thielecke
Whole grains are a key component of a healthy diet, and enabling consumers to easily choose foods with a high whole-grain content is an important step for better prevention of chronic disease. Several definitions exist for whole-grain foods, yet these do not account for the diversity of food products that contain cereals. With the goal of creating a relatively simple whole-grain food definition that aligns with whole-grain intake recommendations and can be applied across all product categories, the Healthgrain Forum, a not-for-profit consortium of academics and industry working with cereal foods, established a working group to gather input from academics and industry to develop guidance on labeling the whole-grain content of foods...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697617/dietary-habits-among-health-professionals-working-in-a-district-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#7
Siyabonga H Kunene, Nomathemba P Taukobong
INTRODUCTION: The burden of diseases associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours continues to increase in the low- and middle-income countries including South Africa. Among the affected population are the health professionals who are assumed to be knowledgeable about healthy eating. AIM: This study aimed to determine the dietary habits of health professionals in a public district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among 109 randomly selected health professionals...
June 28, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696546/effect-of-germination-and-extrusion-on-physicochemical-properties-and-nutritional-qualities-of-extrudates-and-tortilla-from-wheat
#8
Lijia Zhu, Akinbode A Adedeji, Sajid Alavi
Wheat is the most common grain in the temperate region. Modifying its constituent through food processing improves its functionality and nutrient access. In this study, the combined effect of germination and extrusion on physicochemical properties and nutritional qualities of extrudates and tortilla from wheat was evaluated. Results showed that germination significantly increased (P <0.05) the γ-aminobutyric acid content in germinated whole wheat (GW) and extruded germinated whole wheat (EGW) as compared to the control of whole wheat (WW)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696364/the-influence-of-maternal-dietary-patterns-on-body-mass-index-and-gestational-weight-gain-in-urban-black-south-african-women
#9
Stephanie V Wrottesley, Pedro T Pisa, Shane A Norris
Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and subsequent gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong predictors of maternal and infant outcomes; however the influence of dietary patterns on BMI-specific GWG is unclear. This study identifies patterns of habitual dietary intake in urban South African women and explores their associations with first trimester BMI and GWG. Habitual dietary intake of 538 pregnant women was assessed using a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns were depicted via principle component analysis...
July 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692754/rapid-sensory-profiling-and-hedonic-rating-of-whole-grain-sorghum-cowpea-composite-biscuits-by-low-income-consumers
#10
Koya A P Dovi, Constance Chiremba, John R N Taylor, Henriëtta L de Kock
BACKGROUND: The challenges of malnutrition and urbanization in Africa demand development of acceptable, affordable, nutritious complementary-type foods. Biscuits (cookies), a popular snack, from whole grain staples is an option. The objective was to relate check-all-that-applies (CATA) sensory profiles of sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits compared to economic commercial refined wheat biscuits with hedonic ratings by low income consumers. In addition, the nutritional composition and protein quality, L*a*b* colour and texture of the biscuits were determined...
July 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691173/successes-and-challenges-in-school-meal-reform-qualitative-insights-from-food-service-directors
#11
Yuka Asada, Margaret Ziemann, Lara Zatz, Jamie Chriqui
BACKGROUND: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to gain insight into successful implementation strategies. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with FSDs (N = 9) from high schools that had achieved HealthierUS Schools Challenge: Smarter Lunchrooms (HUSSC: SL) status...
August 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691170/the-body-mass-index-of-adolescents-attending-seventh-day-adventist-schools-in-australia-2001-2012
#12
Bevan A Craig, Darren P Morton, Lillian M Kent, Terry L Butler, Paul M Rankin, Kevin R Price
BACKGROUND: We examined the body mass index (BMI) of students attending Seventh-day Adventist (Adventist) schools in Australia in 2001 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 3069 students attending Adventist schools in Australia responded to a health and lifestyle survey in 2001 (N = 1335) and 2012 (N = 1734). The survey captured self-reported height and weight, demographics (age, sex, year level, religion), and select health behaviors. RESULTS: Compared with national norms, lower rates of overweight and obesity were observed in the study cohort, but higher rates of underweight...
August 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691094/probing-nanocrystalline-grain-dynamics-in-nanodevices
#13
Sheng-Shiuan Yeh, Wen-Yao Chang, Juhn-Jong Lin
Dynamical structural defects exist naturally in a wide variety of solids. They fluctuate temporally and hence can deteriorate the performance of many electronic devices. Thus far, the entities of these dynamic objects have been identified to be individual atoms. On the other hand, it is a long-standing question whether a nanocrystalline grain constituted of a large number of atoms can switch, as a whole, reversibly like a dynamical atomic defect (that is, a two-level system). This is an emergent issue considering the current development of nanodevices with ultralow electrical noise, qubits with long quantum coherence time, and nanoelectromechanical system sensors with ultrahigh resolution...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684689/reported-dietary-intake-and-food-sources-of-zinc-selenium-and-vitamins-a-e-and-c-in-the-spanish-population-findings-from-the-anibes-study
#14
Josune Olza, Javier Aranceta-Bartrina, Marcela González-Gross, Rosa M Ortega, Lluis Serra-Majem, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Ángel Gil
Zinc, selenium, and the vitamins A, E and C, all have specific biological functions that are involved mainly in the antioxidant defence system, which has important implications for the development of chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the reported intake of those six nutrients, as well as the food that contributes to their sources of intakes. Data were obtained from the Spanish ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain") study, n = 2009 (9-75 years old). The analyses were performed in the whole population and in the plausible energy reporters after a misreporting analysis according to the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) protocol...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682743/recent-uptrend-in-whole-grain-intake-is-absent-for-low-income-adolescents-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2005-2012
#15
June M Tester, Cindy W Leung, Tashara M Leak, Barbara A Laraia
INTRODUCTION: Whole-grain consumption reduces risk of chronic disease, yet adolescents consume suboptimal amounts. It is unclear whether trends in consumption of whole grains have been positive among adolescents, and research assessing disparities by socioeconomic status is limited. The objective of our study was to evaluate recent trends in whole-grain consumption by US adolescents. METHODS: We examined data on 3,265 adolescents aged 13 to18 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012...
July 6, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681602/phenolics-from-whole-grain-oat-products-as-modifiers-of-starch-digestion-and-intestinal-glucose-transport
#16
Min Li, Katie Koecher, Laura Hansen, Mario G Ferruzzi
Four oat varieties and three product forms (porridge, cereal and snack bar) were assessed to determine the impact of oat phenolics on starch digestibility and intestinal glucose transport. α-Amylase activity was enhanced by 20 GAE μM (gallic acid equivalent) of phenolics extracted from oat (96.7-118%, p<0.05), while modestly inhibited at 500 GAE μM (83.0-95.4%). Maltose hydrolysis was reduced (49.6-82.4%, p<0.05), albeit with high IC50 values (500-940 GAE μM). Free and bound oat phenolic extracts dose-dependently attenuated transport of D-glucose-1,2,3,4,5,6,6-d7 by Caco-2 monolayers over 60 min...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680876/anti-cancer-activity-of-maize-bioactive-peptides
#17
REVIEW
Jorge L Díaz-Gómez, Fabiola Castorena-Torres, Ricardo E Preciado-Ortiz, Silverio García-Lara
Cancer is one of the main chronic degenerative diseases worldwide. In recent years, consumption of whole-grain cereals and their derivative food products has been associated with a reduced risk of various types of cancer. The main biomolecules in cereals include proteins, peptides, and amino acids, all of which are present in different quantities within the grain. Some of these peptides possess nutraceutical properties and exert biological effects that promote health and prevent cancer. In this review, we report the current status and advances in knowledge regarding the bioactive properties of maize peptides, such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumor activities...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679551/pretreatment-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-insulin-modify-dietary-weight-loss-success-results-from-3-randomized-clinical-trials
#18
Mads F Hjorth, Christian Ritz, Ellen E Blaak, Wim Hm Saris, Dominique Langin, Sanne Kellebjerg Poulsen, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Yishai Zohar, Arne Astrup
Background: Which diet is optimal for weight loss and maintenance remains controversial and implies that no diet fits all patients.Objective: We studied concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) as prognostic markers for successful weight loss and maintenance through diets with different glycemic loads or different fiber and whole-grain content, assessed in 3 randomized trials of overweight participants.Design: After an 8-wk weight loss, participants in the DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity, and Genes) trial consumed ad libitum for 26 wk a diet with either a high or a low glycemic load...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673689/higher-adherence-to-the-vegetable-rich-dietary-pattern-is-related-to%C3%A2-longer-telomere-length-in-women
#19
Yunhui Gong, Guo Tian, Hongmei Xue, Xiao Zhang, Yong Zhao, Guo Cheng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Increasing evidence suggests a role of nutrition in aging process measured by telomere length (TL). However, data from Chinese are scarce. Moreover, the potential mechanism underlying diet and aging is not clear. Although inflammation has been hypothesized as one of the main factors, direct evidence is lacking. We examined whether dietary patterns were associated with TL in Chinese adults, with particular attention paid to body fat (excessive accumulation of body fat is a state of high-systematic oxidative stress and inflammation) and C-reactive protein (CRP, a marker of inflammation)...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672174/characterization-of-small-spored-alternaria-from-argentinean-crops-through-a-polyphasic-approach
#20
Lucía da Cruz Cabral, Marcela Rodriguero, Sebastián Stenglein, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Andrea Patriarca
Small-spored Alternaria have been isolated from a wide variety of food crops, causing both economic losses and human health risk due to the metabolites produced. Their taxonomy has been discussed widely, but no scientific consensus has been established in this field to date. Argentina is a major exporter of agricultural products, so it is essential to thoroughly understand the physiological behaviour of this pathogen in a food safety context. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize small-spored Alternaria spp...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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