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Whole grain

Kay D Mann, Mark S Pearce, Chris J Seal
Observational evidence suggests that increased whole grain (WG) intake reduces the risks of many non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. More recently, studies have shown that WG intake lowers all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Much of the reported evidence on risk reduction is from US and Scandinavian populations, where there are tangible WG dietary recommendations. At present there is no quantity-specific WG dietary recommendation in the UK, instead we are advised to choose WG or higher fibre versions...
October 21, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Juan L Reig-Valiente, Juan Viruel, Ester Sales, Luis Marqués, Javier Terol, Marta Gut, Sophia Derdak, Manuel Talón, Concha Domingo
BACKGROUND: After its domestication, rice cultivation expanded from tropical regions towards northern latitudes with temperate climate in a progressive process to overcome limiting photoperiod and temperature conditions. This process has originated a wide range of diversity that can be regarded as a valuable resource for crop improvement. In general, current rice breeding programs have to deal with a lack of both germplasm accessions specifically adapted to local agro-environmental conditions and adapted donors carrying desired agronomical traits...
December 2016: Rice
Oliver R Wearn, Chris Carbone, J Marcus Rowcliffe, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers
Diversity responses to land-use change are poorly understood at local scales, hindering our ability to make forecasts and management recommendations at scales which are of practical relevance. A key barrier in this has been the underappreciation of grain-dependent diversity responses and the role that β-diversity (variation in community composition across space) plays in this. Decisions about the most effective spatial arrangement of conservation set-aside, for example high conservation value areas, have also neglected β-diversity, despite its role in determining the complementarity of sites...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
John J B Anderson, David C Nieman
The Mediterranean diet is upheld in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines as an example of an eating pattern that promotes good health, a healthy body weight, and disease prevention throughout the lifespan. The Mediterranean eating pattern is based on a variety of unprocessed plant foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds that are high in polyphenols. The majority of polyphenols arrive in the colon where bacteria degrade them into smaller phenolics that can be translocated via the portal vein to the liver...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Yongsoon Park
A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sanna Nybacka, Heléne Bertéus Forslund, Maria Hedelin
A diet questionnaire (DQ) designed to assess habitual diet and phyto-oestrogen intake was developed. This study aimed to examine the validity of the DQ in men, with and without having prostate cancer. The DQ was validated against alkylresorcinol metabolites measured in urine as objective biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye (WG) intake, and a 4-d estimated food record (FR) was used for relative comparison. Participants (n 61) completed both methods and provided spot urine samples. We found a statistically significant correlation between the DQ and FR for reported whole grain intake and isoflavonoids, as well as for intake of macronutrients, except protein...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Marion G Priebe, Jolene R McMonagle
BACKGROUND: In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investigated as well as health promoting properties of RTEC. METHOD: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL have been searched up till 16th of June 2015...
2016: PloS One
Alyne O Lavinsky, Kelly C Detmann, Josimar V Reis, Rodrigo T Ávila, Matheus L Sanglard, Lucas F Pereira, Lílian M V P Sanglard, Fabrício A Rodrigues, Wagner L Araújo, Fábio M DaMatta
Silicon (Si) has been recognized as a beneficial element to improve rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yield. Despite some evidence suggesting that this positive effect is observed when Si is supplied along the reproductive growth stage (from panicle initiation to heading), it remains unclear whether its supplementation during distinct growth phases can differentially impact physiological aspects of rice and its yield and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of additions/removals of Si at different growth stages and their impacts on rice yield components, photosynthetic performance, and expression of genes (Lsi1, Lsi2 and Lsi6) involved in Si distribution within rice shoots...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Renata Micha, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Gitanjali M Singh, Peilin Shi, Habibul Ahsan, Nagalla Balakrishna, Ginnela N V Brahmam, Yu Chen, Ashkan Afshin, Saman Fahimi, Goodarz Danaei, John W Powles, Majid Ezzati, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To quantify cardiovascular disease and diabetes deaths attributable to dietary and metabolic risks by country, age, sex, and time in South Asian countries. METHODS: We used the 2010 Global Burden of Disease national surveys to characterize risk factor levels by age and sex. We derived etiological effects of risk factors-disease endpoints, by age, from meta-analyses. We defined optimal levels. We combined these inputs with cause-specific mortality rates to compute population-attributable fractions as a percentage of total cardiometabolic deaths...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Jannatul Ferdous, Ryan Whitford, Martin Nguyen, Chris Brien, Peter Langridge, Penny J Tricker
Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses reducing crop yield. Since the discovery of plant microRNAs (miRNAs), considerable progress has been made in clarifying their role in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including drought. miR827 was previously reported to confer drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. We examined barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Golden Promise') plants over-expressing miR827 for plant performance under drought. Transgenic plants constitutively expressing CaMV-35S::Ath-miR827 and drought-inducible Zm-Rab17::Hv-miR827 were phenotyped by non-destructive imaging for growth and whole plant water use efficiency (WUEwp)...
October 11, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Lucas B Moreira, Ítalo B Castro, Marcos A Hortellani, Silvio T Sasaki, Satie Taniguchi, Mônica A V Petti, Gilberto Fillmann, Jorge E S Sarkis, Márcia C Bícego, Leticia V Costa-Lotufo, Denis M S Abessa
Tropical marine environments are rich in biodiversity and the presence of harbor activities in these areas can harm the coastal ecosystems. In this study, we assessed sediment quality of two harbors from a tropical region in Brazil by applying multiple lines-of-evidence approach. This approach included the integration of results on: (1) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes, and tributyltin; (2) acute toxicity of whole sediments and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; and (3) benthic community descriptors...
October 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jessy Moza, Hardeep Singh Gujral
Hulless barley cultivars grown at various altitudes were subjected to different conditioning treatments prior to roller milling. Amongst all treatments, conditioning grains to a moisture content of 14% for 30min was found to be optimum. The bran fractions displayed greater levels of non-starchy polysaccharides and bioactive components as compared to refined flour fraction. The presence of greater levels of β-glucan in whole barley flour and bran of high altitude cultivars affected the refined flour yield inversely...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Slađana Žilić, Marijana Janković, Miroljub Barać, Mirjana Pešić, Aleksandra Konić-Ristić, Vesna Hadži-Tašković Šukalović
The aim was to determine the effect of steeping and sprouting on wheat grain proteins and the functional consequences in this regard. The solubility of proteins and the polypeptide composition of albumins, globulins, gliadins and glutenins were determined, as well as the content of non-protein nitrogen and free sulfhydryl groups (-SH), and the activity of peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX). In addition, the pasting viscosity of flour and protein bioactivity such as antioxidant capacity and immunoreactivity were evaluated...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Marien Havé, Anne Marmagne, Fabien Chardon, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse
As a result of climate changes, land use and agriculture have to adapt to new demands. Agriculture is responsible for a large part of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have to be urgently reduced in order to protect the environment. At the same time, agriculture has to cope with the challenges of sustainably feeding a growing world population. Reducing the use of the ammonia-nitrate fertilizers that are responsible for a large part of the GHGs released and that have a negative impact on carbon balance is one of the objectives of precision agriculture...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
J Ryu, S B Im, S J Kwon, J W Ahn, S W Jeong, S Y Kang
This study evaluated the chemical and genetic diversity of high-seed-yield sorghum germplasms from Korea, the United States, and South Africa. We identified significant differences in the chemical contents of whole plants at the heading stage in all cultivars, including differences in crude protein, fat, fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral, and fatty acid contents. Our results suggest that Banwoldang is the most appropriate cultivar for roughage because of its high protein yield...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Juan Manuel Buades Fuster, Pilar Sanchís Cortés, Joan Perelló Bestard, Félix Grases Freixedas
Phytate, or myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (InsP6), is a naturally occurring phosphorus compound that is present in many foods, mainly legumes, whole grains and nuts. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have cardiovascular disease mortality up to 30times higher than the general population. Vascular calcifications (VCs) directly contribute to overall morbidity and mortality, especially in CKD. In part, this high mortality is due to elevated levels of phosphorus in the blood. Therefore, control of dietary phosphorus is essential...
September 30, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Woo Kyoung Kim, Dayeon Shin, Won O Song
Nutrition is one of the most important modifiable determinants for and consequences of both mental and physical heath. Depression has become an increasingly important public health issue. We tested whether dietary patterns derived from food group intake are associated with depression in U.S. adults in a cross-sectional study with national population. This study included 4180 men and 4196 women aged 20-79 years in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), with complete data of one 24-h dietary recall, sociodemographics, lifestyles, and Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-9) for screening depression...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
A Jonker, K Lowe, S Kittelmann, P H Janssen, S Ledgard, D Pacheco
Feeding grain and corn silage have been proposed as practices to reduce enteric methane (CH) emissions per unit of intake from ruminants, but the inclusion level required in the diet is normally not specified. The objectives of the current study were to determine the CH emission factor (g/kg DMI) of sheep fed alfalfa silage substituted with increasing levels of corn silage or corn grain at a fixed DMI level (2% of BW) and determine its relationship with rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial community composition and with in vitro fermentation characteristics of the same diets incubated using a standard laboratory method...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Erica C Borresen, Dustin G Brown, Greg Harbison, Lynn Taylor, Amanda Fairbanks, Joanne O'Malia, Marlon Bazan, Sangeeta Rao, Susan M Bailey, Melissa Wdowik, Tiffany L Weir, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Consumption of navy beans (NB) and rice bran (RB) have been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis. Given the overall poor diet quality in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and low reported intake of whole grains and legumes, practical strategies to increase consumption merit attention. This study determined feasibility of increasing NB or RB intake in CRC survivors to increase dietary fiber and examined serum inflammatory biomarkers and telomere lengths. Twenty-nine subjects completed a randomized controlled trial with foods that included cooked NB powder (35 g/day), heat-stabilized RB (30 g/day), or no additional ingredient...
September 30, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
An T Vu, Jeffrey S Phillips, Kendrick Kay, Matthew E Phillips, Matthew R Johnson, Svetlana V Shinkareva, Shannon Tubridy, Rachel Millin, Murray Grossman, Todd Gureckis, Rajan Bhattacharyya, Essa Yacoub
The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal measured in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments is generally regarded as sluggish and poorly suited for probing neural function at the rapid timescales involved in sentence comprehension. However, recent studies have shown the value of acquiring data with very short repetition times (TRs), not merely in terms of improvements in contrast to noise ratio (CNR) through averaging, but also in terms of additional fine-grained temporal information...
May 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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